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some whim or useful purpose. One of the greatest general classes : those who are banished for the advantages of machine nail-making is the economy grossest offences, such as murder, etc.--for in of the material: when nails are forged, twenty to Russia capital punishment is not practised by law, twenty-five per cent. of the iron is v. asted; when and such as are transported for smaller offences. they are cut, there is positively no waste at all to The former class are condemned to labour in the speak of. Some of the machines which are used government mines so long as they are able to for cutting what are called brads, cut the heads work; the latter are allowed to settle as colonists complete without striking; and it would be possi- in different districts to which they are appointed. ble to catch them as they fall from the machine, The first mentioned, especially, often cause much and to fit them together again into the form of the trouble, terror, and alarm throughout the differstrip of iron from which they are cut; and if they ent districts in the vicinity of the mines; as multiwere weighed before and after cutting, it is a ques- tudes of them break away from their confinement tion if any appreciable loss of metal would be every summer, and spread themselves in all direcfound to have ensued. In addition to the machines tions, for the purpose of committing robbery and above described, which cut but a single nail each murder. It is universally believed that their overat a blow, there are others with broader blades, seers are not remarkably anxious to prevent their and of a more complex description, which cut as running off, and that, if they reserve for them many as six nails at each descent of the tool. These a good share of the booty, a very bearable punishare chiefly used for cutting the smaller sorts of ment is inflicted upon them for the depredations headless nails used by shoemakers : the strips of they may have committed. If not caught by the iron from which they are cut are laid in trenches peasants, whose duty it is to take them and deliver side by side, and a whole row of them cnt at once; them to the authorities, they are obliged to surin this case there is no turning round of the metal render themselves before winter, as it would be to be cut, the motion which produces the wedge- impossible to continue their vagrant practices like shape of the nails being effected by a modifica during that inclement season. These wanderers tion of the machinery. So rapidly do some of these often occasion serious annoyance to travellers. machines do their work, that several thousands of During my residence in Selenginsk I once met nails are produced in a single minute. The fruits of with an adventure which had well-nigh proved their labours lie around, packed in bags of about very serious. It was a fine summer's evening in fifty pounds each. From twenty to thirty tons of July, 1823. I with my family had gone to reside iron are thus cut up weekly in this factory, pro- for a short time in the country, between twenty ducing probably not less than fifteen hundred mil. and thirty miles from Selenginsk, in the midst of lions of nails in a year. When we remember that a tribe of the Boriats, a Budhist priest having nearly five hundred tons of iron are cut up into kindly offered us the use of his house for that nails every week in Birmingham, and that each ton, purpose. I had had occasion to return home, and taking one sort with another, is calculated to pro- after transacting my business, had, accompanied by duce a million of nails, by far the major portion of a man servant, just crossed over to the eastern them being very small, we may form some idea of bank of the river Selenga, on my way back to my the cut nail trade, and may well wonder what be- family, when the sun sunk behind the opposite comes of its tremendous product.
My travelling cart was taken out of the ferry barge, the horses reyoked, and we hastened to take our departure, ring about
twenty-five miles to travel that night. For two EXILES IN SIBERIA.
or three miles our road lay along a plain, till we SIBERIA is the Russian Botany Bay. It is the arrived at the foot of a steep mountain, over which place to which offenders of every class and grade we had to make our way. A little before we are banished, exiled, transported. Every month reached it, however, we were accosted by a Russian numbers are despatched from Moscow, and a soldier at a distance; but, as we had no time to regular military convoy establishment is main. spare, I paid little attention to what he was saying. tained throughout the empire, for the purpose of He nevertheless quickened his pace, following us, conducting them to the heart, and even extremities, and entreating us to stop. “Well, brother," said of Siberia. Besides Russians, the writer of this I, in the veritable Russian mode, "what is it
you paper, who resided as a missionary many years in want? for we have no time to spare."
Oh, sir," Eastern Siberia, ha met with Poles, Germans, he replied, “I advise you not to proceed on your Swedes, Frenchmen, Fins, Tartars, and many Jews, journey. Just now two runaway convicts-and who were sent thither for various offences; but he you know they are desperadoes--came up to me and never met with a banished Englishman, and never my companion: they have knives hanging by their heard of more than one, and his crime had been side as long as your arm ; but knowing that we forgery.
poor soldiers have nothing to lose, they took our The aim and policy of the Russian government bread from us and left us. Look! they are now in transportation seem to be that of peopling going up the hill
, and you cannot avoid falling in Siberia ; and therefore, whatever may be the crime with them.” I accordingly directed my eye tofor which they are exiled—and there is little room wards the mountain, and saw two ill-looking felfor doubting that many are sent for very trivial lows ascending it; and when they had arrived at its offences-none are allowed to return. Thus, as summit they halted. The ascent being very steep, there is nothing of a restorative character in the my horses would only be able to drag up the carriage system, the effect on the criminals is often too at a very slow pace. The road on both sides was obvious, viz. desperation,—total indifference to skirted with the trees of the forest, through what may befal them. They are divided into two which our path lay; so that it would be impossible to deviate from the straight line, should danger | unable to proceed home-on.y two or three miles make it desirable. I was therefore shut up to the further! alternative of braving the dangers connected with For the rest, we set off without our breakfast passing them, or remaining where I was, and as soon as it was light-the soldiers accompanying causing my wife, who was fully expecting me, us to the top of the mountains-and, after obtainin a lone house without a male attendant, an anx. ing some refreshment by the way, arrived at our ious and perhaps a sleepless night. I offered to temporary home before mid-day, where we were reward the soldiers liberally if they would go with gladly and gratefully welcomed by my dear family. us till we should have safely passed them. This, however, they feared to do, justly apprehending that, as they were in the woods at work without CURE OF DISEASE BY ROYAL TOUCH. arms, the desperadoes would, after our departure, At a recent meeting of the Archäological Institute, Mr. be revenged on them for their officiousness. I had Edward Hussey, of Oxford, read a memoir on the cure of not a farthing or a copeyka* with me, or I would certain diseases by the Royal Touch, detailing many willingly have thrown them a purse as passage popular belief in the virtue attributed to the sovereign, of
curious particulars regarding the ceremonies observed, the money. I felt assured that it would be difficult, England to as recent a period as the last century, and the or impossible, to convince them of this, and the notions which had prevailed in reference to the origin of refusal to give them money would subject me to this superstitious practice. It had been supposed to have ill treatment-perhaps death. Quietly to submit commenced in the times of Edward the Confessor, and is to my circumstances, therefore, seemed to be my about eighty years after his reign; some French writers,
first alluded to by William of Malmesbury, who wrote only safe course. By this, a considerable time had however, have songht to trace the gift of healing virtue to elapsed, and it was already growing dark. I.there. Clovis, as conferred upon the first Christian sovereign of fore took a little dry bread-my only edible--and France, with the holy chrism, and preserved by his succes. water, and wrapping myself in my travelling sors, asserting that the kings of England exercised it only cloak, lay down on the ground in the open field by some collateral right. It appears to have been a custom not to sleep-but to wait the return of day. My
to bestow upon the sick person a piece of gold or silver, as
a substantial token of the exercise of this healing power. horses were unyoked and let loose to graze with a This gift was, in the time of Edward 1, a small sum of " three-leg” on-i. e. a thong which confines
probably as alms; but in later times, a gold coin three legs to prevent their wandering far from us. was given, and perforated for suspension to the neck. My companion, either more accustomed to such Henry vir gave the angel noble, the smallest gold coin in scenes, or more careless of the result, seemed to circulation; and the angel was the piece distributed at the sleep soundly. But my mind was occupied with Charles I had not always gold to bestow, and he somemany anxious and painful thoughts respecting my times substituted silver, or even brass. After the Restorafamily, and what their situation would shortly tion the applicants for the healing were so numerous, that be, should these lawless adventurers be permitted small medals were struck for the special purpose of such to take my life. Often in a half-dozing, feverish distribution. „Mr. Hussey produced several of these touchdream, did I think I heard their approach ; but it had two, both of silver ; as had also the Cardinal of York, was the rustling of my horses, grazing around us, as Henry ix. The last sovereign of England who exer or some other noise which I was glad to recognise. cised the power was Queen Anne; and amongst the latest Although we were four strong, and they only two, occasions was that when Dr. Johnson, in his early childstill it appeared a marvellous thing that they did hood, was brought from Lichfield to be touched with 200
others. A singular anecdote is recorded of George I, who, not visit us during the night, as they were fully soon after his accession, was applied to by a gentleman in prepared for a conflict, whereas we were unarmed. behalf of his son. The king referred him to the Pretender, Nor was apprehension groundless, as was attested as possessing the hereditary gift of the Stuarts. The by many cruel and atrocious murders committed result was this, that the son was touched and recovered, by these runaways at different times. I could at- and the father became a devoted partisan of the exiled tribute our safety to Him alone “who keepeth posed virtue were extraordinary; Queen Elizabeth, it is
family. The numbers who craved the benefit of this supIsrael, and neither slumbereth nor sleepeth.” After stated healed three or four hundred persons yearly. a very long night, the returning dawn found us Charles II, is recorded to have touched not less than preserved unhurt, and my mind, I trust, filled | 90,798 applicants, according to the registers which were with adoring gratitude for another instance of de constantly kept. James 11 on one occasion healed 350 liverance from imminent danger.
persons. Mr. Hussey stated some remarkable facts re
garding the universal belief in this healing power, not How little do we know whither we should some merely by the poor or ignorant, but by the highest in the times hasten, if permitted to have our own way. state, by physicians, scholars, and divities, as recently even It was so in this instance. Owing to the great as the fast century. The gift was claimed by the kings of rapidity of the Selenga, the ferry across its stream France as well as our own sovereigns, and the ceremonial, was always a tedious affair. That evening it ap- Lovis. A great number of persons were healed by Henri
long observed, appears to have been established by St. peared in a peculiar manner such. Late as it was, Quatre, and the inherent virtue was undiminished in Louis 1 was impatient to hasten our transit. But had | XIV and Louis xv. The ceremony of the touch was even We been ten minutes earlier, we should in all pro- prescribed in the authorized ceremonial for the coronation bability have fallen in with the robbers; for the of Charles x. Mr. Hawkins, in returning thanks to Mr. soldiers, who became the means of our preserva- identical touch-piece which had been hung round the neck
Hussey for this curious dissertation, observed that the tion, had been working in the wood, and had not of Dr. Johnson by Queen Anne, was, as he had reason to emerged from it more than ten minutes before we believe, now in the British Museum. It was formerly in came up with them in the plain. And they would the Duke of Devonshire's cabinet of medals. not have taken up their night's lodging there, but that their horse had been knocked up,” and was
CHRISTIAN graces are like perfumes--the more they are pressed the sweeter they smell; like stars, they shine
brightest in the dark; like trees, the more they are shaken A Russian coin, worth about 1-10th of a penny. the deeper root they take and the more fruit they bear.
LATE HOURS.—The porter of the late Lord Jersey The affection of Aurelius Marcus, a Roman soldier, for came to some one and complained he could not stay with his wife, is evinced by a stone in the Norman keep, at the Jerseys, because my lady was the very latest woman Newcastle, which commemorates “his most holy wife, wh in London." “Well, but what then? All women of lived thirty-three years without a stain."-Another sorfashion are late; you can sleep afterwards.” “Ah, no, rowing warrior perpetuates the name of “his incomparable sir, that's not all, for my lord is the earliest gentleman in wife, with whom he lived twenty-seven years without London, and, between the two, I get no sleep at all.” I having had a single squabble!" mentioned the circumstance of a man from the country visiting his friend in town, and both sleeping in the same
The “Athenæum," in an article on the Zoological Garbed, without ever meeting for a fortnight. - Memoirs of dens, Regent's-park, says: “The death of the Uran Utan Thomas Moore.
seems to have conveyed a warning as to the manner of
treating the higher forms of monkeys. A pair of Chim. TIMELY ARRIVAL.-The Marquis of Lansdowne called one morning on the Countess of Cork, and found the house pansees, male and female, have here appropriated to them
an apartment consistent with their near approach to huin a state of great bustle and excitement. Come in,” | manity. This room is furnished with two chairs, two beds, said she, “ Lord Lansdowne, come in! I am so glad you and a tree; and, if we may judge from the appearance of are arrived at this moment. Only think! the gray parrot these animals now as compared with what it was when has just laid an egg."-Ibid.
they first arrived, we should say that their treatment Sir Edward Codrington, when a young officer at Toulon, agrees with them. These creatures, which excite little less was so anxious to distinguish himself
, that he passed the than disgust by their apparent caricature of humanity, greater part of the twenty-four hours on deck, watching are interesting on account of the contrast of their habits for signals to give intelligence of the movement of the to those of the lower forms of the same family, and of the French vessels, and when he did retire to his cabin, he approximation of their structure to the form of man." sank into a dead sleep, from which the loudest noise could not awake him; but if the word "signal" was but whis.
In America there are 350, and in England only 10 pered in his cabin, he started up directly.
daily papers. According to the "Stamford Mercury,' a journeyman In 1821, the tobacco consumed in Great Britain and carpenter, of Peterboro', las invented a novel instrument, Ireland averaged eleven ounces per head. Last year it which, in size and shape, resembles a large pair of kitchen was sixteen. is blowing the fire, this instrument plays with astonishing don and North Western Railway by the rains will cost bellows, but is double the thickness. Whilst the performer
A report has gone abroad that the damage to the Lonprecision three popular airs. The music, it is said, resembles that of a concertina, and the tone is exceedingly near a million of money. mellow.
There is more work done in England every day by the The district court of Breslan, in Silesia, will soon be power of machinery than all the men and women on the called upon to decide on the validity of a marriage contracted between two Germans at Gretna Green. A similar do without it.
face of the earth-reckoning them at 800 millions—could case occurred some years past in another provincial court, which declared the marriage null and void.
By a return just issued, it appears that last year 39 The Darya-i-noor diamond, said to be a far purer gem millions of letters passed through the Post Office, being an than the celebrated Koh-i-noor, was sold at Calcutta on the increase of 19 millions as compared with 1851. 29th of November for 69001. It formerly belonged to the father of the present prime minister at Hyderabad, who
A journalist is a grumbler, a censurer, a giver of advice, obtained it from the Mahratta princes for 13,000l.; and it
a regent of sovereigns, a tutor of nations. Four hostile subsequently came into the possession of the late Mahara
papers are more to be feared than a linndred thousand jah Runjeet Singh.
bayonets.--Napoleon Bonaparte. As many as nine Chancellors of the Excheqner are A writer in a morning paper states that in the year alive:-Lord Henry Petty, (now Marquis of Lansdowne, 1851, 500,0001. was paid in this country for foreign poultry and the senior chancellor of the nine,) Mr. Frederick Ro- and potatoes, 1,000,0001. for foreign live stock, and to binson, (now Earl of Ripon,) Mr. Herries, Mr. Goulbourn, France alone, for wheat and flour, 2,132,1791. Mr: -Spring Rice, (now Lord Monteagle,) Sir Francis Baring, Sir Charles Wood, Mr. Disraeli, and Mr. Glad Heinsberg, near Aix-la-Chapelle, fell to the ground last
The picturesque ruins of Charlemagne's old castle of stone.
week, after an existence of 1000 years. GOLD IN ENGLAND.---Active operations are being taken to work the gossan at the mines of Lord Poltimore, near A company has been advertised for constructing an At. North Molton, Devon. A steam engine is about to be lantic and Pacific junction canal through the Isthmus of erected. About 100 tons of auriferous gossan from the Darien, at a cost of 15,000,0001. sterling. Poltimore mine have been taken to Liverpool, where it is to be reduced in bulk, at the works of Messrs. Rawlins and
Within three months between 300 and 400 wrecks Watson, who have already tried a small sample, in which have occurred on the coasts of the United Kingdom, and the existence of gold was perfectly clear.
nearly 250 persons have lost their lives. Was Noal TIE FOUNDER OF THE CHINESE EM
EXTRAORDINARY MARINE CONVULSION.-Information PIRE?—We have no accurate record that the Chinese
was recently received at Lloyd's, of an extraordinary Empire was founded by Noah. The Chinese, however, in marino convulsion experienced by the “Maries" on her their traditions, have a clear account of the flood, and their early records state that the empire was founded by one
passage from Liverpool to Caldera. On the morning of
the 13th of October, the ship being twelve miles from the who escaped from the deluge in an ark. Recent discove equator, a rumbling noise appeared to issue from the ocean, ries at Nineveh may yet throw light upon this subject, and which gradually increased till the uproar became deafenwhen we gain access to China, and to the records of the ing: the sea rose in mountainons waves; the wind blow. country, the truth may be evolved.---Lectures on Scripture ing from all quarters, the control over the ship was lost, History.
and she pitched and rose frightfully, all on board expecting A Boy of EIGHTY AND HIS FATHER.—There is now each moment to be their last. This continued fifteen living at Tolleshunt Major, Essex, a labourer, Joseph minutes ; the water then gradnally subsided, when several Bateman, who has reached the age of 102 years. His wife vessels in sight at the commencement of the convulsion has been dead many years, but he has a son living eighty were found to have disappeared. Shortly afterwards a years old, and the veteran is often solaced by " the boy quantity of wreck and a part of a screw steamer were calling upon him for a little chat.
passed, so that some vessels and lives were lost.
THE OLD HOUSE AT DUNKENFIELD. am only a working man, and have lived all my life
in Dunkenfield. I was born in the parish, brought DUSKENFIELD is a smallish place for houses, but up in it, went to service in it, got married in it, the parish lies pretty wide, and there are some have brought up a family in it, and expect to die stiffish farms in it. I am not a farmer myself; I in it. I have no wish to the contrary, I am sure ;
No. 64, 1853.
for our churchyard is a wonderful pretty place, walking, except that people did say the captain and it seems sometimes--though that's all non- couldn't rest in bed quiet, a-thinking of the bloodsense to be sure—but it does seem as if I couldn't shed he had witnessed, and in which he had had a rest my dead bones so quiet-like anywhere else. share in his day. But I reckon that wasn't it. I
Dunkenfield is not a very grand place, any way; fancy he was a little bit crazed, and no wonder, for nor a very bustling place. It lays in a flat sort of after he was dead a dreadful mark of an old swordcountry, and away from any turnpike roads; so cut was found on his head. The sword must have that we don't see much of the world and its goings gone right through his skull the doctor said, and on. Every one to his taste. I like it all the
better it seemed a wonder that he could have lived after it. for that; but my cousin Thomas, who lives in a A terrible profane old man the captain was, and great town a good many miles off, wonders how I a very great miser. He grudged every little excan bear it.
pense, as if he was going to be ruined outright by The people of Dunkenfield are, most of them, it ; and it was little good he ever did to Dunkenworking people. Setting aside the clergyman and field. And yet he was monstrous rich, and had his lady, we are all pretty much given to wearing no kith nor kin that he cared for. But it is not smock frocks and nailed boots--the men part of us, always such that do most good in the world. that is; and the women part don't, in general, Well, there was neither sorrow nor joy when old wear silk gowns and veils and kid gloves, nor yet Captain Milbrook died. But the people at Duncarry parasols. We are none the worse for that, kenfield began to look out, and wonder who would and none the better, perhaps ; for I reckon there's live at the old house next. There was a great often as much pride under fustian and plain cotton bustle in Dunkenfield only a few weeks after. Sostuff as under broadcloth and silk. I expect that lomon tells us that " there's a time to break down, human nature is pretty much the same all the and a time to build up; a time to cast away stones, world over, and whether a man's rich or poor. and a time to gather stones together.” And it
There are a few stout old farm-houses in Dun- seemed as if the time for gathering stones tokenfield; but setting aside them and the parsonage, gether, and building them up, was come; for great all the rest of the houses except one are cottages alterations began to be made in the old house for poor people; and poor places enough they which, for twenty years or more, according to what are, some of them. But there is one house, as I was said, hadn't had so much as a new brick or said, that is reckoned a grand sort of place; and tile upon it, though badly enough it wanted both. 'tis about that house that my story is to be. At any rate, the new people were not so fearful of
Not so much about the house, either, as about spending money as old Captain Milbrook had been. them that I have known to live in it. Not but It took some time to get the house in order, but what the house itself would be worth telling of, if it was done at last. Then came wagon-loads of people knew its history. A strange, thick-walled, furniture all the way from London, with servants rambling old place it is, with oaken floors and to put it in place and take care of it. Soon afterstairs, and carved work all about the walls and wards, one fine summer's evening, a carriage, ceilings. Pleasant grounds there are round it, too. heavily laden with luggage, passed through DunWhen I was a boy, I remember the garden-a part kenfield, and set down its passengers at the old of it, at least—was full of yew trees, cut in queer house. The new family was come. shapes to look like men and women and peacocks, Mr. Milbrook--that was the name of the new and other matters of that sort. But they were gentleman, and he was the nearest of kin to the grubbed up long ago, and the garden is like other old captain, I fancy-wasn't known by any one at gardens now.
Dunkenfield; for he had been on no very good But the old house, as I was saying, has been in- terms with the old captain, and hadn't been near habited by more families than one since I first the place in the captain's lifetime. He was a knew it. The first that I remember anything middle-aged gentleman, very stern and distant in about was an old gentleman and his housekeeper, his ways, and had always lived in London till the and a gardener. That was all the family, and the property came to him. People wondered what he house belonged to the gentleman himself. Cap- could see in the old house at Dunkenfield to make tain Milbrook was his name. A strange old gen- it his home, especially as he wasn't known by any tleman he was too. He had lived a longish time of the gentry round about. But he did come ; and in foreign parts, it is likely, and had got ways as he employed a good many people, and lived in about him that kept him pretty much at a distance good style - very different from the old captainfrom all the people round about. As to us village and spent his money pretty freely, the village boys, it was a word and a blow with him, if ever people were glad of his coming. I was a biggish any of us offended him; and the blow came first, boy then, and I got into work at the old house as the word afterwards. You may be sure that we gardener's boy, and kept the place some years, always got out of his way whenever we saw him. so the change in the families at the old house did We did not often see him though, nor did anybody me good. else besides his two servants. He didn't get out Mr. Milbrook was a studious sort of man, and in the daytime much; it was only at night that he wasn't often seen about the place; but his lady was pretty sure to be abroad. As soon as dark set was a busy and good kind of woman, and got soon in, the captain used to put on an old cloak that to be liked by the poor people of Dunkenfield. reached down to his heels—a soldiery sort of cloak She was a sort of doctoring lady, and was fond, I it was--and start off on his rambles. If the night fancy, of making up drinks and pills and plasters, was wet or stormy, so much the better for him; Any way, she was always ready to give advice and nothing could keep him in-doors at such times. medicines to them that thought they wanted them ; Nobody knew why he had such a fancy for night, and it was said that her physic sometimes did as