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large steel, military-looking buckle, which from the combined into the forms of the articles desired stoop in the head was very conspicuous. He wore afterwards coating the edges with solid silver. In also a gold apparatus for the improvement of the the electro process, on the contrary, the article, hearing, which, taken in connection with the buckle whatever it may be, is finished to the required of his stock, gave to his upper man a very metallic shape, with all its ornaments, however profuse, and tone, as though he were in some sort an artificial when complete in form, is silvered or gilt by the man, made up of and supported by a combination scientific application of electricity. of metals. We followed him at a respectful dis. The art of electrotyping owes its origin to the tance, as he walked to his cab, which, with his accidental discovery of certain natural phenomena. servant in it, awaited his arrival. He got in with. It was found by an experimenter, who, in making oat assistance, and was driven away."
trial of Daniell's constant battery, had used as one of the liquids a solution of sulphate of copper, that
the electric current decomposed the sulphate, and BIRMINGHAM AND HER MANU.
that the copper was deposited in a thin metallic FACTURES.
film upon the inner surface of the vessel. This VII.-ELECTROTYPE PROCESSES.
discovery naturally made a considerable noise at We are now standing in the splendid. galleries the time, and thoughtful heads soon set to work which constitute the show-rooms of the Messrs. to turn it to a useful and therefore profitable Elkington and Mason, in Newhall-street. They purpose. It was found that the copper deposit are of ample extent, and furnished with such a brought away a perfect impression of the surface to brilliant array of beautiful and gorgeous pro- which it was attached, and that it could be made ductions as renders any attempt at description of by very simple means to attach itself to anything. necessity a failure. The surpassing merit of some This led to the multiplication of copper plates, of their designs is already familiar to the visitors and a consequent reduction in the price of copperof the Great Exhibition, who will remember the plate engravings, as any number could be struek large vase representing the triumph of Science and off from electrotyped plates, and the expense of Industry, and which is appropriately adorned with re-engraving, when one plate was worn out, was the statuettes of Newton, Watt, Shakspeare, and thus saved. It led also to a new style of engravBacon. This unique production is now before us; ing, known as Palmer's process, by which raised and around us on all sides are numberless speci- copper plates could be used, instead of wood-enmens of everything that can be wrought in silver gravings, in the common printing-press. It has and gold, from the rich épergnes and costly table- been applied to various other mechanical and services of the aristocracy, down to a plain salt- artistic purposes, among others to the copying of spoon or knife-rest, and all so acourately and exqui- Daguerreotype pictures ; but in no other branch sitely finished by the electrotype process as to be of arts or manufacture has it been so extensively utterly undistinguishable from the workmanship of available as in the fabrication of plated goods, an the silversmith and jeweller. In addition to works art which, as far as execution is concerned, it has of this description, there are also massive bronze exalted to the level of that of the silversmith and statues and groups of figures, the details of which jeweller. Let us now take a brief survey of the it may be seen, on close inspection, are made out various operations going on in the workshops of with the greatest exactness, although there is no this establishment. trace of the tool of the sculptor. Many of these The great majority of the articles here manuare grand in design ; some are reproductions of factured are first fashioned from plates of the pure the works of the Greek sculptors-others of white metal known as German silver, rolled in the modern masters. Not the least interesting to us mill to the required thinness. Many of them, conare a numerous collection of articles in bronze, sisting of vessels for domestic use, such as tea and combining artistic talent with domestic usefulness, coffee-pots, are partly formed by hand labour, the such as inkstands disguised as fruit, rustic figures part which forms the vessel being cut from a flat and animals, which may serve the double purpose plate of metal, which is soldered together at the of paper-weights and chimney-ornaments, charm- sides. The metal having been softened by anneal. ing little busts of celebrated men, etc. etc. Again, ing in a furnace, the article is handed over to a we have the whole stock of the jeweller's shop so workman, who, with a hammer of hard wood or far as it is worn on the person-ladies' neck-chains, horn, forcibly beats and bangs it into the proper gentlemen's watch-guards, brequet chains, brace- shape ; by means of continued thumping he can lets, brooches, necklaces--everything, in short, with impart considerable rotundity to a plain cylinder, which the goldsmith in Cheapside allures the taste the malleable metal taking any shape, though not or assails the vanity of the weaker, and, for the very readily, that he may choose to give to it. It matter of that, of the stronger sex too. All these is in this manner that the graceful forms of tea. beautiful things around us are manufactured-so pots are modelled in great variety, from the swelfar, that is, as relates to all we can see of them, ling cone-shaped pyramids to the Hatly-compressed which is but their outer surfaces—by the agency globes. Nothing more than the bare trunk of a of electricity. We must endeavour, as we walk vessel, however, can be thus formed. The spout, through the factory, to render the process intel the handle, the ornaments, the bottom, the cover, ligible.
etc., have all to be struck in dies, the expense of The reader is doubtless aware that the mode of which, where such a variety of exquisite patterns manufacturing plated goods, as practised at Shef- are wrought, must make prodigious demands upon field and elsewhere, is by spreading plates of silver capital. Dies too, some of them of astonishing upon one or both sides of plates of copper or brass, size, are necessary in the formation of the various and then moulding or working the plates thus pieces of a dinner-service, such as plates, turgens, salvers, etc. They are cut by a slow and laborious | less than sixty-four of which, each of some three process, in heavy masses of steel, hardened to such feet in length, are so arranged as to present their a temper as to stand without injury the most poles within a short distance of a wheel spinning violent usage. The manner of using them is as round at the rate of six hundred revolutions in a follows: the die from which an impression is to minute. The force of the electric current is in be taken is firmly fastened by means of four lateral some sort indicated to the spectator by the rapid screws to the centre of a solid bed, above which succession of vari-coloured sparks passing conrises an engine not unlike the guillotine in shape tinually from the armature of the engine to the and construction; it consists of two iron pillars, twisted strand of conducting wires, one end of grooved down the centres of each, between which which is immersed in the silvering trough or vat, a heavy weight is made to slide up and down with which occupies the centre of the room. The force nnerring precision. The metal to receive the of this machine is said to be sufficient to deposit impression is placed upon the die; the descending fifty ounces of silver in an hour ; the silver is supweight, being armed with a piece of soft lead, is plied by plates of the metal sunk at the bottom of then raised by the action of the foot upon a stirrup, the trough. As a substitute for the ordinary galand suffered to fall, with a force depending upon vanic battery, the power of which requires to be the height to which it was raised, upon the sur. continually renewed, this machine has been found face of the die. If the die be very shallow, and entirely successful, it having continued for many the metal to be impressed very thin and pliable, months in operation without any material variation one or two blows are sufficient for the purpose. in power. We observe, however, that the process We have now before us a handsome wreath of of silvering by the galvanic battery is going on in foliage, the impression of which is perfect, which the same room in smaller vats. When the articles we saw struck upon brass extremely thin, at one to be silvered are brought into this room, all that blow. But if the metal be of the average thick- has to be done is to suspend them, so that they ness of the articles manufactured, the blow must shall hang clear of the bottom and not touch each be repeated many times ; and if the die be deeply other, in one or other of the numerous vats where, cut the weight must be armed with a correspond- under electric agency, the deposition of silver is ing punch formed to fit the hollow of the die. going on. They have to remain there a certain Further, any attempt to force the plate into a deep length of time, proportioned to the thickness of die at one blow would fracture the metal and the silver covering required : they may be either render it useless. Much management is required coated with a thin film or solidly encased in a suit in this process, which must be wrought gradually: of silver armour. One great advantage of this the first two or three blows are comparatively process is, that articles to be silvered may be first light, and for them the weight is armed with a engraved, the deposition of silver going on with punch or "force" of soft lead; as the metal sinks such unvarying thickness in every part, that the deeper into the die, the "force" is changed for one finest lines of the engraving tool, and even the of harder material, until the last and finishing characteristic marks of the engraver, are exactly strokes are given with the full power of the engine reproduced upon the silver surface. Any attempt and with a punch or "force” of iron. This is not to silver a surface finely engraved by any other all; the repeated heavy blows harden the metal to means would infallibly deface or choke up the such a degree that it is no longer malleable, and work of the artist. The operation of gilding is to obviate this it has to be annealed, it may be, performed in precisely the same manner-though several times during the process of stamping. The we witnessed a sort of legerdemain feat in this Messrs. Elkington have a large apparatus worked department of the works, the operator gilding the by steam for stamping articles of a great size. bowl of a spoon in less than two seconds by simply
Supposing the several parts of an ornamental immersing it in a brown-coloured liquid. article to be modelled and stamped, they have now On emerging from the silvering vats, the articles to be soldered together. By means of jets of gas, are washed and dried, and conveyed to the polishand blow-pipes inflated by the steam-engine, a ing-rooms, to be polished and burnished. The kind of solder much harder than that in general polishing is performed in various ways. Flat surnse, and not readily fusible, is here employed. By faces are hammered upon a glossy anvil by a heavy this means the spouts, handles, hinges, etc. of the hammer, and finally polished by rubbing with the different articles are firmly united, the hollows palm of the hand. Hollowed surfaces are subjected beneath the raised surfaces of the ornamental por- to the action of felt or leather rubbers, revolving tions being filled up with fused metal. The rapidly in a kind of lathe. The parts to be burarticles, now complete in form, are next taken to nished are rubbed to a dazzling lustre by burnishing the polishing-room, where, by rotten-stone
applied tools of polished steel.
After this, such fittings, by brushes rapidly revolving at the ends of small as handles of crystal or ivory, as may be wanted spindles, they are brought to a surface perfectly are added, and a final colouring by the application smooth. Such of them as require to be engraved of plate-powder qualifies them for the show-room are now made over to the engravers, whom we see, or the market. with the usual implements, transferring elegant We must add one word explanatory of the patterns to their surfaces. We may now consider manufacture of bronze figures by electrotype. To the articles ready for the plating-room.
produce such a figure a model must first be The first thing that claims attention on entering formed ; from this à mould is taken, the interior the plating-room is the stupendous magnetic-elec- of which is rendered, by a slight coating of blacktro machine, which, in the form of a huge wheel, lead, or other means, susceptible of the deposit ; it stands close to the entrance. This is a contrivance is then put into a vat containing a solution of copfor producing electricity
by the aid of magnets, no per, and the deposition commences. The solidity of the figure will of course depend upon the time in first removing the oxide from the iron to be it remains in the vat; and supposing it to remain coated, then covering it with a medium metal, a sufficient time, with an adequate supply of the which has a great affinity for the iron, and aftersulphate of copper, it may become a solid mass, as wards dipping the iron so prepared into molten effectually as if filled with metal at the foundry. copper, which, by the galvanic action of the medium
metal, makes the copper intimately combine with
the iron, and form a complete coating. The oxide FUN-LOVING ANIMALS.
is removed from iron by means of dilute sulphuric An interesting work on the “ Passions of Animals” | acid, in which the castings or sheets are rubbed nas the following concerning their fun-loving pro- with sand; after this they are washed and dipped pensities
into a solution of the muriate of ammonia, dissolved Small birds chase each other about in play ; but in a suitable vessel, when they are ready for the perhaps the conduct of the crane and the trumpeter next process. This consists in dipping the sheets is the most extraordinary. The latter stands on or plates into molten zinc, immediately after they one leg, hops about in the most eccentric manner, are lifted out of the sal-ammoniac solution. The and throws somersaults. The Americans call it the surface of the molten zinc should be covered with mad bird on account of these singularities. The dry sal-ammoniac, to prevent the evaporation of crane expands its wings, runs round in circles, the metal. The iron is soon covered with a coatleaps, and throwing little stones and pieces of wood ing of zinc, and forms what is termed galvanized in the air, endeavours to catch them again, and iron. At hand the operator has a crucible or pot, pretends to avoid them, as if afraid. Water-birds, containing melted copper, covered with some insuch as ducks and geese, dive after each other and combustible substance, as a wiper, and he at once cleave the surface of the water, with outstretched dips the zinced iron into this, in which it is kept neck and flapping wings, throwing an abundant until it ceases to hiss, when it is taken out, and spray around." Deer often engage in a sham battle, found to be covered with a complete and durable or a trial of strength, by twisting their horns toge- coating of copper. By dipping the iron thus cop. ther and pushing for the mastery. All animals pered into the solution of sal-ammoniac, then into that pretend violence in their play stop short of the zinc, and the copper-repeating the processexercising it: the dog takes the greatest pre coat upon coat of the copper will be obtained, until caution not to injure by his bite; and the ourang- it acquires any degree of thickness. outang, in wrestling with his keeper, pretends to throw him and makes feint of biting him. Some animals carry out in their play the semblance of
STOP AND THINK! catching their prey; young cats, for instance, leap STOP, thou thoughtless, reckless man, after every small and moving object, even to the Trifling out life's little span, leaves strewn by the autumn wind; they crouch God and heaven of you demand, and steal forward, ready for the spring, the body
Stop and think! quivering, and the tail vibrating with emotion. Heaven above, and hell below, They bound on the moving leaf, and again spring
Pleasure, pain, and joy, and woe, forward to another. Benger saw young jaguars
Repeat the words in accents slow,
Stop and think! and cougars playing with round substances, like
Life's no time for idle dreams, kittens. Young lambs collect together on little
Life was lent for loftier aims, hillocks and eminences in their pastures, racing Lend your mind to nobler themes, and sporting with each other in the most inter
Stop and think! esting manner. Birds of the pie kind are the Life calls for thought of sternest hne, analogues of monkeys, full of mischief, play, and mi- Calls for thought and calls to you, micry. There is a story told of a tame magpie that
To your soul's best good be true;
Stop and think! was seen busily engaged in a garden gathering
Live not on without an aim, pebbles, and with much solemnity and studied air
Living thus you live in vainburying them in a hole about eighteen inches deep,
Do not thus God's love disdain ; made to receive a post. After dropping each stone,
Stop and think! it cried “currack" triumphantly, and set out for Think how short life's fleeting day, another. On examining the spot, a poor toad was Think, O think, while now you may, found in this hole, which the magpie was stoning
Death soon will hurry you away; for his amusement.
Stop and think!
Think what Christ has done for you,
Lo! your Saviour calls anew, been granted to Theodore G. Bucklin, of Troy,
Stop and think! New York, for a new and improved mode of coat- Else when life has pass'd away, ing iron with copper, which promises to be an And you have wasted its brief day, invention of no small importance to the arts. A Nought but this your grief will stay, method of covering iron with brass, copper, etc.,
You would not think! has long been known ; but to cover it, and make Or when time with you is o'er, the copper unite with the iron, like tinned iron, And you have reach'd that distant shore
Whence mortal shall return no more, has hitherto been considered problematical. The
Thought will be in vain! invention of Mr. Bucklin promises to fulfil every
But if now you think aright, condition desired in making coppered iron. Cast,
Soon you'll reach those realms of light, malleable, and wrought iron can be coated with
Clouded ne'er by death or night, copper by the new process. The process consists
Where thought is joy.
THE POOR MAN'S SATURDAY NIGHT by Robert Burns ? And who that has lived IN LONDON.
for long years “in smoky city pent” has not Who has not read, and read again, that exquisite humble though he be, has compensations in his domestic poem, the “Cotter's Saturday Night,” lowly lot which his fellow-toiler, who is doomed to No. 61, 1853.
pass his days in the populous and struggling hives fare leading from the Blackfriars-road to the of the world's industry, shall in vain attempt to Westminster-bridge-road, and which is known by realize? That family reunion which the plough- the name of the New-cut, and its continuation, man-poet has depicted with so much natural force the Lambeth-marsh, as far as where the Marsh and beauty--the joyful gathering of the children gate once stood. on the eve of the sabbath, when, released from This locality, always the focus and centre of a weekly service, each filial heart hastens to the very peculiar description of commerce, is seen in home fire-side,“ perhaps to show a bra' new its greatest glory on a fine Saturday night. It is gown,” or, with equal pleasure, to bring the then the especial resort of working men and their
wives and families, who, in crowds, bend their * Sair-won penny fee, To help her parents dear, if they in hardship be"
steps thither as to a mart where everything can be
purchased which they can possibly require, and the pleasant meeting of brothers and sisters, and the where anything is to be had for almost any amount innocent chat upon all that they have seen and done of money they can afford to give for it. The since they parted last—the artless Jenny and her southern side of the New-cut is, moreover, the modest true love, who lingers without the cottage, El Dorado of the bargain-hunter, and furnishes him “ till she with kindly welcome brings him ben"-the not merely with the necessaries but the luxuries of good old cautious mother, who can see well enough life, as well as with an almost infinite variety of “ what makes the youth sae bashfu' an' sae grave, things which are neither the one nor the other, at being well pleased to see it nevertheless—the mirth the lowest imaginable price. Before we commence of the younkers, and the grave rejoinders of the our Saturday evening stroll, we must briefly desfather, who " seasons all with admonition due” – cribe one or two of the distinguishing features of the cheerful supper of porridge, and then the circle the district, for the benefit of those among our of serious faces round the ingle, listening in solemn numerous readers who have never had the opporsilence while the aged sire turns over “ the big ha' tunity of visiting one of the not least remarkable Bible, ance his father's pride,” and, unbonneting spectacles of this busy metropolis. his gray hairs, reads reverently,
Entering the New-cut from the Blackfriars
road, and keeping on the left-hand side, we first “How Abram was the friend of God on high; Or Moses bade eternal warfare wage
pass some common-place looking private dwellings With Amalek's ungracious progeny;"
and ordinary shops, and then come to a series of
shops of a rather singular class and pretension. or, perhaps, if the Christian volume is the theme, Unlike the shopkeepers in the first-class business
thoroughfares of London, who delight in needless “ How he who in lone Patmos banished,
displays of plate-glass and burnished brass, the Saw in the sun a mighty angel stand, And heard great Bab'lon's doom pronounced by Heaven's proprietors of these places tear away the whole command"
window-front and abolish it altogether. The entire
frontage of every house is open from the first-floor the psalm from simple voices, and the simple peti- to the ground, the wall of the mansion being suption, when, kneeling down," the saint, the father, ported by iron pillars. A good proportion of the and the husband prays," that thus, in the sight of dealers are furniture-brokers, who pile their wares God, the family may be finally reunited in heaven, in heterogeneous confusion, and push, in fine wea-these are seenes to which, so far as our observa- ther, a good portion of them into the street. These tion goes, there are but few parallels to be found wares are not warranted to last longer than the in the experiences of the poor of crowded cities on national debt, and if we say they are as good as Saturday nights.
can be manufactured for the money that will be It was from the prevalence of such simple and taken for them, we give them their full meed of touching piety beneath her humblest roofs, that praise and something over. But, besides the furBurns prophesied for his country the continuanee niture shops, there are others of a very characterof a "virtuous populace," who might “ stand a istic description, which have been in existence wall of fire around their much-loved isle.” Amorg some of them for a quarter of a century, and have his countrymen, in his day at least, the Saturday conferred upon the New-cut the reputation it ennight was, what it ever ought to be, a season of joys as the depository of everything which has a rest and tranquil enjoyment in preparation for a name or a use, or which may want both, and yet sabbath dedicated exclusively to the services of be in a condition to figure as a bargain. religion. Things are very different indeed in our These omnium-gatherum shops will repay the day and on our side of the border. How different, spectator the trouble of a momentary scrutiny. the reader will have an opportunity of judging Upon a series of benches, or little platforms rising when he has perused to the end of this paper. We one above another, are thrown a strange compound purpose, not for the sake of comparing notes, for of multitudinous wares in a medley of most adthere is nothing comparable to be found in the two mired confusion and disorder. It would be pictures, but for the sake of gleaning something hardly possible to fix upon a single portable comfrom the contrast, to take a stroll among the modity of which a specimen may not from time haunts of the poor and labouring classes when to time be found among these wares, inasmuch as Saturday night releases them from the toil of the everything that can be purchased elsewhere, as well week, and lets them loose in the streets of London, as a vast quantity of articles which no one else with money in their kets and freedom from would think of exhibiting for sale, are occasionally labour at least till Monday morning.
to be found here, from a grand pianoforte afflicted We cannot select a better locality for our visit with bronchitis to a cartwheel, whose felloe ha than the long, populous, and trafficking thorough- foundered upon the road, or “from a flat-iron to: