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name; it has a substantial brick church which since been followed by most of the large manufacwill accommodate a thousand persons, the cost of turers of the district. The sight of this little town, the erection of which was defrayed by a legacy the scene of his industrious and profitable labours, devised for the purpose by the late Ralph Bourne, recals to the mind so many of the events in the esq., who died in 1835.
life of Wedgwood, that we could hardly escape The town of Tunstall is situated about four from it, if we would, without presenting the reader miles from Stoke, upon the turnpike-road leading with a brief sketch of the biography of a man who from Liverpool to London ; it is altogether a town won renown so fairly, who wore his honours so of modern erection, and has doubled its population well, and who was so practically a benefactor to several times within the last half century. It con. his race. tains a large number of thriving manufactories, Josiah Wedgwood was born at Burslem on the producing the coarser sorts of ware, to the estab- 12th of July, 1730; he was brought up to follow lishment and prosperity of which there is no doubt his father's business, that of a potter, and whilst a that its abnormal increase is due. Of all the pot- lad practised as a thrower under his elder brother. tery towns, Tunstall is the most regularly built. He suffered amputation of the leg while yet young, The church is a handsome stone erection in the owing to unskilful treatment under small-pox. Elizabethan style, and contains a thousand sit- Confined at home by this cause, he sought amusetings, one third of which are free; it was built ment in experiments in his art, and succeeded in partly by subscription from the inhabitants, and imitating in mixed clays the natural appearances partly by funds obtained from government. The of various valuable minerals, such as agates, jaspers, population of Tunstall at the present time cannot, porphyry, etc.; and from these compounds he made it is supposed, be very far short of nine thousand ; faney articles with which he supplied the cutlers of threescore years ago it was little more than an Sheffield. When he became of age, he formed a insignificant hamlet, forming one of the eight business connexion with a man of indifferent prinsmall townships comprised in the north side of ciple, from which he escaped after two years of Wolstanton parish.
fruitless labour. In 1754 he was received into Newcastle-under-Lyme is a place of considerable partnership for an agreed term of five years with historical interest, and owes its name to the castle, Mr. Thomas Whieldon, of Fenton, the most emisupposed to have been built by Henry the First, nent potter of the day. At the end of that term some ruins of which remained in Leland's time. he repaired again to Burslem and set up a potIn the early part of his reign, king John person work on his own account upon the spot now occually visited the castle, and it is worthy of remark, pied by the new market-house. Here he throve that under his rule the town was fined in a sum well
, and continued experimenting with a view to of money for having changed their market-day further improvement; he now commenced studying from Sunday to Saturday! The castle subse- \ the chemistry of the art from the best writers he quently came into the possession of John of Gaunt could procure, and his business increasing, he (so called from Ghent, the place of his birth), whose opened two new potteries in Burslem, which he second wife, Constance, daughter of Don Pedro, retained in operation until he finally removed to king of Castile and Leon, resided for many years Etruria. At this time the pottery of the French in the neighbouring castle of Tutbury. As we greatly surpassed that of Staffordshire, and was had no occasion to visit Newcastle, we must refer imported in large quantities. Wedgwood turned the reader to other sonrces for information as to his attention seriously to the improvement of his the present condition of that town.
wares, and soon produced an article which gave a A pleasant walk of about a mile along the tow. turn to the market; this was the celebrated ing path of the canal westward from Stoke, brings" queen's ware," so called from the patronage it the visitor to the neat little village of Etruria, obtained from Queen Charlotte, and which soon which is entirely the creation of the late celebrated became so popular that orders flowed in upon him Josiah Wedgwood, being built by him for the pur. faster than he could execute them. He now began pose of carrying out his improvements in the pot. to perceive the immense advantages which an intery mamfacture. It consists of the mansion land canal connecting the Trent with the Mersey called Etruria Hall, still occupied by his descend would afford, not only to himself, but to all enants, the extensive manufactory covering many gaged in the pottery trade. He became a strenu. acres of ground on the western bank of the canal, ous supporter of the scheine, already favoured by branches of which are carried into the manufactory the most influential men of the district, and was itself, and a wide brick-built street of workmen's largely instrumental in expediting the Act which dwellings sloping down the hill towards the rail authorized the formation of the Grand Trunk Canal
. way, which has a station on the spot; to these No sooner was the Act passed, than he bought the have lately been added a number of houses of a land upon which the village of Etruria now stands, better class, probably the abodes of clerks, foremen, and which is intersected by the canal, and comand directors in the works. The little town is menced the erection of his manufactory while the pleasantly situated, within easy distance of Shel. canal was digging. He began operations there in ton, of the township of which it forms a part. The the summer of 1769, and having erected a mansion manufactory contains every imaginable conveni. for his residence at a convenient distance from the ence for carrying on the numerous operations of works, removed thither in 1771. About this period the potter, and is abundantly supplied with the the antique specimens of terra cotta, collected by farious mechanical contrivances which experience Sir William Hamilton at Naples, began to excite has suggested for abbreviating and facilitating his much interest in this country. They were called labours. In the adoption of these, the firm of Etruscan vases, though being found in Calabria it Wedgwood and Sons set an example which has is supposed that they were the work of Greek
artists; and they exhibited fine specimens of an shipping tonnage which owing to their bulky quality art the secret of which had been lost for ages. Mr. was necessary to export them, and the employment Wedgwood immediately set about imitating them, of which contributed materially to the nursery of and soon, by the aid of encaustic colours of his own seamen for the navy. We can freight a vessel," composition, produced a series of admirable copies said he," with goods of which the whole ship-load which sold at a high price and met with a large shall be of no more value than the contents of a demand. It was from the success of this new Jew's box." His modesty led him to state that he branch of his trade that he called the seat of his considered the art of pottery but then in its infancy, manufactory by the name of Etruria, which classic a conjecture which subsequent experience has not cal designation it yet bears, though it is best known verified. In the year 1783 he had the honour of among the population of the district by the familiar being elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in appellation of " Trury.” Mr. Wedgwood had for 1786 he became a member of the Society of Antia partner Mr. Richard Bentley, son of the critical quaries. He corresponded largely with the most archdeacon of Ely; and it is presumed that to his eminent scientific men both in this country and partner he was indebted for the classical subjects abroad; and was endeared among his intimates by in the execution of which he became so highly his social virtues and genuine benevolence. He reacelebrated. His prosperity at this period of his life lized a large fortune by his unwearied labours, and was unprecedented; his works were sought after he never closed his purse against the calls of by the rich and the curious in every country in humanity or the claims of any institution which he Europe, and the variety of beautiful designs which thought was for the good of his fellow creatures. he threw into the market maintained the interest He died at his mansion, Etruria Hall, in January, which his extraordinary talents had excited, and 1795, and was buried in the parish church of secured the continuance of his success. The most Stoke. remarkable of all his performances, and the one which is considered his masterpiece, was his perfect In perambulating the district of the Potteriesimitation of the Barberini or Portland vase, (which in traversing their miry roads and skirting their the reader will recollect was smashed to pieces by brown canals--the visitor sees other indications of a drunken visitor to the British Museum a few industry than those appertaining to the trade of years ago, though afterwards, we believe, skilfully the potter. Here and there he comes upon the repaired,) and the first fifty copies of which were " whimsey" of the iron country, or upon a group of sold for fifty guineas each. of this vase Mr. miners emerged from their underground toil;
and Wedgwood published a history in a small pam he will meet or overtake, as he treads the towingphlet, which was translated into French, and which path of the canal, long barges freighted not always evidences a mind habituated to weigh carefully and with clay or flints for the potters, but with iron minutely the most trifling facts which can possibly cast in pigs, or in the form of shapeless flaky lumps, affect the conclusions of the judgment. Having in on its way to the mills and manufactories of South the course of his untiring experiments found the Staffordshire. The fact is, that the pottery district necessity of some certain mode of ascertaining, is also an iron and coal district, and vast quantities with a view to regulating, the heat of his furnaces, of both iron-ore and coal are daily dug from the he invented an instrument for that purpose, which bowels of the earth within its limits. Of the iron, he styled a pyrometer, and by which the higher some portion is run into pigs and some is puddled degrees of heat might be tested. In May, 1782, and rolled into finished iron for the market, but he addressed to the Royal Society a memorial on the larger part of it appears to be merely separated the subject of this instrument; his communication by the action of fire from the earthy material which was printed in the 72nd volume of their Transac. | encumbers it, and being thus rendered lighter for tions, and subsequently republished by him in the carriage, is floated on to the neighbouring smelting French language. He published various other and rolling works which lie between Wolverhamppamphlets on the subject of his business, and in ton and Birmingham : the coal in all probability 1783 one entitled, “ An Address to the Workmen finds purchasers on the spot, seeing that the potters in the Pottery on the subject of entering into the burn it in prodigious quantities—one manufactory service of Foreign Manufacturers,” which is said to consuming as much in a week as would suffice have had the effect of allaying the rage for emigra- to propel a steamer to America--and that their tion which then prevailed among them, owing to number is very great. In the Potteries too, in the the seductive offers of his foreign rivals. In 1785 immediate neighbourhood of Hanley, the celebrated Mr. Wedgwood was examined before a Parliamen- Fourdrinier brought to perfection his astonishing tary committee, and from the evidence he then paper-making machine, by which paper is produced gave, the country generally became first aware of sound, dry, and perfect, from the pulp in a few the importance to the national interests of the minutes, in sheets of any required width, and end. Staffordshire manufactures : this he estimated from less in length. Like many other men of mechanical the immense amount of inland carriage they created genius, Mr. Fourdrinier reaped but very doubtful
- from the numbers they employed and fed as well advantages from his unrivalled invention... Other in the manufacture as in raising the raw material paper-makers, unable fairly to compete with him, - from the employment they afforded to coasting infringed his patent-right, dragged him into exvessels, even then amounting to 20,000 tons an. pensive litigation, and brought him to the very nually--from the support they gave to river and verge of ruin; eventually, after pressing his claim canal traffic-from the conveyance of finished upon parliament for a series of years-a claim goods to the various ports of shipment, five-sixths backed by the strongest of all considerations in of the aggregate manufactures being destined for reference to such a subject, namely, that his invenexportation-and, lastly, from the vast quantity of tion had been the means of largely increasing the
revenue--the House of Commons granted him in wurn bad; and wee had'n mych wark t' get 'em 1839 the sum of £7000, a sum totally inadequate mended. to the loss he had suffered in his own property, or T. Oi've some recollection abâit a stir as was to the benefits he had conferred upon the commerce mayde for t' hay th' roads mended an awturt. and the revenue of the country.
L. It wur no little stur, belee me. An afore We have noticed incidentally most of the churches th' turnpoikes wurn mayd, mooast o' th' goods in the several towns of the district. The number wurn fatcht away by jack-ass looads, bi th' hig. of dissenting chapels, it may be mentioned, which glers, as seun as àit o' th’oon. are scattered throughout the hills and valleys of T. Things are greatly mended for th' better sin the borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, is greater in pro. then. portion to the number of churches than is the case L. Ya. Oi'd summat t' doo t' get dâhin to in most districts. It appears from a tabular state. L'rpool wi' eawr caart, at th’ teyme as oi furst ment in Ward's History of the borough, published teyd Mester Siah Wedgut's wheit ware for the nine years ago, that in Hanley and Shelton the printed theer. Yu known as hâi therwur no sittings in both churches were 3300, while those in black printin on ware dun i’ Boslum i' thoos deys. the several dissenting places of worship amounted T. Oi remember it varry weel. Oi s'pose Siah to something more than 8000; and of above four wur abâit th' same age as thiseln, Rafy, wur he thousand five hundred children educated in the no'? Sunday schools of those united townships, little L. Ya, oi rek'n he wur two year yunker til me. more than eight hundred received instruction in T. When he staarted i' bizness furst, he made the schools of the establishment. The largest place speunes, knife-hondles, an smaw crocks, at th' Ivyof worship in the Potteries is Bethesda chapel in hâhis, close to wheer we are nâi sittin. Shelton, which belongs to the Wesleyans, and will L. Aye, oi weel remember th' teyme; an arter contain three thousand persons; and there is a that he flitted to th’ Bell workhus, wheer he put considerable number of smaller chapels in the up the bell-coney for t’ ring th' men to ther wurk, numerons adjacent towns and hamlets. The nume- isted o' blowin 'em together wi' a burn. 'Twur a rous sects throughout the Potteries appear to live pity he e'er laft Boslum, for he wur th' cob o'th' in harmony with one another, and are not ashamed Wedguts.
to combine together for the attainment of any 7. Wal, aye. Bu' thee knows, Mester John an 1
object conducive to the general good. An abun. Tummy, wut bilt th' big hậhis, did'n summut for dant field of labour presents itself, indeed, both to th' tâhin afore him. churchmen and nonconformists, in reclaiming the L. Fawmally, it wur a feerfu' ruffish spot. Aw numbers of individuals in the district who are in- th' hâhisen wurn thatcht loike this heer'n; an different to all religious truth.
afore ther durrs e'ery body had a bread-oon an' There is one pecnliarity of the Potteries which ess-middin'; an' th' tâhin street heer wur aw full can hardly fail to strike an observant visitor, and o'cley-pits. that is the language or rather languages-for they T. Bu' th' lung Wedgut's håhis made great are two-spoken in the district. It is very possi- altrication. ble that a native, to the manner born,' may be per- L. Ya, th' Big-hâhis wur thout a wundersu'
fently skilled in both tongues; but to our ears they bildin at that teyme. Ther wur nout loike it aney || sounded as distinctly different at least as the patri. wheer abâit.
cian Latin and modern Italian of Rome. It hap- T. Rafy, oi rek'n thee remembers th' oud pened again and again, on making inquiries as to scheymer, Brindley, workin at th' milln-reets shop our route from labouring men encountered by the i' th' yord, close by th' soide o' th' Big-hâhis ? way-side, that we were brought to a dead stand L. Ya, that oi doo, varry weel. It wur at th' from the, to us, unintelligible replies we received ; teyme 'ut he war bildin the woindy-mill
i' th' top and we find it difficult to reconcile this circum-oth' Jenkins, for t'groind flint wi'. That's no stance with the fact, that a pure English is unic mych more nor fefty year sin. It wur thout a versally spoken by the middle
, and, of course, the amous job t' think o groindin' flint loike fleawr, upper classes. We shall add a specimen of the Bu' a high woind blow'd oaff th' mill-seeles, an' dialect which, as an Irishman would say, "bothered last th' waws stondin' thin nâi." as complately;" and, lest we should be suspected of exaggeration, we shall extract it from a work The above sample will suffice for our purpose, written by a native resident and published on the and as it contains nothing but facts well known to spot.
be true, the reader may learn from it the estima
tion in which Siah Wedgut (Josiah Wedgwood) The scene is a room in the Turk's Head at was held among the working men of his day, and Burslem, where two old men are talking of old may gather some notion of the once deplorable times.
condition of the now handsome town of Burslem. " Telwright. Thee remembers, Rafy, th' caart. The old schemer Brindley he will recognise as the ruts beein up to th' axle-trees alung th' tâhin- great engineering genius, the protégé and rightstreet, here, that's nâi so gud, oi rek'n ?
hand of the canal-digging Duke of Bridgewater. Leigh. Aye, wal enuf; bu’ther wur no' monny But it is time that we came to an end with these caarts agait at th' teyme oi wnr yung ; th' beyurs rambling sketches of the Pottery district and its 25 had no' meules, carrit ther pots i' creytes at past celebrities, and turn our attention to next ther backs. Th’ Chester cley wur brout i' panyers week's paper, in which it will be our duty to look on th' back o' hosses, an th' furst hoss had a bell after the pots. hung at his neck, ť gee warnin' ’ut th’ gang wur
[This series of visits to the Potterice will be completed in comin'; for th' roads wurn as narrow as they
A FEW THOUGHTS FOR "FAST” YOUNG | fied, the observed and approved, rise in rank and MEN.
advancement of income. In the same way, the In walking along the principal thoroughfares, or thought, prospect, or ambition of being anything
journeyman and mechanic, who may have little visiting the great marts of business, in our cities else, by industry, steadiness, sobriety, and all the and large towns, one cannot belp being painfully other virtues which worldly prudence recommends, struck with the number of young men of apparent but which religion at once inculcates and secures, respectability and intelligence, who, it is evident will keep in work, gain confidence, and gradually
get to be a sort of fixture about the place; he will from their air and manner, are sacrificing the have things comfortable and happy at home, a coat freshness and vigour of their hearts and minds to on his back and a watch in his pocket, bread in the most frivolous and fruitless pursuits, and often the kitchen and books on the shelves; his family undermining for life the foundations of health and will all be respectable in appearance, and will happiness. We are often conscious of the workings always be at worship on the working-man's day of of a strong solicitude for the welfare of this deeply somewhat higher education than their father, and,
weekly rest; his children will mostly receive a interesting and, hereafter, highly influential class, though he may not, it is next to certain that they, but have felt the extreme difficulty of making any or some of them, will rise to a higher level in appeal calculated at once to reach and affect them. life.--So of the master : the young principal, venWe are, therefore, truly glad to find that Mr. Bin- turing into business as a partner or alone, who has ney, who is so well known for the successful efforts probity, honour, scrupulous integrity; who diswhich he has for years made to promote the high- limits his private expenses ; and who, whatever he
plays activity, tact, attention; who conscientiously est interests of young men, has lately published a has to deny himself, struggles to maintain his comnew work, bearing a title admirably adapted to mercial credit; who, as at once a religious and catch the eye of a commercial age, “ IS IT POSSI- sensible man, has a quiet conscience, a pure heart, BLE TO MAKE THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS P" a true lip, clean hands and a clear head ;-why, all This volume, which is the expansion of a lecture on-not to mention God's blessing on earnest
these things have a natural tendency to help him delivered about twelve months ago before the mem- goodness and honest work." The hand of the bers of the “ Young Men's Christian Association," diligent maketh rich.” But there is such a thing abounds with original and striking thoughts, for- as a diligent but bad man making money, and, cible appeals, manly remonstrances, and unanswer from God withholding his blessing, putting it able arguments, and we should like to see it in the into a bag with holes.” And there is such a thing
as “God giving a man power to get wealth ;' blesshands of every young man in our country. As ing " his basket and his store;" advancing him a sample of the sterling stuff of which most of the in condition and honour, and thus, age after age, treatise consists, we give the following extracts, repeating the story, and realizing again the expeand commend the solemn truths which they em- rience of the young Hebrew exile— the Lord was
with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man." body in all earnestness to the attention of the
I know it is thought that religious people have reader. We compress them from want of space.
a great many drains upon them in the way of pay. An intelligent and virtuous young man will have ments and subscriptions to this and the other neither vices nor vanities ; he will not be in the institution or society. Why, a worldly man will habit of spending his earnings on expensive plea- often spend more in a single evening, in giving a sures-in dress and ornaments, at theatres and ball and supper, or treating a party to the opera, casinoes. His spare time will be given to books than many a religious man of the same rank is to the acquisition of general knowledge, or to required to pay for his religion in a year. Depend mastering the theory of business, and getting upon it the truth, in more senses than one, is that ready for possible openings and opportunities; to there is nothing so expensive as sin ; nothing so innocent recreation; to intercourse with respect exhausting as pleasure. The man who is the slave able friends and acquaintance; to getting or doing of neither may have other expenses, but, all things good. He will risk nothing. by late hours at else being equal, he will generally be best prepared night; he will excite no suspicions in the morning for making a deposit, getting credit or security, or by his heavy eyes and languid gait-his gaping taking a step onwards from his present position. and absence suggesting the idea that some folly or A carefulness to maintain an inward harmony with debauch had made him stupid and useless when he the upper world, by preserving him from the follies should be wide awake. There will be no glaring and clothing him with the virtues of this, will mistakes in his accounts ; no frequent necessity for often command, without his aiming at them as a revision; he will not be continually wanting more chief end, the prosperity and success which the time to get up what is required; he will not stare laws that regulate society attach, as a natural conwith ignorant wonder, or be silent with conscious sequence, to inexpensive habits and true worth. shame, when appealed to about something that he So with respect to old age. The way in which ought to know, or might have known, and the a good man uses his body and soul, his heart and thorough masterhood of which, had he known it, conscience; the principles and habits favourable to would have been the making of him. He will not character ; the practical course conducive to come be passed over as unpromising or incompetent, fort, competence, and success; why, all these have when necessary changes are to be made in the a direct bearing, by way of natural consequence, establishment, opening, to the tested and quali- | upon lorg life. He, who inherits a good constitution, may-barring accidents-generally live as triumph ; and that the road from Rochester to the long as he likes. All the laws of our nature, when capital was lined with booths on either side of the respected and obeyed, work in favour of us; they way, presenting the spectacle of a continuous fair are intended to do this—to promote growth and nearly thirty miles in length. Charles, though a development, to give strength, compactness, elastic man of vulgar sentiments and scandalous profli. force, health, perpetuity—such perpetuity as may gacy, retained his popularity during the whole of belong to a physical system like ours. Disease is his reign; and the day of his accession to the disorder, derangement, obstruction, infection ; life throne, which was also his birth-day, continued to may be endangered by casualty, terminated in a be observed as a general holiday as long as he moment by accident, and so on. Now, there may lived. After his death, the custom of making be no avoiding a flash of lightning, or escaping a holiday on what was vulgarly called "Oak-applestorm at sea, or surviving a collision on the rail
. day,” in allusion to the concealment of the royal Fracture and injury from external things, death fugitive in the oak at Boscobel, had been too long from anknown or uncontrollable causes, must be established to die a sudden death. It could not be put out of the discussion. We then say, that displeasing to James, who inherited his brother's according to all natural laws, a thoroughly virtuous, crown; and if, as we may suppose, it fell into dis. and therefore regular and temperate man, will not use under the reign of William of Orange, it prebe likely to shorten life by sowing the seeds of vailed during that of Anne, under whom the oakdisease within himself, or occasioning functional leaf in the hat towards the latter end of May began derangement. He will be better able than others to be assumed as the badge and profession of to resist infection, to be anhurt by any mysterious, loyalty, while its absence was looked upon as inmalignant miasma; and he will not be exposed to dicative of a leaning to puritanism. It frequently some accidents that are often fatal, those which happens that the outward and visible signs of parnever happen but to inconsideration, folly and tisanship will long survive the spirit which gave recklessness. He will sustain, too, better, and for them birth; and there is many an old ceremonial a longer time, the wear and tear and toil of life. custom periodically observed in various districts of
The vicious die early. They fall like shadows this country, in which those take a part who would or tumble like wrecks and ruins into the grave, be puzzled to account for their origin. It is true often while quite young, almost always before forty. this remark is not strictly applicable to the custom The wicked" liveth not half his days." The world we are about to describe, inasmuch as the story of at once ratifies the truth and assigns the reason by Oliver Cromwell, the execution of Charles 1, the describing the dissolute as “ fast men;" that is, escape of his son from the parliamentary search, they live fast; they spend their twelve hours in and his final restoration to the throne, are just that six, getting through the whole before the meridian, portion of English history, which, from the roand dropping out of sight and into darkness while mance associated with it, is best known among the others are in the glow and glory of life. "Their uneducated populace. But it is true also, that the sun goes down while it is yet day." And they animus which originated and gave importance and might have helped it. Many a one dies_long signification to this strange custom, if it were not before he need. Your men of genius, like Burns entirely dead and buried, had long subsided into and Byron, to whom, when dissipated and profli- indifference, before it was our lot to witness the gate, thirty-seren is so fatal ; and your obscure singular performances which characterized it. and nameless " wandering stars," who waste their In our boyhood, when the Peninsular war was youth in libertine indulgence; they cannot live raging, we chanced to reside in the neat and long. They must die early. They put on the picturesque market-town of Tiverton, on the steam till they blow up the boiler. They run at banks of the Exe. It was here that the custom such a rate, that the fire goes out for want of fuel. to which we have alluded, and which, by the way, The machinery is destroyed by reckless speed and would have been far more honoured in the breach rapid wear. Nothing can save them. Their phy. than in the observance, had full sway. In the sical system cannot stand the strain they put it to; year 1810, and of course for many generations While the state of their minds is often such, that previously, the 29th of May was as complete a hothe soul would eat through the substance of the liday in ihis town as it could ever have been in most robust body, and make for itself a way of any part of England since the first year of the Res. escape from the incessant hell of its own thoughts. toration. At early dawn, the whole town was But all probabilities are on the side of a differ- awakened by the furious clanging of church bells, ent fate for the good. Peace and contentment, and instead of rising to pursue their usual occupareligious faith and religious virtue, are so many tions, they had to turn out and sally forth into the guarantees for long life.
neighbouring fields, woods, and hedge-rows, where they set to work felling huge branches of oak from
the trees, with which the locality abounded, and A CUSTOM OF THE TWENTY-NINTH OF ders to decorate the fronts of their houses. Woe
which they brought into town upon their shoulMAY.
to the luckless or drowsy tradesman who, by the The restoration of Charles II, which occasioned usual time of opening shop, had not metamor such a delirium of joy when it occurred, could phosed his shop-front into a green bower ; he would hardly fail of being honoured by the observance find his apartments gratuitously ventilated by a of what might be considered appropriate ceremo- shower of compliments from the unruly mob, and nies at each returning anniversary. We are told be driven to beg, borrow, or buy a bush in his exthat the passage of the king on the 29th of May, tremity to shield himself from popular vengeance. 1661 from Dover to London, was one continued No shops were open-no business was thought of