« PreviousContinue »
that nation : “ Dear Tuché, sweet soul, my daugh- man family, had learnt to speak Latin; so that ter Tuché." What a depth of silent affection is when she came to write the epitaph, she expressed unveiled in these few words! The language shows the sounds most familiar to her in the only letters the bereaved parent not to have been a native of she was able to form. The inscription is :---"Here Rome, but stranger there. Perhaps with his lies Gordianus, deputy of Gaul, who daughter he had fled thither, having forsaken all, was murdered, with all his family, for and now that she was taken from him he was left the faith : they rest in peace. Thealone. And yet not alone, if he was a true follower ophila, his handmaid, set up this.” of the Saviour; for, reader, he gives his followers Two reflectious are forced upon the his choicest consolations in the hour of sorrow and mind by these records of the feelings of the primi. affliction.
tive church. In the first place, we notice the Here is another inscription over a daughter's estire absence of anything approaching to the tomb, of a different character : “ To Faustina, my doctrines of the Papacy. Martyrs are buried with fearless girl, who lived xxl years." From the a simple statement of the fact that they died for epithet-fortissima-we may conjecture that she the faith. No sanctity is attached to the place had braved perils in“ ministering to the necessities where they lie; no efficacy ascribed to their interof the saints” when concealed in the catacombs, cessions. Christ and his atoning sacrifice on the or had professed a good profession before many cross are their only hope. If any other mediation hostile witnesses. The following, copied by Dr. save his were sought, we must surely have found Maitland, is affixed to the tomb, and records the indications of it here, yet there is not the faintest death of a martyr who seems to have been sur- or remotest acknowledgment of any beside the prised by the persecutors whilst on his knees : one " advocate, Jesus Christ the righteous." This * Alexander is not dead, but lives above the stars, the papal authorities so strongly feel, that they
and his body rests in this tomb. He will allow no more copies to be made from the diedende foresanperhat A marin hemelit died under the Emperor Antonine, who, Lapidarian Gallery.
Again : what a comforting view is given us of the would result from his services, returned power of Christian faith, when we reflect that it evil for good. For while on his knees and abont cheered and supported these poor sufferers in their
to worship the true God, he was led dark and gloomy habitation, at a time, too, when away to execution.
Oh, sad times! in they were in daily peril of death! Happy will it be which we are not safe, even in caverns, for us if our faith is as pure and abiding as theirs. whilst we offer worship and prayers ! We leave the accomWhat more miserable than such a life? panying epitaph to speak or what more miserable than death in for itself. Through the
which they cannot be buried by their long vista of centuries friends and parents but at last they sparkle in we seem in it to hear, as
it were, a voice from the
Torre'ata The symbols given in the foregoing tomb, telling us of na- angels inscription are of very common occur- ture's anguish in the hour
Munchs V110 rence thronghout the catacombs. The of bereavement, softened
first is a monogram, in which a cross is and alleviated by Chris, combined with the Greek initials of the word tian consolation. Christ, and was used to intimate that the deceased had " fallen asleep in Christ." The second repre. sents a palm branch, the badge of victory, and has a very obvions reference to the passage in the
A GROAT'S-WORTH OF RAIL, Apocalypse, where the redeemed are described THERE are few pleasanter modes of spending a " with palms in their hands.” The meaning of the leisure hour on a fine summer's day, supposing the third is obscure, but probably it is a censer, and object we have in view is a little change of scene contains an allusion to the act in which Alexander and a breath of fresh air, than by taking a ride on was engaged when arrested. A great variety of the Blackwall Extension Railway. This little line, other symbols are found; the enumeration and which appears to be a great favourite with the exposition of which would protract this paper to public, has been opened about two years ; its course an undue length.
describes a curve bending from the north round to We have space for only two more epitaphs. "In the east, and embracing about one-fourth of the
the time of the Emperor Adrian, Marius, a cireumference of the metropolis. To the stranger, young military officer, who had lived long to whom the somewhat singular aspect of the enough when, with his blood, he gave up suburbs of our overgrown capital must present his life for Christ. At length he rested some matters of interest, it presents a good and in peace. The weil deserving set up this facile opportunity of viewing them to advantage. with tears and in fear.”
We shall constitute ourselves his guide and comThe next is selected partly as a touch- panion for the occasion ; and, setting out from the ing instance of fidelity in a Christian female ser- city station in Fenchurch-street, shall endeavour to vant, and partly on account of a peculiarity in point out such objects as, in the flying glimpses we the inscription itself"; the words are chiefly Latin, can catch of them as we are whirled along, seem but most of the letters Greek. The cause of this most worthy of attention. incongruity probably was, that she being, as her The fare from any one station on the whole line name shows, a Greek, had learnt to write her own to any other, be the distance either a single mile language, and subsequently, from living in a Ro- or the whole ten, is a uniform rate of fourpence,
and return tickets are issued along the whole Jack's, and might perhaps be traced to a fact route for sixpence each; these are second-class which there is no disputing, namely, that a good fares, those of the first-class being a third higher. many who are born at Stepney, in after life belong Having paid your money at the foot of the stairs, to the sea. The word " Stepney” is a corruption you surrender your ticket as soon as you have got of “Stebenhythe,” the ancient name of the place, it, and mount to the platform, where, as the trains which is of considerable antiquity. In the old run regularly every quarter of an hour, you have cliurch, a rather curious structure, whose original never long to wait. A train has just come in on design has been destroyed by modern innovation, the opposite side, and a troop of passengers burst- lies Richard Pace, who was in his day vicar of the ing from the open doors of every carriage, are parish, and the friend and correspondent of the defiling rapidly towards the exit from the station, great Erasmus. A later notoriety who there also where they disappear with a most business-like sleeps at peace was the Rev. John Entinck, of rapidity. While you are looking around, the boarding-school celebrity, the author of all those porter admonishes you to take your seat, which dogs-eared dictionaries and spelling-books in sheepyou have scarcely done, when slam goes the door skin which bothered us so when we were boys. and off we roll, at a gentle pace at first, into a very He has some notable companions in death ; among dim and dusky region of brick walls, roofed in others the father of Strype the historian, and the with tiles, pierced here and there with a window, wife of Oakey the regicide. The burying-ground which affords but a sort of rushlight glimmer into has long been famous
for its curious epitaphs. the darkness. But the darkness runs rapidly away This is all about Stepney for the present. We in the rear as our speed increases, and forth we have set down a score of passengers and taken in leap into the sunshine, and away we scour over the as many more, and are already puffing away tored heads of a vast level wilderness of houses, wards the next station. Yonder to the right a every one of which seems turning round to look at branch of the railway leads off through Shadwell us as we steam along. We are about thirty feet and Poplar to Blackwall, and at Stepney station above the level of the ground; the foreground of passengers to Blackwall from the north of London our landscape is rugged with roofing of every have to alight and change carriages. From Stepney practicable shape, and populous with chimneys, all to Bow the distance is but a very few minutes; engaged in one complex and stately minuet : some we have left the city behind us and are now are very young and very short, shining in new red fairly in the suburbs; a glimpse of the river is jackets and cocked hats, and others are very old obtained on the right as we rattle along, and con. and exceeding tall, and addicted to smoking worse siderable indications of the forest of shipping that than any German ; but all are dancing to the crowds its surface are seen above the buildings and music of our locomotive's pipe to an astonishingly warehouses that line the shore. As we sweep quick time, and whirling off apparently towards St. round, however, these all get behind us; we de Paul's
. If you cast a glance below, you may enjoy scend gradually from our altitudes and get a little the privilege, if you deem it such, of a momentary nearer the common earth; the close colony of view of the domestic economy of a thousand fami- bricks is now exchanged for something not unlike lies, but it is a question whether you will be much a rural village; houses, it is true, there are in the wiser for the inquisition, unless indeed you plenty, but many of them have gardens in front possess extraordinary facilities for observation, and trees before their doors and fields not far off. For instance, down here at the right, about even Now we are bowling across Bow Common, and with the rails upon which we are spinning along, now we are skirting an angle of the Tower Ham. you see a figure at a window doing something. Is lets Cemetery. The landscape opens as we proit a man shaving himself? is it Captain Blowhard ceed, but shuts up again as we stop at the Bow patting on his coat? is it his industrious wife station for a second exchange of passengers. ironing out his linen for next Sunday ? is it Mrs. Bow, or Stratford-le-Bow, derives its two names Suds hanging out Mr. Sads' garments to dry ? is from a ford over the river Lea, near one of the it some neighbour, gaping with open mouth upon Roman highways in the neighbourhood, and from the train dashing by even with his nose? You a bridge built over the stream with bows or arches don't know; it may be any or all of these, but you by Matilda, queen of Henry 1. The place, it would can't tell which ; and all you derive from your seem, enjoyed a sort of notoriety in Chaucer's time, privilege of observation is, the conviction that you for he says of his prioress : have seen somebody doing something, you don't know what. Lift your eyes a little and look
" And Frensch sche spok ful faire and fetysly,
After the scole of Stratford atte Bowe." further abroad: the thousand spires of London are fast retreating on the left, and to the right the It was formerly populous with bakers, who, up to masts and rigging of tall ships shoot up above the the time of Henry the Eighth, supplied London roofs and chimney tops ; here and there a vision with bread. It was the fashion with our ancestors of green trees, and brown water, and a man scul in "the good old times," to make pic-nic excur. ling a boat in a whitey brown canal, varies the sions to Bow, and to feast on the cream and cakes scene. We slacken speed; whee-e-et! goes the for which the place was as famous as it appears to whistle, and in a moment or two more we are stop- be barren in historical or literary associations. ping at Stepney. We shall not stay here long, Bat we are in motion again, and hurrying fast but long enough to recall to mind some reminis. on our route to Hackney. Soon after leaving Bow, cences that should not be buried in oblivion. we pass under the Eastern Counties Railway, and
There is a notion prevailing among sailors that find ourselves rolling on gaily in the open country. those who are born at sea belong to Stepney parish. To the right we have a view of the verdant meaThis, however, is a mere hallucination of Poor dows on the banks of the river Lea, where old Isaac Walton, two hundred years ago, loved to ponds, its cheesecakes, its custards, and its cow. wander, angle in hand, and make acquaintance keepers. If among this list of notabilities those with his friends the fishes, with a view of promote standing first may be said to have declined, the ing them to his frying-pan. On the left are tea- last-mentioned at least have kept their place, since gardens, and nursery-grounds, and bowling-greens, within a few stones' throws of the spot whence our and fruitful orchards, and rope-walks, and children engine is snorting to get free, some thousand or so playing in the fields; and now we are skirting the of milch cows, comfortably stalled and fed, are eastern boundary of Victoria-park, and already the doing their best to supply the metropolis with square tower of Hackney old church rises in the their indispensable fluid. At a distance hardly distance. A few minutes more, and Hackney, greater, though in an opposite direction, stands with its trim gardens, neat residences, and plente- Canonbury Tower, supposed to have been built by ous foliage, lies at our feet as we stop for a few Sir John Spencer towards the end of the sixteenth moments opposite the square walls of the time-century. In the time of Goldsmith, it was let out worn church-tower.
in apartments, and Newbery, the bookseller, having Hackney, which gave a name to hackney.coaches, lodgings there, lent them for a hiding-place to has survived its own etymology, and nothing now poor Goldy, who was flying from his creditors, and is known of the derivation of the name it bears. who there, under the pressure of want, wrote his Though now by no means a fashionable locality, it “Vicar of Wakefield." Collins, the author of the was once the residence of many noble families. "Ode to the Passions,” resided in Islington during Near two centuries ago, its presbyterian chapel the latter part of his life. Alexander Cruden, tho was famous throughout the land; the celebrated author of the “ Concordance," was found dead on Matthew Henry, the biblical commentator, suc- his knees in the posture of prayer in a house in ceeded men of scarcely less note in their time, and Camden-passage. * John Nicholls, who conducted preached at this chapel for many years ; most of the “Gentleman's Magazine " for half a century, his literary labours were wrought here. A noto- was born in Islington, and lived in Highburyrious character of very different repute, the usurer place, almost close to the present railway station ; John Ward, who was satirized by Pope, also lived and Charles Lamb first assumed the dignity of a here, and the site of his house still bears the name housekeeper in Colebrooke-row. of Ward's corner. Strype, the historian, was lec- Leaving Islington, our underground way lies turer here for thirty-five years, and died here in for some distance between solid walls of brick 1737, in his ninety-fourth year. In Hackney the spanned with numerous bridges, from which in a great Dr. South was born, the parliamentary ge minute or two we emerge upon a level, affording us neral, Fairfax, was married, and Owen Rowe, the a view of Pentonville Model Prison, backed by regicide, was buried. We learn from the current fields and trees, and Highgate-hill, crowned with literature of the last century that Hackney was its solitary church spire, in the distance. In a then celebrated for its nursery-gardens, whither minute more we are upon a viaduct crossing the the fashionables of the time were accustomed to Caledonian-road, where we stop for a moinent at resort; and for its ladies' boarding-schools, where another station, after which we dash on, and flying they had their daughters educated. Thus a san. at rather a giddy height over the Great Northern guine author is in the "Tatler” represented as line, which here burrows under Copenhagen-fields, saying : " For the publication of this discourse, 1 proceed on to the Camden-road station, where we wait only for subscriptions from the under-gradu- drop our passengers for Camden Town. This ates of each university and the young ladies in the delightfully situated suburb of London owes its boarding schools at Hackney," etc.
name, although indirectly, to Camden, the author From Hackney, as the locomotive begins again of the "Britannia,” whose descendants are, or were, to cough, we move on to Kingsland. Perhaps the owners of most of the landed property in the this short ride is the most picturesque part of the district. The erection of Camden Town comwhole route, forming as it does a series of pictures, menced in 1791; at that time it stood alone, far half pure landscape, half suburban views, such as from the smoke and din of London ; at the present Patrick Naysmith delighted to paint. Soon, how. moment it is as effectually joined to the metropolis ever, they are shut out of view by the steep banks as though Temple Bar were its neighbour. of a cutting; we feel our pace sensibly retarding, From Camden Town to Hampstead-road is but and now we stop once more at Kingsland, of which a short viaduct route, through a very favourable we have nothing particular to say, and whence, sample of the London suburb, across long lines of having dropped two passengers and picked up one, genteel streets varied with retired gardens and we are off again directly to Highbury and Isling snug villas. At Hampstead-road our journey ends ; ton. The railway runs nearly the whole of this there the railway joins the North-Western line, distance between high banks, which, with the blue and affords to travellers journeying from Birming sky and the electric wires of the telegraph, form ham, Liverpool, and the north of the island, and the whole of the prospect. We arrive at Islington bound for any of the places through which we underground, and, burrowing beneath the founda- have passed, the convenience of proceeding at once tions of the “Cock” Tavern, stop at the Highbury to their homes without incurring the expense or station, where we shall get rid of most of our com- delay of coach-hire from Euston-square. It is not panions in the journey. While they are getting to be wondered at that the advantages of such a out and clearing off, we may glance, with the mind's line of route as we have above described should be eye at least, at “merry Islington.”
pretty generally appreciated, and that, in summer Islington, once called Iseldon or Yseldon, has time especially, multitudes should avail themselves been famous for many things in its time—for its of this little railway as a means of transport. It statesmen, its authors, its artists, its ducking brings Gravesend—whither so many Londoners migrate in fine weather-an hour and a half nearer his fortune with no other capital than their supeto Islington, for instance, than it used to be. It rior cultivation. In fact, a large capital and exis possible now, tide favouring, to get from Hollo- cellent opportunities, without them, will only proway or Highbury to that port in an hour and a voke greater disaster and a more wide-spread half-first proceeding to Blackwall by this rail, ruin. Perfection in most things is unattainable ; and then stepping on board the boat which waits yet men have attained to a greater degree of per. for the arrival of the train. But we have no in- fection in the cultivation of these qualities than in tention of puffing the property--not being a share almost anything else; and, at all events, it is cerholder-we merely invite attention to the railway tain that he who'aimeth at the sun, though he as one of the phenomenal indications of our modern may not hit his mark, will shoot higher than he rate of progress, and as affording to the stranger that aimeth at a bush.' the means of studying certain phases of city life at “Industry is the energetic engagement of body a cheap and easy rate.
or mind in some useful employment. It is the opposite of that Indian's maxim, which says, “It is better to walk than to run, and better to stand
still than to walk, and better to sit than to stand, THE MAN OF BUSINESS.
and better to lie down than to sit.' Industry is AMERICAN genius has been unusually prolific of the secret of those grand results that fill the mind late in the production of works of sterling merit with wonder—the folios of the ancients, the pyra. and commanding interest. Never before, perhaps, mids of the Egyptians, those stupendous works of has the British press teemed with so many repro- internal communication in our own country that ductions of transatlantic publications, of a class bind the citizens of many different states in the which appear generally to realize an unprecedent- bonds of harmony and interest. The tendency edly large circulation. In the presence of “Uncle of matter is to rest, and it requires an exercise of Tom's Cabin," and some of the literary satellites force or of will to overcome the vis inertiæ. When that have followed its shining track, and basked a thing should be done, it must be done immethemselves in its beams, English authorship seems diately, without parleying or delay. A repeated to have suffered a temporary eclipse. Among the exercise of the will, in this way, will soon form the latest importations from the western continent is habit of industry. a treatise bearing the somewhat secular title of “ Arrangement digests the matter that industry " How to make Money,” or an inquiry into the collects. It apportions time to duties, and keeps chances of success and causes of failure in business. an exact register of its transactions; it has a post Aware of the thorough.going character and keen for every man, a place for every tool, a pigeon-hole acquisitiveness of a people who have been rather for every paper, and a time for every settlement. severely satirized as the worshippers of the A perfectly methodical man leaves his books, acdollar,” we were prepared to find somewhat repre. counts, etc., in so complete a shape on going to bed hensible views advocated. We confess, however, that, if he were to die during the night, everythat our examination of the work was attended thing could be perfectly understood. Jeremiah with an agreeable disappointment, as regards its Evarts is represented to have been a model of in. tone and tendency, which, although not taking the dustry and arrangement. A friend says: 'Durhigh ground of Christian authorship, has much ing years of close observation in the bosom of his that merits the attention of those who are about family, I never saw a day pass without his accomto embark upon the dangerous currents of active plishing more than he expected ; and so regular life. In the chapter which treats upon the habits was he in all his habits, that I knew to a moment that are essential to the attainment of success and when I should find him with his pen, and when honourable competence in every department of with his tooth-brush, in his hand ; and so methodtrade, there are some excellent remarks, and which, ical and thorough that, though his papers filled being at all times seasonable and important, we many shelves when closely tied up, there was not extract, commending them especially to the atten- a paper among all his letters, correspondence, edition of young men.
torial matter, and the like, which he could not lay * Habits of business,” says Mr. Freedley,* "in his hands on in a moment. I never knew him clude six qualities : Industry, arrangement, calcu- search for a paper; it was always in its place.' lation, prudence, punctuality, and perseverance. Some manifest this habit at an earlier age than Are you industrious ? Are you methodical? Are others, and apparently exercise it with less diffiyou calculating? Are you prudent? Are you culty ; but any one with attention may acquire it. punctual? Are you persevering? If so, you “Calculation is the mind of business. Å readipossess what is known by the familiar term, ness in calculation gives a man a great advantage habits of business. It is not the possession of over his less experienced neighbour ; and many a any one of these qualities in perfection, nor the man has brought his fish to a bad market from inoccasional exercise of them by fits and starts, as ability to calculate quickly and accurately. To it is called, that will constitute a man of busi. attain the habit of quick calculation without the ness; but it is the possession of them all in an aid of a slate and pencil, Dr. Alcott recommends equal degree, and their continuous exercise as that the learner seize on every circumstance habits, that gives reputation and constitutes abil. which occurs in his reading, where reckoning is ity. The difference in men and their success may required, and, if possible, stop at once and com. be attributed, in a measure, to a difference in pute it. Or, if not, let the place be marked, and, their business habits; and many a man has made at the first leisure moment, let him turn to it and
make the estimates. • "How to make Money," by E. T. Freedley.
“Suppose he reads of a shipwreck. The crew is
said to consist of thirty men, besides the captain of a young man who is of age, and out of his ap. and mate, with three hundred and thirteen passen prenticeship, propose to furnish him the necessary gers, and a company of sixty grenadiers. The cap- capital to set up business, is it prudent in him to tain and mate, and ten of the crew, escaped in the embark ? I will merely express a few of the argulong boat. The rest were drowned, except twelve ments on both sides, and leave it to the exercise of of the grenadiers, who clung to a floating fragment the individual judgment. A good deal undoubtedly of the wreck, till they were taken off by another depends on the previous education, and the extent vessel. Now is there a single person in existence, of his knowledge. Experience is a relative term ; who would read such an account, without being a man at twenty-one has frequently more knowanxious to know how many persons in the whole ledge than many men of forty. Knowledge, not were lost ? Yet nine readers in ten would not experience, is the one thing needful. Experience know, and why? Simply because they will not is only one of the ways of arriving at knowledge. stop, and use what little addition and subtraction Wise men are instructed by reason; men of less
understanding by experience, the most ignorant • But calculation, as a business habit, is not limit. by necessity, and beasts by nature. The mind is ed to arithmetic. It deals with principles as well as a thing of impulse, of quick penetration; it acfigures, and frequently arrives at principles by quires its knowledge of life by bounds and flights. means of figures. It deduces the value of economy, In war, literature, and statesmanship, the greatest and distinguishes between a true and a false eco- exploits of the most renowned men have been pernomy. It shows that a man who spends 7s. 6d. formed at an early age. Hannibal crossed the in hiring a horse, and also the greater part of a Alps before he was twenty-four. Alexander the day, to purchase six or eight bushels of wheat at Great died at thirty-three. Byron wrote “Childe sixpence a bushel less than he must have given Harold” at twenty-one. Buonaparte was First nearer home, is not so economical as he may have Consul before he was thirty. Of all the great imagined. It satisfactorily demonstrates that ho- human actions ever heard or read of,' says Monnesty is the best policy, and that a rogue is a fool. taigne, of what sort soever, I have observed, There is nothing debasing in reducing everything both in former ages and our own, more have been to a rigid system of calculation; and principles performed before than after the age of thirty. May that will not bear it are not sound. A man takes I not confidently instance those of Hannibal, and advantage of confidence to perpetrate an act of his great competitor, Scipio ? The better half of villany , is he a wise man or a fool? How does their lives they lived upon the glory they had achis acconnt stand? On the debtor side is found quired in their youth; great men, it is true, in the confidence of the community, which would comparison with others; but by no means in comhave supported him for life, lost; his family dis parison with themselves.' graced ; his happiness embittered ; his soul en- "On the other side, we have the general observadangered, and much more. On the creditor side tion of mankind, that those who succeed best in is found a temporary advantage gained, and the business, generally begin life with an axe and a balance is largely against him. The man who tow shirt, and work themselves gradually up. killed his goose to get at the golden eggs has not We have the facts that Girard was a poor man at been handed down to us as a very wise luan; and thirty, and even forty; that Rothschild did not Solomon says, 'He that getteth riches, and not by get his capital of 20,0002. till after he was thirty right, shall leave them in the idst of days, years old ; that at thirty, Astor had not made his and at his end shall be a fool.' Policy, right, rea- first thousand dollars, which, he says, was harder son, and revelation, all harmonize.
to make than all the others. We have the asser“ Prudence is defined to be wisdom applied to tion of men who have spent twenty years in their practice. Under prudence are comprehended the avocation, that, although they thought themselves discreet suiting and disposing as well of actions as wise when they began, they were exceedingly ignoof words in their due place, time, and manner. It rant. We have the knowledge that an energetie is principally in reference to actions to be done, and prosecution of business makes large draughts on due means, order, season, and method of doing or the physical constitution ; and the assertion of not doing. In a case where the probabilities on medical men that the frame does not harden till the one hand somewhat preponderate over the thirty; and, lastly, (we cite the illustration with other, yet if there be no considerable hazard on all reverence, we have the example of our Saviour, that side which has the least probability, and a who did not commence his ministry till he was very great apparent danger in a mistake about the thirty years of age. Now, when doctors disagree, other, prudence will oblige a man to do that which who shall decide P I will merely remark, that may make most for his safety. It is always pru- a man who has, or can obtain, a good situation, dent in matters of importance to conceal inten- should not abandon it from slight reasons; that tions, or we may be anticipated by others. It is the task of the employed is easier than the emprudent to withhold confidence from an entire ployer ; and that the reputation of doing business stranger, and in some cases to do nothing. on one's own account is a consideration too trifling
" The proper time or age for commencing busi- to influence a wise man's decision. ness on one's own account is a question for pru- " Punctuality is the hinge of business. It is dence to decide. It is imprudent in any one to a virtue that all men reverence in theory, but all embark in it without that moderate capital ordina- do not carry into practice. We like a punctual rily required in the business. It is imprudent in man, because he respects his word, and has a rea young man to accept a loan from a money-lender, gard for our convenience : we dislike an unpunegiving his friends as security, in order to get that tual man, because he interferes with our plans, moderate capital. But suppose that the friends consumes our time, causes uneasy feelings, and im