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and silenced, some banished, some ex- whole of this reign, the forms and communicated, some imprisoned, and ceremonies, which Elizabeth had that upwards of 700 refused to sub- designedly introduced to favour the scribe?
Catholics, were not only retained, but And now the bishops elected under more stringently than ever imposed on Charles were all for Catholicism; they the clergy. All the edicts of that day not only admitted the Church of were not merely designed to hunt Rome to be a true Church, but the down the Puritans, such as the ConPope to be the first bishop of Christ- venticle Act, and the Test Act; but by endom; they were so Catholicised the removal of all processes against as to plead for confession to a priest, Catholics, by the liberty granted to sacerdotal absolution, the real pre- them of resorting to mass both in city sence, images in churches; whilst they and country, it is evident sympathy declared the doctrine of transubstan. with Rome was most intense. Bishop tiation to be simply a school nicety of Burnet says :—"Those who expression, manifestly holding at heart secretly Papists, and disguised their the doctrine itself.
religion as the king did, animated I need scarcely go into the further the chief men of the Church to carry history of the intervening time. I the points of Uniformity as high simply venture the assertion, that as possible, that there might be many the Catholic Revivalists of that time Nonconformists and great occasion for went as far as the Catholic Revivalists a toleration, under which Popery might of ours, and had matters much their
creep in.” The consequence own way.
After the restoration of simply this, that if there were founCharles II. the second Act of Uni- dations for Catholic Revivalists in the formity was passed, requiring all Prayer-book of Edward VI. and of clergy to give their unfeigned assent Queen Elizabeth, there was equal and consent to all and everything foundation, at the least, in the later contained in and by the Book of Stuart Prayer-book ! Common Prayer.” Recent reviews It may be pleaded that since then and pamphlets have told the story of the spirit of Protestantism has rethis era; suffice it to say that the vived in the English Church, that Catholics gained greater advantages, since the glorious Revolution and the and that the prayer to sanctify the mild reign of William and Mary, water used in baptism was added ; matters have all tended the other way, whilst the penalties imposed were all that the instincts of the national feeldesigned to exclude anti-Catholics, ing have all had a strong Protestant 2,000 of whom left all for Christ. bias. I admit all this. It seems unWhat need we any further evidence of just and monstrous that Catholicism the spirit of the times than Charles' should, after the intervening centuries, confession to his brother, the Duke re-erect itself on the ruins of the past. of York, Lord Arundel, and others, All our deepest and most sacred feelthat he wished to have their advice ings rise in antagonism to such a reabout the ways and methods to be vivalism. But when we come to the taken for the settling the Catholic calm study of historical fact and prereligion in his kingdom. During the
During the cedert, whether it be on questions of
ritual or doctrine, we should be pur- the more we are honestly convinced blind not to see that the Catholic that the Statute book of the realm, Revivalists, as against others in the the Book of Common Prayer itself, English Church, have not only that and the historical story of Chúrch little sentence about
" such orna
parties, afford ample evidence that ments as were in use in the first the Catholic Revivalists make no Prayer-book of Edward VI.,” through vain appeal, while they call all these which little aperture men think they into court in favour of their
present are trying to drag back Rome, ibut position, as - explanátory of their they have statutes and enactments avowed purpose, and as the germ of many in their favour!.. Much as all their power: Such is a calm we may hate the Jesuitism of these estimate of the relation which the manæuvres, and the desperate harm Catholic Revival sustains to the Estathey are doing, it is difficult to deny blishment itself. In our next article the fact, that the closer and deeper we shall hope to look as in direct our study of the Prayer-book, and the relation to Rome. contemporary events connected with it,
THE ABYSSINIAN CAPTIVES, MR. LOWE recently remarked that it The present boundaries of the was very rare to find any one able country are Nubia. N. and W., the to tell what the colonies of Australia: Red Sea on the E., and to the S. the are, unless they had either been there country of the Gallas, and other unor had some relations there. He had known countries stretching to the also amused himself with trying to Indian Ocean. Its entire length from ascertain what people knew about N. to S. is about 670 miles, and its Abyssinia, and although we were going greatest breadth from E. to W. 540 to make an expedition to that country, miles. The shore of Abyssinia is a his experience was that it was as much flat, sandy, and almost bare prolongaas a man could do to find out where tion of the base of a natural sea wall, Abyssinia was on the map, let alone at the top of which lies the plateau, the finding out of a single town in it. or table land, which has gained the From the number of books, lectures, country its general reputation for and articles which have already been' fertility and fitness for agricultural published, or which are advertised as
purposes. This plateau in fact connearly ready, it appears that there is stitutes the country, for it is below it a great deal to be known about Abys- that the deadly malaria floats, which sinia, and we purpose putting into as preys. alike on native and strangerbrief a compass as possible, a descrip- a region consequently left to the tion of the country, its religious possession of wandering gipsy people. condition, and some of the more In the rainy season the rivers spread recent attempts which have been far and wide, and breaking away from made to evangelize it.
the level surface through rocky gorges, VOL. IV.-NEW SERIES.
form magnificent waterfalls at the many of the doctrines of the Church head of ravines, descending several of Rome, and observes several of the thousand feet in a few miles. Abys- rites and ceremonies of Judaism. sinia has peaks or mountains, some of For instance, among the doctrines is them upwards of 14,000 feet in height; the impeccability of the Virgin, and these are crowned with perpetual snow, among the rites is that of circumcision. while their sides are adorned with the The Jewish Sabbath is observed as richest vegetation. The country
country well as the Lord's day;
the Lord's day; the churches, yields barley, wheat, rice, cotton, both externally and within, have a coffee, &c.; and in some of the lower Jewish character ; every church has plains vegetation is so vigorous that its ark, and it is frequently carried two and sometimes three harvests before the army with great display. are reaped in one year. The domes- Notwithstanding its pretensions to tic animals are horses, asses, mules, the possession of Christianity, Abyscattle, sheep, and goats. The croco- sinia has been for generations a land dile is found in many of the rivers, of war and anarchy, of cruelty and and the hyena, buffalo, antelope, licentiousness. It was this fact which giraffe, rhinoceros, zebra, and the wild induced the Church Missionary Society, animals of Africa generally, are very
about 1830, to attempt its evangelizaThe inhabitants of the tion. Dr. Gobat, the present Bishop country consist of six or seven races, of Jerusalem, was one of the first staff and they trade in coarse pottery, of missionaries in Abyssinia. Uncotton cloth, and agricultural and war- happily, however, through the intrigues like implements. Such is the country
Such is the country of certain Romish emissaries, English through which our troops are now missionaries were expelled in 1898, proceeding to the release of some three- and the Roman Catholics succeeded score European captives.
in establishing a mission of their own. Abyssinia claims, but without good The English missionaries, among foundation, to have been governed by them Dr. Krapf, retreated to Shoa, the Queen of Sheba, and dates its but were again compelled to flee to conversion to Christianity from the another place, in consequence of the baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch. The intrigues of a French Jesuit. Soon religions which prevailed in Abyssinia after the accession of King Theodore, prior to the introduction of Christianity Dr. Krapf went a third time to Abyswere Judaism and Paganism ; since sinia to establish a mission there. the fourth century the religions of He took with him Mr. Flad, a German the country seem to have been lay missionary, and several årtizansJudaism and a corrupted Christianity. blacksmiths, carpenters, and others, We are told that amongst the many as it was Bishop Gobat's belief that prophetic legends of the land there is indirectly much good might be accomone to the effect, that when a king plished by a mission of this kind. named Theodoros shall sit îpon the Theodore. was then flushed with conthrone of Abyssinia he shall subju- quest, having just ascended the gate all nations to his sway, and then throne. Christianity shall be the creed of the It was not until about 1850 that world. The Abyssinian Church holds we had heard much about this singular
man. His original name was Dedjatz “I am your brother and friend, and Kassai, and we are told that from his you have my full sanction to visit earliest youth he was impressed with every province in my kingdom." On the belief that he was destined to fill another occasion the King said, “ My a high position and to do wonderful people are bad ; they love rebellion things. Though of humble origin, and hate peace, delight in idleness, and known as the “ Kosso vendor's and are averse to industry; but if son," he was trained to arms in the God continues to me my life, I will camp of a chieftain uncle, and when eradicate what is bad and introduce that uncle and his sons were dead he all that is salutary and good." claimed his province, Kawar, and Thus encouraged, Mr. Stern and wrested it from a usurper. For years
Mr. Bronkhorst began to work among before he achieved this success he was the 250,000 Jews peopling Abyssinia. captain of a large band of freebooters. At first the Jews almost unitedly And once Governor of Kawar he went resolved to hold no communication from conquest to conquest till he had with them, but gradually curiosity trampled down all the independent was excited, sympathy was enlisted, chiefs of the country, and was crowned and everywhere an anxiety was awakemperor under the title of “Theodoros,
ened to hear the strangers. Some King of kings, of Ethiopia," being were led to exclaim as they heard the determined, by assuming the name, to story of our blessed Lord's sufferings, fulfil the native prophecy before Oh, how great is our guilt that we alluded to. The new King granted reject love so divine and despise blood Dr. Krapf an audience, and the latter so precious!” In another settleprofessed himself satisfied with the ment, near the capital, a large audihopes which his Majesty held out in ence spontaneously exclaimed, “You reference to the establishment of a tell us good words, and God hath mission.
evidently sent you to teach us the In 1859, "The London Society for right path." After traversing many Promoting Christianity amongst the districts and provinces, Mr. Stern said Jews" availed themselves of Theo the journey was one of uninterrupted dore's reported good will, and sent joy, because of the readiness of the out Rev. H. A. Stern and Mr. Bronk- people to possess and to hear the horst to organize a mission amongst Word of God. . “Frequently, hunthe Falashas, the descendants of the
dreds of Christians and Jews would first Hebrew settlers in Abyssinia. meet together near our tent, and with Mr. Stern says that Theodore received the Word of God in their hands, him with the greatest courtesy, asked canvass and investigate the truths we him about the various countries he had been preaching. Let the Falashas had visited, the character of the people, be brought around the Cross of the and the religions they professed. Redeemer, and you have a missionary On his craving permission to travel in tribe to move the stagnant waters of Abyssinia in case the Metropolitan unbelief and superstition in the Abysor Aboona (the sole bishop of the sinian Church." These words ocAbyssinian Church) countenanced the curred in Mr. Stern's speech at Exeter object, the King instantly replied, Hall in 1861, when he came back to
narrate some of the things which he to find, however, that he, the British had heard and seen in Abyssinia. consul, and all the missionary agents
During his visit to England three were summoned to Gondar to hear the great disasters befell Abyssinia ;- letter which Bardel had brought from, the murder of Mr. Consul Plowden, the Emperor of the French. After the fall, in a battle, of Mr. Bell, the this ceremony had been concluded, King's best counsellor, and the in- Mr. Stern bade adieu to the bishop trigues of a French Jesuit named and other friends and quitted the Bardel. In the place of Mr. Plowden, capital. On his way through the plain Captain Cameron was appointed con- of Waggera he came upon the King's sul. It is believed that Bardel çraftily tent glittering in the sun's rays. poisoned the ear of Theodore against Presently the King came into the the English Government and the open air, with a frown upon
his English missionaries. In 1862, the countenance. In less than ten minutes King, anxious to form alliances, de- Mr. Stern's two servants were killed, spatched Cameron and Bardel re- and in perplexity and fear he put his spectively, with autograph letters to hand mechanically to his lips, or, as Queen Victoria and the Emperor it was said, put his finger into his Napoleon. On his way, it is said, mouth. This was construed into a Captain Cameron was stopped by a crime, and he was immediately stripped rebel chief, and on the arrival of his and beaten. Wounded, bruised, and despatches at Massowah, they had to bleeding, his executioners dragged, or be sent to Europe by a circuitous rather carried him down the hill, route, so that they did not reach where his swollen wrist was fastened London until February, 1863. Bar- by a hoop and a chain to the arm of del, on the contrary, arrived at Paris a soldier. At daylight he was given with his despatches months before. into the charge of several chiefs. A
Mr. Stern returned to Abyssinia in few days afterwards, when he had been April, 1863, in company with Mr. taken to Gondar as a criminal, his and Mrs. Rosenthal. He found the luggage was inspected, but the search mission in a prosperous state ; Mr. ended in nothing. In going away, Bronkhorst and Mr. Flad had met however, he had mentioned to Bardel with ready access to the most repel- that he had papers and diaries which lent of the Falashas. In the month might compromise him; but Bardel of June, Captain Cameron arrived had told him not to be afraid, and a second time, and the King, who then left him in custody. It is stated had expected an answer to his letter, that Bardel knew too well how to use was greatly annoyed at receiving the information thus conveyed to him
Mr. Stern soon began to hear by Stern, who, it must be admitted, unfavourable reports about the mis- both in writing his book and his diary sionaries and their work. He did was forgetful of Solomon's wise caution not, however, anticipate any violence against cursing a king, even in or forcible detention, under the most thought. Mr. Stern says that the adverse circumstances. Having visited whole affair of the imprisonment turns the Falashas of various districts, he upon the “ Government letter ;" but returned to Geuda in September, only a little more prudence on his part