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this fever which, in the performance of your sacred conveyed in their clothes the leaven of the pestiduties, is before you.” And so our strange friend, lence. The brewer's only son took the disease thus again lifting his hat to the bewildered curate, went (in spite of all the treble X his father made him un, switching his boot and chafing very much drink), from boys whose parents or families had within himself.

the fever. After many weeks of great danger he It turned out as the doctor had feared; a ter- was at length spared to his much-loving parent, rible attack of fever fell upon the village, seeking who, under his affliction, had actually, at the advice out especially all the closest and dirtiest parts of of the young doctor, given up strong ale and taken it. The poor Irishman never came out of his deli- to “weak brandy and water. The worthy, easy,

the fever of his last intoxication slid into old curate ceased to be “perpetual;" for, after that of the typhus, and out of that he plunged, in apparently recovering from the fever, and expressa few days, into a pauper's grave. The affectionate ing his deep regret that he had been too fearful of wife had scarcely pressed down the eyelids of the the prejudices of the ratepayers to urge the necescorpse with the last two farthings she had in her sary sanitary' measures, he died. Worthy old pocket, when she fell on the floor stricken by the man ! to his persuasions chiefly it is we owe the same plague, and her two daughters soon also were little health-house made out of the barn, which stretched on the only beds that remained unoecu- has already been so useful in our village. I think pied in the tramp's lodging-house. Now the over- there ought to be a health-house in every parish in seers found how economical it would have been for the empire. them to have followed the young doctor's advice about the barn; for what with rent of rooms, The intelligent writer of this paper is deeply anxious attendance, wine, and food badly and expensively carried out by all towns and villages. He is convinced, too,

that the provisions of the Public Health Act should be prepared, this one family cost them more than it that it would be a work of true philanthropy for some publiewould have done to have fitted up the barn and spirited individuals to form a society, which should communikept it as a fever-house for some months. The above important Act of Parliament by diffusing information result, however, it may be mentioned in passing, respecting it. We cordially commend the suggestion to the has been, that the barn has been devoted to the

attention of our readers.-ED. purposes of a health-house for the village, and henceforth any contagious or infectious disease occurring among strangers, and those who cannot provide medical and other necessaries, will be taken

BIRMINGHAM AND HER MANU. to the beds there established. The poor Irish

FACTURES. widow, after some time lingering, at length recovered, and she is to be the matron of this humble Our next visit is to Constitution-hill, to the establishment. The two fine young women died. establishment of Messrs. Jennens and Bettridge, The authorities-even the purple-faced gentleman whose productions in papier maché have done so brewer and the perpetually easy curate--became much towards familiarizing the public with the very soon alarmed at the rapid spread of the fever beauties of art in union with manufactures. The in the village, and would fain have now carried oft first application of the material of paper to the all the dung-heaps and drained the brown-stout construction of solid articles is due, we believe, to a pools. But heavy rains set in, and then a dreary Frenchman; but even the French themselves snowy winter, and the fever spread with such allow that they are far surpassed by the English fearful rapidity that nothing was done just then. in the quality of the goods now produced. There There was soon scarcely a house in the village in are three several modes of preparing the material. which there was not a death; and Bobby Feason The first, which is profitably applicable only to comthe idiot lad remarked, on Christmas day, when mon purposes, consists in reducing paper to a state three funerals were going down the village street, of pulp, and then compressing it into moulds; the that it was "just as thrang as at harvest time.” result however is not very satisfactory, the articles

Ay, Bobby," said the doctor-who was follow. produced being far from durable, owing to their ing one of the troops of mourners and overheard brittleness and liability to fracture. The second his words——"even in this world, as we sow so must process reduces the paper to a perfect paste, which, we reap; we sowed dirt and we are reaping death." mixed with other substances, is modelled into

“ Bad farming, doctor!" said Bobby, with a half- various forms, such as picture frames, pedestals, idiotic grin.

brackets, cornices, heads of columns, and other It was a very surprising thing, to the medical architectural devices, for which purposes it has men of the neighbouring towns, that the epidemic been largely used for decorating public buildings should rage so much in so high, dry, and airy a ' and private residences: when used, however, for village as ours; and that this severe attack should articles requiring plain polished surfaces, it shows occur during the cold weather was thought still a tendency to settle in small hollows, a defect more remarkable. But the cause, as the young which no other quality can compensate. The doctor said, was clear enough. The severe winter third process, which is that followed by the Messrs. caused the cottagers to close up all their rooms, ' Jennens and Bettridge, we shall endeavour to the front door especially; the "neighbourly describe as we 'saw it in operation at their estahabits of the people led them to be continually blishment. The first step is to paste a certain going from use to house to inquire after the number of sheets of a thick, soft, and grey kind of sufferers, and the consequence was, that each machine-made paper, one upon another, over a visitor came into rooms which the exhalations from mould hollowed into the exact form of the article the sick thoroughly pervaded, and that, even when to be produced. When by successive layers of they did not themselves take the malady, they paper the article is thus formed, it is carried to an oven heated by flues, where it remains until it is so 'a demand for the services of first-rate artists, to thoroughly dried and hardened as to resemble bring this branch of the manufacture to the highwood of a very fine grain, like which it may be est perfection. In the same room we observed the readily cut, carved, and dressed with edge-tools as process of gilding upon glass and polished surfaces; easily as if it were the rose-wood or mahogany of it is managed as follows: the surface upon which the cabinet-maker. The advantage of this elabor- a design has to be drawn in gold first entirely ate mode of preparing the body of the article over covered over with gold leaf; upon this the artist that of merely pressing moist pulp into a mould paints his design, perhaps a leafy wreath, or an is too apparent to need pointing out-the surface arabesque or scroll ornament, with a camel-hair produced being capable of working to a perfect pencil dipped in a brownish varnish; the varnish level and susceptible of the finest and most perma- dries in a few minutes, and then that portion of nent polish. The article when released from the the gold not covered by the varnish is wiped off oven is planed, cut, and filed to a rough shape, after with a piece of soft cotton wadding. Nothing is which it is immersed in a hardening spirituous now visible but the design painted in brown-tinted mixture and again exposed for twelve hours to a varnish ; the varnish however is rapidly wiped off great heat, which renders it so perfectly solid and by a soft wad dipped in spirits of turpentine, and crisp under the tool of the workman that it might, the design remains in all its brilliancy. The mamuif necessary, be carved or engraved in relief like the facture of papier maché goods has made rapid finest box-wood. The material in this state is strides during the last twenty years. When it worked up to its perfect form, after which it is first arose in Birmingham, it was confined to the japanned, brought to a surface unimpeachably production of tea-trays, waiters, and similar articles, smooth, varnished, and, if required, finally gilded or demanding little expense or ingenuity in their conpainted.

struction. The excellence and durability, however, The above process may be considered as that of these trifling objects proved the value of the which articles that are but slightly ornamented, material, and doubtless afforded a stimulus to the and which constitute perhaps the staple of the vast improvements which have since taken place. manufacture, have to undergo. But the stranger Among the most important of these may be reckwho visits this establishment cannot fail to be oned the ornamental panels for purposes of destruck with the gorgeous and truly regal display coration, which have latterly risen so much in of richly elaborated structures, embracing every demand, and with which the cabins of many of the purpose of utility and luxury, which in crowded largest steamers have been fitted up. and dazzling, profusion adorn the show-rooms. Here the light and plastic paper is seen to as- We are now going to spend a little time, with some every variety of form suggested by the the permission of the proprietors, in taking a rapid imagination of the artist, while at the same time glance at the gold and jewellery works of the it is shown to be susceptible of every species of Messrs. Goode and Bolland, in St. Paul's-square. ornamentation that can be applied to manufacture. The term “ jewellery" is generally understood to Easy reclining-chairs, drawing-room chairs in comprise all the various ornaments fabricated from every variety of graceful pattern, sofa-tables, gems, precious stones, and precious metals, either sereens, work-tables, work-boxes, portfolios, ink- to be worn upon the person or enshrined in casstands, infants' cots, elegant vases--these are but kets ; thus brooches, chains, cameos, pins, rings, a few of the various forms into which paper is seals, bracelets, necklaces, tiaras, and even penimpressed, and in all of which its pre-eminence holders and pencil cases--

s--all, in one sense, are jewOFET any other material is evident, from the fact of ellery ; but the fact is, that the manufacture of its lightness, its durability, and its utter incapability these several articles, and a great many more of fracture by fair usage. A vast number of these might be added, are separate and distinct trades, articles are profusely ornamented by designs inlaid though it is not unusual to see several of them in pearl and imitative gems, interwoven beneath combined in one establishment. Thus, in that of the lucid surface with threads and veins of gold. Messrs. G. and B., although the staple of the The processes by which these rich and glittering manufacture would appear to consist in ornamental amarents are imbedded in the hard and impene- neck-chains, watch-guards, etc., in all their beautitrable surfaces were invented by the Messrs. J. ful variety, yet numbers of brilliant articles, com. and B., and are secured to them by patent. The bined of gold and gems, are continually in course most valuable characteristic, however, of this of formation. Biriningham has of late years manufacture appears to us to be the opportunity retrieved the character she once lost in reference it affords for combining the labours of the artist to this branch of her trade, and the greater portion with those of the mechanic. The surface of the of the jewellery disposed of in this country comes prepared paper is admirably adapted for painting from her workshops. It has been calculated that in oils, far more so indeed than either the canvass the consumption of fine gold in Birmingham, for or the panel of the artist, and consequently we find chains alone, amounts to no less than a thousand the flat surfaces of many of the different objects ounces weekly; and that more of the precious adorned with copies from the works of celebrated metals are consumed in her manufactures than in painters, or with small original pictures by the any other town in the kingdom, not excepting the artists engaged. In a room in this establishment metropolis itself. We found a number of young men thus occupied On being conducted to the workshops in which at the easel, engaged in copying pictures upon the the various departments of this manufacture are surfaces of different articles of a useful description. carried on, we cannot help being struck with the It is plain that nothing is wanted but an improved quantity of gold which everywhere meets the eye. taste on the part of the public, which would create All hands are at work upon it in quantities greater or less. It lies in flat sheets upon benches ; it is ting and polishing gems and precious stones by piled in little heaps before the work people, of means of wheels revolving horizontally. The whom there are hundreds busily employed; it is motive power for these various purposes, including flying in dust from the edges of grinding-wheels ; as well the different branches of manufacture as and if we are trampling it under foot as we walk, the construction of the machinery used, which is that is no proof that it will be lost, seeing that the all made on the premises, is supplied by a steam floors are paved with sheet iron in order that all engine of fifty-horse power. When any piece of stray fragments may be gathered again by sweep work is finished it passes under strict examination ing. The first operation which we are called to by a competent judge, and any defects or marks of witness is the drawing of the gold wire, which is negligence have to be made good before it is conreduced to the required gauge by a process with signed to the market. The work to be done is which we have made the reader already acquainted. weighed out to the different operatives, and weighed By the next step in the manufacture—we will again when finished, and thus the opportunity suppose of a lady's neck-chain-the wire is cut and with it the temptation to dishonesty is into lengths to form the several links; it is avoided. then bent into the form it will occupy in the This establishment, which has grown up by definished chain, or perhaps it is impressed with grees to its present great extent, employs above some minute device by the action of the die, or it four hundred hands. They are located at present is rendered flat or circular, convex or concave, or in old buildings, but ill adapted for the accommodelled into some eccentric or fanciful form. All modation of such numerous assembly ; but roomy these several transformations it is made to undergo and substantial buildings are in course of erection, by means of the universal hand-press, fitted with and in a few months, it may be before these the appropiate punches and minute armatures, and columns go to press, the operatives of Messrs. under the control of young females. The links Goode and Bolland will be as comfortably housed thus formed at the presses—we do not undertake as any artisans in the kingdom. No expense has to say that they are all made from sections of been spared in the new erections, and ingenious and wire-are now made over to a different set of costly contrivances have been adopted to secure operatives, who have a more difficult business to pure air, and plenty of it, in all parts of the edifice. manage: it is their duty to join them together into chains. Let us watch a young girl occupied at this minute and rather tardy proceeding. She, like a score of others, is seated in front of a jet of THE PATRIARCH OF MODERN SCIENCE. gas, by the side of which is a little pile of the links It is a common saying that woes and troubles which she has to connect together to form the seldom occur singly or at distant intervals. Calachain; she is supplied with a small blow-pipe, a mities generally come in clusters. There are few vessel containing solder, and a kind of long bodkin among the sons of men who have not, at some used to apply the solder to the metal. The half. period or other, personally verified the truth and formed chain upon which she is at work is in her given fresh sanction and currency to this mournful left hand : taking up one of the links, she fits it proverb. And what is true in this respect of ininto its proper position on the chain by forcing the dividuals may be almost equally predicated of last link which was added at that end between its whole peoples. National disasters and bereave. two closed extremities; then to these extremities ments will sometimes multiply as swiftly and desoshe applies, by means of the tool which we have latingly as the chastisements of Job, or as the called a bodkin, a very minute and scarcely percep- plagues of Egypt. A people's sorrows, at certain tible portion of the solder; she now lays the end of eras in their history, fall thick and heavy as the the chain upon a little charcoal bed beneath the showers of the tropics. As other ages and times jet of gas, and by means of the blow-pipe applied have had their great losses and general griefs, so to her mouth directs a small stream of blue flame have we also recently had ours. During the past upon the soldered link until the gold is thoroughly eighteen months or two years the great reaper has red-hot, when the solder melts and unites the two gathered unusually rich spoils from the high places ends. The red-hot metal of course requires some of nations. Seldom has it happened that, in so minute or so to cool, but this occasions no loss of brief a period so many illustrious men have simul. time, as the girl, the instant the solder is melted, taneously passed away from the scenes of their withdraws the chain from the fire, and commences life-long labours, leaving a vacuum which it will operations at the other end, and as two or three not be easy soon to fill. Star after stur, belonging minutes are consumed in fastening on each link, to that galaxy of excellence and talent which shed she is in no danger of burning her fingers. We its lustre upon the dawn and meridian of the nineare not accustomed to imagine that the making of teenth century, has gone out in rapid and startling these chains begins in the middle ; such however succession. We have lost Peel and Webster among appears to be the fact.

our senators ; Neander, Stuart, Pye Smith, ChalMany of these chains are rich with figured pat- mers, and Bickersteth among our divines and terns and extremely beautiful; some have facets preachers; Wordsworth and Moore among the ground on the links, and here is a young man poets ; Soult and Wellington among the warrior sof seated in front of a revolving wheel grinding or the age; Macgillivray and Kirby among our natucutting the facets, not on the edge but on the side ralists; Stephenson among the world's mechaniof the wheel, and collecting the dust ground off in cians; and Turner among its artists. These are a tray beneath. Others are polishing and burnish- but a few names culled from the melancholy roll of ing the finished work by the aid of revolving disks losses recently sustained by science, statesmanship, or by hand labour; and others again are cut- : literature, and religion. The dynasty of genius, by which the intellectual world has been to a great responding to the greetings of the passers-by with extent ruled for the last forty years is fast chang. kindness and without pride ; in a simple dress, ing. The influential representatives and chief frequently holding a pamphlet in his hand, resting surviving ornaments of the modern Augustan age on his back ;-0 he wanders frequently through are rapidly disappearing. A few patriarchs of the the streets of Berlin and Potsdam, alone and unosrace alone remain among us, whose scant silvery tentatiously—a noble picture of a blade of wheat hairs and increasing infirmities admonish us that bending beneath the weight of its numerous rich the time of their departure cannot be long post- golden ears. Wherever he appears, he is received poned. Among these is the venerable Humboldt, with tokens of universal esteem : the passers-by who is still labouring at his favourite pursuits, timidly step aside for fear of disturbing him in his and continues from time to time to bestow his thoughts ; even the working man looks respectfully scientific benefactions upon the world.

after him, and says to his neighbour, "There goes Humboldt is one of those men who belong to no Humboldt.'" one land or people. He is the common property Here, as in a counterpart to our own Newton, of all mankind. Although he has been for more we see another remarkable example of the grace of than a quarter of a century the companion of kings greatness and the modesty of merit. It is from and princes, a frequent inmate of palaces, and takes these qualities of the man—and would that we may precedence among the élite in all departments of hope of the Christian--thus tempering the attriknowledge; yet his works, so wealthy in their butes of the scholar, that we can learn to love as revelations and so eloquent and fascinating in their well as to admire and revere their possessor. But style, will give him access to the homes of the it is an inquiry of no little interest as to how such inquiring and intelligent everywhere. Few lives pre-eminence of character and position as is now have been distinguished by such herculean labours, enjoyed by Humboldt was attained; how, stone by or have been so rich and fruitful in their results. stone, he has built up, by unwearied diligence, aided His discoveries have marked a brilliant era in the by exalted genius, the fabric of his honourable annals of science; they have excited the ardour fame. Eighty years constitute a long period in a and enlisted the energies of a host of fellow- single life, and it surely cannot be otherwise than 'workers, and have given an impetus to the spirit instructive to take a rapid retrospect of the inciof investigation, the present and remote influence dents and transactions of such a life as that of this of which it is impossible to calculate. He has patriarch of science. In doing so, the biography been well called the second discoverer of America, before us will aid us materially. for it was he who first rescued from obscurity and Alexander von Humboldt, who belongs to a opened to science those domains of the new world wealthy and aristocratic family, first saw the light of which the mere space had been conquered by on the 14th of September, 1769. His father, Gama and Columbus. He is unquestionably at Major von Humboldt, had been for many years the present time the greatest living scholar, chamberlain to Frederic the Great. When not emwiting in himself the varied attainments of an ployed in the duties of this high office, he dwelt at entire academy. All men of distinction respect the castle of Tegel, which had originally been a him alike for his learning, his intellectual greatness, hunting-seat of the great elector. Besides the and his manifold virtues.

hero of our sketch, another son, named William, In a biographical sketch of this renowned natu. had two years previously been born to him. The ralist which has recently appeared from the pen of boyhood of these two sons, who throughout their Professor Klencke,* we are informed that he now entire lives were knit together by the warmest lives wherever his patron and friend, the king of fraternal affection, was passed in this castle, which Prussia, may happen to be abiding. The philoso- then, grey and antiquated in its appearance, nearly pher has become a necessary adjunct to the royal surrounded by a dark pine grove, and the subject household. There are apartments for him in of a mysterious legend, must have made durable Berlin, Potsdam, and in all the royal palaces, and impressions on their youthful imaginations. It not a day passes that he does not see the king. must not, however, be understood that the inmates We are farther told by his biographer, that, in were doomed to loneliness and isolation ; for, spite of the pressure of more than eighty years during the life of the old major, the castle had upon bis brow and frame, he works unweariedly in always been famed for its hospitality, where the those hours not occupied by the court. He is presence of princes, scholars, statesmen, and public active and punctual in bis immense correspondence, functionaries was at all times encouraged. and answers every letter of the humblest scholar The first training of the brothers Humboldt with the most amiable affability. The picture of took place under the eye of their parents. The his personal appearance and bearing as he moves tutor selected was Campe, a man who in later arnidst his fellow-citizens, and the description of times enjoyed the reputation of being the greatest the veneration and homage which his presence philologist and critic of German style next to aniversally inspires, are thus sketched :-"The Klopstock. On Campe relinquishing this appointinhabitants of Berlin and Potsdam all know him ment, the major's next choice fell on Christian personally, and show him as much honour as they Kunth, a youth only twenty years of age, but show the king. With a slow but firm step, a whose talents and tact excited great expectations, thoughtful head, rather bent forward, whose fea- which his subsequent career fully realized. The tures are benevolent with a dignified expression of young tutor found his pupils of the respective ages noble calmness, either looking down or politely of eight and ten years, and he succeeded in further

developing and directing their mental powers. He • Alexander von Humboldt : « Biographical Monument. threw himself, it appears, heartily into the work of By Professor Kleneke. Translated by Juliette Bauer. Fram and Co., Strand. 1852.

tuition, and established between himself and his

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pupils a far more close and endearing relation than had chosen. In the spring of 1791 he became a the cold official one usually subsisting between the student in the mining academy of Freiburg, where teacher and the taught.

he devoted his zealous attention to the sciences of A difference in the intellectual tendencies and mining and metallurgy. In the following year be tastes of the boy-students soon revealed itself. received an appointment as superintendent of mines Though both rooted in the same foundation, they in the newly acquired Franconian district, with a carly discovered a disposition to pursue different commission to remodel the mining operations branches of acquirement. The illness of their father carried on there. This position he filled till 1795, led to the cultivation of an intimacy, followed by when he voluntarily resigned it; not, however, important results, with Dr. Heim, who became medi- before he had published numerous valuable works cal attendant to the major, and who continued to of a practical character, which spread his repatabe a frequent visitor in the family after his death, tion as a clever naturalist. All this time, his mind which event took place in 1779. This eminent was secretly cherishing and elaborating the plan physician imparted to the youths a knowledge of of a great voyage of discovery, which, after many botany, and explained to them the twenty-four disappointments, he was destined to see, to a concourses of the Linnean system. It would appear, siderable extent, realised. from an expression used by Heim at this period, The next four years witnessed several unsuccessthat Alexander, then eleven years of age, was of a ful attempts to fulfil the ambitious wish of his far less intelligent nature than his brother; the heart. Successive exploring schemes in Italy, former experienced much more difficulty in com- Upper Egypt, Asia, and the coast of Africa, were prehending and retaining his lessons than the vexationsly frustrated, after the most laborious fatter. Much of this inaptitude may perhaps be preparations had been made for them; sometimes ascribed to his constitutional delicacy and frequent by family afflictions, but mainly through the unindisposition, which painfully excited the appre settled and perilous state of the lands and seas he hensions of his mother, and which he did not would have had to traverse. At the commenceovergrow for many years. Many of his friends, ment of 1799, however, circumstances being however, attributed this physical weakness to the more propitious, our adventurer, accompanied by premature activity of his mind, stimulated, perhaps Bonpland, actually started on that important unconsciously, by a desire to equal his rival in scientific pilgrimage which detained him five years knowledge and general attainments.

from Europe, and supplied him with that opulence In the year 1783-about three years before the of materials out of which most of his invaluable death of Frederic the Great—the brothers, accom- works have since been constructed. He proceeded, panied by their preceptor, were sent to Berlin, in in the first instance, to Madrid, where, through order to avail themselves of the superior advan- the intervention of the Saxon ambassador, he was tages and appliances which the capital afforded in favourably introduced to the Spanish minister Ur; the prosecution of their education. Numerous first- quijo, by whom in turn Humboldt was presented rate teachers were now engaged to carry forward at court, which gave him the opportunity of extheir special studies. After spending about three plaining to the king his scientific plans. Struck years in Berlin, they together entered upon their by the representations of their probable practical academical life at the university of Frankfurt on utility, the descendant of Ferdinand gave his royal the Oder. Here William devoted himself to the permission to the travellers to visit and explore all study of the law, and Alexander to political econo. the Spanish possessions in America, and issued my, with a view to their preparation for public life. instructions for their protection and assistance. In 1788, they removed to the celebrated university From Madrid they went to Corunna, in quest of a of Göttingen, where they were brought into mental vessel to bear them on their watery way. Here contact and communion with some of the greatest they found a ship, the“

Pizarro,” prepared to sail to scholars of the age; for here, besides other men of Mexico and Havannah, but which had been for mark, lived and taught Blumenbach, the famous some time detained by the blockade of an English natural historian; Heyne, the reviver and teacher fleet. The travellers, however, went on board, in of archæological science; and Eichhorn, the his. order to be in readiness to avail themselves of any torian. Their intercourse with these distinguished favourable opportunity of evading the blockading professors exercised a great influence on the future forces. Such a chance before long occurred, in studies and achievements of Alexander especially. consequence of a violent storm, which compelled the

The university career of the younger Humboldt foreign frigates to quit the coast and make for the having terminated

towards the close of 1789, just open sea. During their temporary absence, the as the French revolution was stirring all Europe Pizarro” slipped from its moorings, sacceeded in to its centre, we find him separating himself for eluding the vigilance of the English cruisers, and the first time from his brother, and in obedience to in the evening, favoured by a fresh breeze, reached the noble impulses of his mind, making his first the open sea. Great was Humboldt's joy as the scientific journey to the Rhine, through Holland, European coast gradually faded from his view, and and thence to England. This experimental trip his face was at length set towards the gorgeous became the subject of his earliest literary produc- realms of that new world, for a sight of which his tion. Magnificent projects of travel and extensive soul had been yearning for so many years. research into the secrets of nature were already To the penetrating eye and well-stored mind of being fashioned in his imagination ; to equip and Humboldt, the voyage to which he had just comfurnish himself for which, he devoted himself more mitted himself was full of fascination and instrucclosely than ever to study, and undertook occasional tion. Nature revealed its marvels to him at every tours of inspection with the view of serving a sort step. The sky, the air, the water, exposed their of practical apprenticeship to the grand vocation he treasures and secrets to his initiated gaze. Much

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