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may find

happiness in life, and both had learned the secret From this analysis it would appear that the beautiof that holy, elevating faith, which, working from ful golden hair owes its brightness to an excess of love to an unseen Benefactor, transforms the heart sulphur and oxygen with a deficiency of carbon, which it enters, and makes all things new. Thus whilst black hair owes its jetty aspect to an excess linked together by so many points of union, a of carbon and a deficiency of sulphur and oxygen. higher and more endearing relation had, with the Vauquelin traces an oxide of iron in the latter, and consent of their friends, been entered upon; and also in red hair. The colouring matter, however, often amidst their active cheerful labours for the forms but one portion of the difference existing good of others, they pause and wonder if they are between the soft luxuriant tangles of the Saxon really the two sentimental and useless individuals girl and the coarse blue-black locks of the North who at one time strayed along the beach of Dawlish, American squaw. The size and quality of each and who stood alone in a world which had so many hair, and the manner in which it is planted, tell demands on their active sympathies and labours. powerfully in determining the line between the two


“Another eminent German has undergone the CURIOSITIES OF THE HUMAN HAIR. enormous labour of counting the number of hairs Tue bard of Avon has poetically told us how we he found 140,400 hairs ; in a brown, 109,440; in

in heads of four different colours. In a blond one

a black, 102,962; and in a red one, 88,740. What " Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, the red and black heads wanted in number of hairs, Sermons in stones, and good in everything;"

was made up, however, in the greater bulk of the and a contemporary journal has lately shown how hairs individually; and, in all probability, the scalps considerable a space even so despised an article as were pretty equal in weight. It is to the fineness hog's bristles occupy in the world's commercial and multiplicity of hairs that blond tresses owe the transactions; but it was reserved for a quarterly rich and silk-like character of their flow-a cir. reviewer * to disclose the pleasantries and philoso- cumstance which artists have so loved to dwell phies that lie sheltered beneath the luxuriant folds upon." of the human hair, in all its varieties, fashions, and There are probably few of our readers who have colours. We have always known hair as the “uni- not often been struck with the magnificent displays versal vanity,” that has captivated painters, inspired of black, blond, or golden tresses that may be seen the effusions of poets, given employment and for adorving the waxen figures that make oar hair. tune to multitudes of artistes, and abstracted for dressers' windows so attractive, and who have not its cultivation and adornment large portions of at the same time wondered how and where such precious time, ever since the world began. A silken trophies were procured. Who is it that handsome wig, too, found in the temple of Isis, and consents to part with these ensigns of vanity, for now among the treasures of our Museum, as well the benefit of those who are anxious to disguise as the curled heads and boards depicted on the the ravages of age ? Such is the natural inquiry Assyrian sculptures lately exhumed by Mr. Layard, that is started in the mind of the spectator. It had clearly proved to us that thousands of years appears that for most of the hair thus used, Eng. ago men were not at all behind the present or any land is indebted to the foreigner. intermediate age in attention to head ornamenta- "Among the many curious occupations of the tion. Still we were scarcely prepared to expect metropolis is that of the human-hair merchant. that on such a theme a litterateur would be able to of these there are many, and they import between harvest so rich a crop of curious facts as are col. them upwards of five tons annually. Black hair lected together in the paper in question. We take comes mainly from Brittany and the south of the liberty of selecting a few of the more instruc. France, where it is collected principally by one tive passages for the gratification of our readers. adventurous virtuoso, who travels from fair to fair, And, first, as to the physiology and chemistry of and buys up and shears the crops of the neighbourhair.

ing damsels. Mr. Francis Trollope, in his 'Summer "A hair," says the reviewer,“ is not, as it appears, in Brittany,' gives a lively description of the manner a smooth cylindrical tube like a quill ; on the con- in which the young girls of the country bring this trary, it is made up of a vast number of little horny singular commodity to market, as regularly as peas laminæ: or our reader might realize its structure or cabbages. What surprised me more than all,' to herself by placing a number of thimbles one he says, ' by the singularity and novelty of the thing, within the other; and as she adds to this column were the operations of the dealers in hair. In by supplying fresh thimbles below, she will get a various parts of the motley crowd there were three good notion of the manner in which each hair or four different purchasers of this commodity, who grows, and will see that its oldest portion must be travel the country for the purpose of attending the its free extremity.

fairs and buying the tresses of the peasant girls. “The pigment cells have been scrutinized by They have particularly fine hair, and frequently in Liebig, who finds a considerable difference in their the greatest abundance. I should have thought constitution according to their colour. His results that female vanity would have effectually prevented may be thus tabularized :

such a traffic as this being carried to any extent. Fair Hair. Brown Hair. Black Hair. But there seemed to be no difficulty in finding Carbon

possessors of beautiful heads of hair perfectly will. Hydrogen

ing to sell. We saw several girls sheared, one Nitrogen Oxygen and sulphur 26-143

after the other, like sheep, and as many more

standing ready for the shears, with their caps in * Quarterly Review. March, 1853.

their hands, and their long hair combed ont, and

49 345

6.576 17.936


6.613 17.936 24.829


6.631 17 936 25 498

hanging down to their waists. Some of the opera- out . Plus de Cheveux Gris ;' and, indeed, of late we tors were men, and some women. By the side of observe London advertisements beginning with the dealer was placed a large basket, into which No more Grey Hairs.' White hair, however, is every successive crop of hair, tied up into a wisp not necessarily the slow work and certain mark of by itself, was thrown. No doubt the reason of the age. Some persons become grey very young; we indifference to their tresses, on the part of the fair believe that many in the prime vigour of life are Bretonnes, is to be found in the invariable "mode" suddenly blanched from the effect of terror, or which covers every head, from childhood upwards, some other great mental disturbance. Marie Anwith close caps, which entirely prevents any part toinette's hair, it seems to be allowed, turned grey of the hair from being seen, and of course as totally in the night preceding her execution. A case came conceals the want of it. The money given for the lately under our own observation, in which a soldier, hair is about 20 sous, or else a gaudy cotton hand- in order to escape the service, malingered in a hoskerchief ; thus the dealers net immense profits by pital for three months, feigning rheumatism, and their trips through the country.'

such was his anxiety to keep up the deception “This hair is the finest and most silken black hair (which was, however, completely penetrated by his taat can be procured. Light hair all comes from medical attendant) that he turned perfectly grey, Germany, where it is collected by a company of although quite a young man. In these cases of Dutch farmers, who come over for orders once a emotion, it is supposed that the blood sends some year. It would appear that either the fashion or fluid among the pigment of the hair, which at once the necessity of England has, within a recent period, discharges its colour. In some, though very rare completely altered the relative demands from the instances, persons have been born with patches of two countries. Forty years ago, according to one white hair; and there is at present in the Museum of the first men in the trade, the light German hair of Natural History at Paris a portrait of a piebald alone was called for. This treasured article he sold negro, in which the hair of the head presents very at 8s. an ounce-nearly double the price of silver. much the parti-coloured appearance of the wigs Now all this has passed away, and the dark shades exposed in the windows, half black and white, as of brown from France are chiefly called for. Our specimens of the power of the various hair-dyes. informant, venturing boldly into a subject where- “Women are quite as often grey as men, but from with ethnologists fear to tackle, delivers it as his baldness they are almost entirely exempt. This is opinion that the colour of the hair of English owing in a great measure to the larger deposit of people has changed within the last half-century, fat in the female scalp, which allows of a freer cirand that the great intercourse since the war with culation in the capillaries of the skin. The scalp southern nations has deepened by many tints the of a bald man is singularly smooth and ivory-like predominating Saxon blond of our forefathers. The in texture; a fact which Chaucer noticed in the same intelligent prompter assured us that any one Friar— His crown it shon like any glass.' This accustomed to deal in hair could tell by smell alone denseness of texture in the skin is owing to the the difference between German and French hair-destruction of the bulbs of the hair and the closure nay, that he himself when his nose was in' could of the follicles; any attempt to reproduce the discriminate between Irish, Scotch, Welsh, and natural covering of the head on such surfaces will English hair !"

prove quite hopeless. From some cause or other, The subject of grey hairs and premature baldness baldness seems to befall much younger men now is one that is at all times exciting the anxious than it did thirty or forty years ago. A very obattention of a large number of persons, who are servant hatter informed us, a short time since, that just turning the meridian of life, and are engaged he imagined much of it was owing to the common in a daily and senseless conflict with the heralds of use of silk hats, which, from their impermeability decay and age war against nature, in which to the air, keep the head at a much higher tempequackery gathers some of its richest spoils, and rature than the old beaver structures, which, he converts the failing covering of the heads of its also informed us, went out principally because we dupes into a veritable "golden fleece.” The re- had used up all the beavers in the Hudson's Bay viewer has some excellent and suggestive remarks Company's territories. The adoption of silk hats apon this branch of the topic, which may be quoted has, however, given them time, it seems, to rewith advantage.

plenish the breed. This fact affords a singular “The grey hair of age and debility," he remarks, instance of the influence of fashion upon the animals "in the human subject, results, it is supposed, from of a remote continent. It would be more singular a withdrawal of the pigment cells. We feel that still if the silk-hat theory of baldness has any truth we are now touching upon a part of our subject in it, as it would then turn out that we were sacrithat becomes personal to not å few of our most ficing our own natural nap in order that the beaver respected readers. May a viveur who has taken might recover his. Without endorsing the specuno note of time is suddenly startled by the dis- lative opinion of our hatter, we may, we believe, covery, as he shaves, of a few grey hairspursui- state it as a well-ascertained circumstance, that vants of Death'--and he eradicates the tell-tales soldiers in helmeted regiments are oftener bald with anything but an agreeable sensation. Our than any other of our heroic defenders." Parisian friends, who seem to be profoundly afflicted Closely connected with the loss of hair, are the at the appearance of the first snows of age, have arts for its restoration. Among these,“ bear'sorganised a diligent army of young girls to war grease” has an honourable place, and the following against decay, and to wrest from T'ime the fatal anecdotes are curious. ensigns he plants upon our brow. The Salons “ Tonching upon the subject of applications for Epilatoires, where youth pays this little attention nourishing the hair, we must not omit the most to age for an inconceivably small sum, usually hang important and imposing, though some people imagine perfectly apocryphal, contributors-BEARS.

A VISIT TO THE STAFFORDSHIRE We know Bruin has of late been declared a humn

POTTERIES. bug, and there is but too prevalent an opinion abroad that he does not let his genuine grease flow

1.---TIE BOROUGH OP STOKE-UPON-TRENT. for the benefit of mankind as freely as barbers To the generality of readers the term “ The Pot. would have us believe, from the announcement we teries" conveys but a very indefinite and uncertain so often seen in back streets of another bear to be idea-an idea connected, perhaps, in some undefin. killed. After full inquiry, however, we find that able way, with pots and pitchers, pipkins and Bruin still bleeds, without murmuring, for an un- earthenware dishes, china tea-cups, etc., etc. There grateful public. During the winter months up- is nothing very grand or striking in the term itself, wards of fifty bears yield up their life in this or in the associations—though they are, doubtless, metropolis alone, and they are, we find, very regular agreeable in the main-which it suggests to the passengers between the ports of St. Petersburg mind; and we may safely affirm, that the notions and London. The destiny of these creatures affords current among strangers to this peculiar district, a singular instance of the manner in which extremes with regard to its general characteristics, are very meet the shaggy denizen of a Russian forest hav. far from the correct ones. Having taken a jouring at last the honour of yielding up his precious ney to the north of Staffordshire for the express fat to make glossy and smooth the ringlets of an purpose of spending a few days in the Potteries, irresistible Puseyite. If Ursa Major could only and of gathering from ocular evidence such facts know his distinguished future !

as might come in our way, we shall proceed to lay " In order to combat the growing scepticism as to them simply and briefly before our readers, not hairdressers' bears,' a worthy son of the craft in without the hope that they may derive both inthe neighbourhood of St. Giles's Church was long formation and amusement from the reports we have in the habit, when he slaughtered a Muscovite, of to make. hanging him by chains out of the second-floor The Potteries consist of a number of small window, with an inscription to the effect that cus. towns lying pretty closely together, and mostly, if tomers bringing their own gallipots might cut the not entirely, comprised within the borough of fat out for themselves."

Stoke - upon - Trent. Stoke itself stands about After these curious facts, and a passage depre- twenty-five miles north of Stafford, and something cating the indiscriminate use of hair oils, pomades, like double that distance south of Manchester. It and dyes, we are treated to a most humorous is rather centrally situated with respect to the history of hair architecture and peruke manufac- neighbouring towns and hamlets which make up ture down to the period of their fall, which hap- the borough, the principal of which are, Burslem, pened simultaneously with the fall of the French Etruria, Fenton, Hanley and Shelton, Longton, or monarchy.. Pigtails and powder, however, did not Lane End, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Tunstall

, and a go out until the year 1808. Deprived of the privi- few minor hamlets and villages. We have catalege of elaborating their head-dresses, Englishmen logued them alphabetically, from ignorance of the seem next to have turned their attention to the precedence to which they may be severally entitled ; cultivation of their whiskers, and, more recently, but they all lie within a space of ground not larger in affectation of continental fashions, their mous in area than that covered by the city and suburbs taches.

of London. The reviewer winds up with the following hints, Stoke is a place of considerable antiquity, and is which may appropriately be recommended to many indirectly noticed in Domesday-book. The old young men :

church, which in 1829 was taken down, a new one “So well do people understand the character having been erected upon a neighbouring site, was as expressed by the hair and its management, supposed to have existed, at least some portions of that it is used as a kind of index. Commercial it, at a date prior to the Conquest—a corbel head ideas are very exact respecting it. What chance of stone being found at its demolition embedded in would a gentleman with a moustache have of getting a wall, and bearing the date, in Roman numerals, a situation in a bank? Even too much whisker is

With the destruction of the old church, looked upon with suspicion. A clean shave is however, the antiquities of the place appear to usually, as the world goes, expected in persons have departed altogether ; and no vestige that we aspiring to any post of serious trust.”

could discern of anything like a hoar antiquity now He has entered into some speculations also as to remains to attract the curious eye of the archæo. the mode in which ladies may arrange their locks logist. The new church, which was commenced to most advantage; but, without countenancing in 1826, and finished three years after, is a handanything like the neglect of care and neatness, some and substantial erection in the English style may we be suffered to remind our female readers, of the thirteenth century, and is the greatest whose eye may be glancing over this paper, of architectural ornament which the town can boast. the advice given on this subject eighteen hundred | Viewed from the entrance to the town, it has an years ago, at a time when the cultivation of imposing aspect, while the interior is elegant and hair formed among Roman ladies no small object simple, and the magnificent oriel window, the of interest ? It is briefly this : "Your adorning, gift of a late rector, may challenge comparison let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the with most specimens of the kind. Among the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of monuments is one to the celebrated Josiah Wedg. apparel, but . . that which is not corrupt- wood, of whom we shall have to make honourable ible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, mention by and by, who died in 1795. There is which is in the sight of God of great price." an excellent organ, and an harmonious peal of bells,

which compelled us, by the way, to keep our eyes


open from 1852 to 1853, literally keeping us awake The preceding description of Stoke is in some from one year's end to another. The church stands degree applicable to most of the towns in the Poton a favourable site, being surrounded by a bury: teries, though each would afford some very marked ing-ground of four or five acres in extent, inclosed differences, a few of which we proceed to specify. with iron rails.

Thus Burslem, which stands upon a somewhat Not far from the church, and near the railway lofty eminence, has the advantage of a picturesque station, stands the new market-house, a convenient site, which Stoke, lying in a comparative hollow, building well adapted for the purpose, having cannot boast. Burslem, which lies about three rooms above devoted to the uses of an Athenæum, miles to the north, when approached from the er literary and artistic society, which offers the ad- railway, which runs within a mile of it, presents a vantages of a circulating library, and the opportu- fine subject for the pencil of the artist; there are nity of studying the arts of design at a trifling deep dells and abrupt declivities, surmounted by cost, but which, we were sorry to hear, from the the irregular buildings and pyramidal kilns of the statement of the secretary made at the annual Hill Pottery, which crowns the ridge of the rising conversazione, was in no very thriving condition. ground; and there is its lonely new church, stand. The only other public building is the town-hall, ing on its forlorn platform of table-land, and lookwhich stands on the rise of the hill towards Trent- ing as though it had been doing battle with foul ham, and which offers no particular features to dis- weather for the last half century, and had been tinguish it from buildings of such a class to be beaten black and blue in the process. On entering found in most of our country towns. The river Burslem the stranger will find it a large and really Trent, which here is not far from its rise, cuts but handsome market-town, adorned with capital an insignificant figure ; it is completely eclipsed buildings, and supplied with handsome and wellby the Grand Trunk Canal, which with its various furnished shops and good hotels. The town-hall branches intersects the Potteries, and forms a safe and the market-house are both good and substanand suitable medium for the transference of their tial erections, and the evidence of prosperity as manufactures. The aspect of the streets and well as the consciousness of it, meets the eye at thoroughfares of Stoke is anything but attractive every turn. Most of the topographical writers to a stranger, presenting more the appearance of a who have treated on the history of Staffordshire, fourth-rate London suburb than of a town of bu. have sought to establish the fact, if fact it be, that siness. Rows of small brick-built houses, rarely the practice of the potter's art in England had its more than two stories in height, are broken into rise in Burslem. Some of them argue from the by huge brick-bnilt factories covering whole acres original orthography of the name, which was at in extent ; monstrous cones of solid brick lift one time spelled "Burwardeslæm"--bur signifying their peaked heads above the roofs of the houses, in the Saxon tongue water, and læm, loam, or and here and there their burly basements bulge clay. Mr. Ward, in his “ History of Stoke-uponforth into the street and shoulder the passenger Trent,” comes to the desired conclusion from two out of the direct path. Tall chimneys of brick facts which we have no grounds for disputing-the soar up into the sky and spread their clouds of one is the custom of our Saxon forefathers of giving smoke through the sooty air ; and beneath your one common name to those employed in making feet a pavement of brick borders either side of the tiles and pots, that, namely, of tile-wrights; and the muddy road, and meanders away for miles towards other is, that the family of the Tile wrights, now the next town in one direction, or the green fields spelled Tellwrights, have been seated at Burslem in another.*

for several centuries ; and they still possess here a

local inheritance, which, as its origin cannot be The great literary celebrity of Stoke was the renowned traced, may have descended from a remote

ancesbiblical student, Dr. John Lightfoot. He was born at Stoke try, who exercised the tile-wright's craft in a rectory in March, 1602, and while yet a mere youth distin- Saxon era. guished himself at Cambridge by his extraordinary proficiency in the Latin and Greek languages. Upon leaving college he

Hanley is also a handsome market-town pleaentered into orders, obtaining a curacy in Norton-under. Hales santly situated, hardly more than a mile distant in Shropshire. Here his talents procured him the patronago from Burslem, and two from Stoke. It has the Those instigation he commenced the study of Hebrew. In advantage of being placed upon high ground, is 1628 he married the daughter of W. Compton, esq., of stone large, and apparently very populous, and, standing don, for the sake of easier access to the means of study. In about the centre of the district, is considered by 162, while residing at Hornsey, he published his first work, some as the capital of the Potteries. It is joined entitled, "Erubhim: or, Miscellanies, Christian and Judai: to Shelton, which stretches down the hill to within Ashley in Staffordshire, he removed thither, and there for a mile of Stoke, Hanley and Shelton being spoken twelve years devoted himself to the study of the Scriptures

in of as one town; and within them, or in their immetheir original tongue. In 1612 he was nominated by the

Long diate neighbourhood, some of the most extensive quence of which he resigned his rectory, and was chosen manufactories are to be found. The church of minister of St. Bartholomew's. In 1641 he published the first St. Mark, which is situated on a rising ground not in the year following he was chosen Vice-Chancellor of' Cam far from the main road in Shelton, is a beautiful bridge. At this period he laboured zealously in furthering structure, in the early English style, and it forms the completion of the London Polyglot Bible. At the Res. toration, his high character and endowments secured him the continuance of his appointments; but he entered little into & considerable portion of which he wrote in Latin, were col. public life, preferring seclusion

and the pursuit of his favourite lected and published in several editions, both in this country studies. He continued to publish his valuable contributions and on the continent. As a biblical scholar Dr. Lightfoot wes to sacred literature up to the last year of his life, and con- equalled by few and perhaps excelled by none : his works have tersplated a complete edition of his works, which he was pre- formed a kind of quarry from which succeeding writers hare Tented from preparing by his death at the age of 74. He sometimes dug their best materials. He was the most indus. was buried at Great Munden, where he had exercised the pas. trious and persevering scholar of his day, and as good an Hetoral office for above thirty years. After

his death his works, braist as his learned correspondent, the celebrated Buxtorf.

a conspicuous object in the landscape as viewed Thumbs, shepherds, dairymaids, cows, John Bulls, from various points. It contains accommodation and John Wesleys, etc. etc., as the advertisements for above two thousand persons, and one-fourth of say, " too numerous to mention.” Here, too, is the the sittings are free. The east window is of richly- chief stronghold and refuge of the old willow-patcoloured glass, representing the Nativity and the tern plates and dishes, which we had hoped, not Resurrection, intermixed with various heraldic de having met with them of late years in civilized vices surrounding a whole length figure of St. society, that a growing taste had banished out of Mark. Shelton was the birth-place of Elijah Fen- being, but which we found here in all their aboriton, the poet, who was contemporary with Pope, ginal ugliness, stacked in thousands ready for the and assisted him in the translation of the “Odyssey." demand of some unknown market, and as blue and He was born in 1683, received a classical educa- as bold as they were in the days of our boyhood. tion, and studied at Cambridge with a view to enter The whole of the Potteries, we were informed, the church: he took a degree in 1704, and another in are especially plagued with mud in winter and dust 1706 ; but finding that he could not conscientiously in summer, and in both these possessions we should take the oaths to enable him to enter the church, imagine Longton has the lion's share. We walked he relinquished the design, and engaged himself

as well nigh ankle-deep through the miry streets, and asher in a school. He was soon after appointed by looked in vain for the evidence of any attempt on the earl of Orrery as his secretary, fulfilling at the the part of the inhabitants to clean their waysma same time the part of tutor to the earl's eldest negligence probably arising from the conviction son. By the earl he was introduced to Pope, for that any such attempt would be futile. In the whom he translated four entire books of the "Odys- market-place, it being market-day, we were greeted sey," receiving 3001. for his remuneration ; he after with a spectacle which we should have imagined wards published a tragedy of considerable merit, that no town in England at the present day could by which he realized a thousand pounds. He was have produced : this was nothing less than a pera man of amiable manners and fine principle, and ambulating quack doctor, who, with his bottled was much esteemed by the literary characters of monsters and nauseous mixtures ostentatiously disthe day. He died in 1730, at the seat of Lady played upon a large table, had taken his stand close Trumbull in Berkshire. Pope bore testimony to to an oyster-stall, and, sagely sucking the head of the excellence of his friend after his decease, and his cane, according to the established formula, wrote an epitaph descriptive of his character, the stood awaiting consultations and fees. Other eviconcluding lines of which were as follows :- dences were not wanting that, whatever efforts

had been made by worthy men in the place, the “Calmly he looked on either life, and here

schoolmaster in his walks abroad had not been so Saw nothing to regret, or there to fear; From Nature's temperate feast rose satisfied,

successful as might be wished in this neighbourThanked heaven that he lived, and that he died."*

hood; dog and rat matches were advertised by

placards on the walls; and in the room of an inn Longton, or Lane End, the latter appellation to which we were driven for shelter from a violent having been recently cashiered from an imaginary rain-storm, the talk was all of running and racing notion that it is not suited for ears polite, is per- matches, of wrestling and boxing-all of which haps the most characteristic town in the whole of had been made the medium of gambling wagers, the Pottery district. It is, as its name implies, a in which every individual wonld appear to have very long town, and is undoubtedly the most been either a winner or a loser. Subsequent in. crowded, and, if we are to judge from outward de- quiries convinced us that these detestable sports monstrations, the least polished locality in the form the chief subjects of amusement and excite. whole borough. It is a place, however, where a ment among a very large proportion of the labourvast deal of business is done, and abounds in manu- ing classes throughout the Potteries—a fact which factories, some of considerable extent, which do a explains, very unsatisfactorily, their neglect of the large trade. A great many of these are in the Atheneum at Stoke, which, with good wages and hands of men of limited capital, not a few of whom much leisure on their hands, it might have been produce an inferior kind of ware suited for a cheap supposed that they would have combined to sup. market. It is by the exertions of the Longton port as a means of intellectual improvement. potters that the working-man and the cottager are Longton has two churches--the old Lane End enabled to set a china tea-service on their tables, church, built in 1763-4, which accommodates above brilliant in colours and gold, at a cost which we a thousand persons, and the new church of Long. must not name, but which the humblest house ton, built by the commissioners for erecting addi. keeper can contrive to pay. An immense quantity tional churches, which will hold double the number. of the low-priced English china, as well for expor. The town is crossed near the market-place by the tation as for home consumption, is here manufac. railway on a viaduct twenty or more feet above the tured weekly, as well as earthenware of all kinds, road, the cheap fares and short stages on which and toys consisting of images in gold and colours are a source of great convenience to the dwellers of men and women, and rustic groups, and dogs in the Potteries. Longton, which is three miles and cats, and Swiss cottages, and Bonapartes, Vic. from Stoke, extends into the town of Fenton; and torias, Great Moguls, Dukes of Wellington, Tom Fenton is a long straggling village made up prin

cipally of numerous potters' establishments, that * Such a state of mind in the hour of death would be most line the road on either side of the way, and the enviable ; but it is to be feared that Popo, if we are to humble dwellings of the work-people. This town, an infidel, and his " Universal Prayer," had a very imperfect or at least a portion of it, was formerly in possesconception of the source, es pointed out in scripture, from sion of the ancestors of Elijah Fenton the poet, which real peace and tranquillity in the hour of death are to be drawn, namely, a living faith in the atonemont of Christ. and was doubtless originally called after the family

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