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they on their side refused to grant the same freedom to the Reformed party. In spite of the articles in the treaty, they continued to pour forth against the Evangelicals, and specially against Zwingle and the people of Zurich, torrents of invective and abusive libels, and even proceeded to acts of violence, so that the few families of Schwyz and Zug that were devoted to the Reformation were forced to leave these Cantons. War was now inevitable, and from the want of union, the divided counsels, and secret treachery that prevailed among the men of Zurich, Zwingle's mind was filled with the saddest apprehensions. Though ready personally to lay down his life for his convictions, he beheld with deepest anxiety the dangers that were thickening around the Church.

During the time that the diets were held at Bremgarten, he took advantage of the darkness of the night to repair to this place in order to discuss with the Bernese deputies the critical situation of the Reformed party. The interview took place in Bullinger's house, and the result is communicated to us by him. Before daybreak Zwingle and his friends left Bremgarten; Bullinger accompanied him part of the way home. At parting Zwingle took farewell of him, three times; boding that he would never see him more. God preserve thee, dear Henry,” were his last words; “ remain faithful to the Lord Jesus and His Church.”

All attempts at negotiation were fruitless; and the war for which the five Cantons had long been secretly arming now broke out, and open hostilities were declared against Zurich and Berne. The conduct of the Zurich government continued hesitating and irresolute, though messengers had been despatched from Cappel imploring their aid. There was a party in the council who left no species of machination untried to hinder resolute action, and

many precious hours were wasted before it was determined to send forward 2 detachment of 600 men and artillery. Lavater and Zwingle earnestly urged that a general levy of the people should be made in order to hasten, with as large a body of men as possible, to the rescue of their invaded country; but all their efforts were hampered by treachery within the council. Slowly, and in scanty numbers, the warriors dropped in, and hardly 700 men, instead of 4,000 as were expected, rallied around the great standard which was set up

in the Town-hall. Not till noon next day were they in a position to begin the march.”

Zwingle was appointed by the council field preacher; both friends and enemies urging his appointment, though for different reasons.

Nor did he hesitate for a moment to accept this post in the hour of danger. “I stand steadfastly prepared for the worst (he had said shortly before), for God is my ståy." Painfully bitter, however, was the farewell he took of his beloved wife and children, whom he had a presentiment he should never see more. He was followed to the field by his much-loved stepson, the young Gerold Myer, and also by his wife's brother, brother-in-law, and son-in-law. When Myconius saw the little troop marching from the town, and Zwingle amongst them, he was seized with such an agony of spirit that he could hardly stand. For a few moments Zwingle was seen leaving his comrades and marching by himself, and one of his friends who followed behind him heard him praying with great fervency, committing himself, soul and body, and especially the Church, to the

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Lord. When they were arrived at the top of the Albis, the captain of the sharp-shooters advised them to wait till their number was increased by further accessions. But Zwingle said, “ If we wait till the great body of our friends arrive, our help will come too late. I will in God's name go to the brave fellows, and either die with them or help them.”

Thus they again set forward, and arrived at Cappel at three in the afternoon. Here the fight had already lasted three hours, though only with cannon. The Zurich artillery, well served and posted, maintained a great superiority over that of the five places. For a time confusion spread in the ranks of the Roman Catholic army, which was spread out on a morass, and lay exposed to the enemy's cannon, so that, as Bullinger thinks, terms of peace would have been readily listened to then. But the saying of Zwingle in the town council had come true : “ When they attack us there will then be none to mediate.” Some brave men among the Zurichers wished to take advantage of the enemy's confusion, but their leader, who had a brother in the hostile army, and seemed to have his heart there also, refused to give his consent to this surprise which volunteers offered to execute. Shortly after the battle began in earnest; this treacherous and pusillanimous leader fled with rapidity along with the body under his command-traitors, shouting out, “Flee, flee, good men of Zurich; not one will be spared alive.” Thus scarcely a thousand men were exposed to eight times that number on the side of the enemy, and yet the battle hung some time in suspense, for the men of Zurich fought like lions, and with the enthusiasm of Christian heroes, willing to offer up their lives for their faith. But numbers overpowered them. Five hundred lay dead on the field of battle ere the remnant was compelled to abandon it.

Zwingle, the "faithful shepherd," as his biographer calls him, rested among his sheep. He had bent down, soon after the battle began, to comfort with the words of life a fallen countryman, when a stone struck him with such force that he was thrown on the ground. He had hardly raised himself again when a spear pierced him through the body. He was heard to exclaim as he fell, “What does it matter ? they may indeed kill the body, but they cannot kill the soul." These were his last words. When the fight was over he was found by a party of soldiers still alive, leaning against a tree where he had fallen, his hands clasped, and his eyes raised heavenward. confess ? shall we fetch a priest ? " they cry to him. Unable to speak, the dying man shook his head in token of a negative. 6. Then call on the Mother of God and the blessed saints in your heart,” they again shouted to him. A second time he shook his head, signifying his faith in what through life he had preached, that Christ is the alone mediator between God and man. 6 Die then, obstinate heretic,” cried an officer, one of the party, and gave him the fata! stab. The savage mercenaries carried their hatred against God’s witness to the truth even to his body. It was quartered by the hands of the common hangman, and then burned to ashes.

The hollow sound of the cannonading reached the ears of Zwingle's wife and family in their deserted home, and soon messengers came with the terrible intelligence that her husband, her noble son, Gerold, her brother, her son-in-law,

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and many other loved friends had fallen together on the field of battle. All in which her heart most delighted was taken away from her without one last parting word, or look of farewell, or of consolation. Her orphaned children raised a cry of bitter wailing and mourning, and desolation filled that so lately happy home. But the God of the widow and Father of the fatherless left them not without comfort. Friends, true and tender, were raised up for their help, and all that the tenderest sympathy could do was done to soothe the bitterness of their grief. There is extant a most touching letter sent her by a friend of her husband's, formerly a Carthusian monk, and who had joined the ranks of the Reformers. He addresses her as the honoured and virtuous lady, his beloved in the Lord, and says, “ The Father of all consolation cause His face to shine in joy upon you, for there is no one in all this wide world, whoever he may be, that can avail for comfort in a sorrow like yours but Himself alone. Oh, the mournful and lamentable day on which the dear husband, my dear friend Zwingle, with so many brave men, have fallen! But as the head Christ Jesus passed through death into life, so none of His members shall long remain behind Him. Oh, dear good lady, be faithful. Neither you nor we have lost Zwingle and those who fell with him. For he that believeth in Christ hath life eternal; and albeit you sorely miss your dear husband in the house, among the children, by your own side, in the pulpit, and in the midst of his friends, fear not and be not over sorrowful, but think that he is now in God's house, in the midst of all God's children, that he is learning from the mouth of the Divine Wisdom, and enjoying the converse of angels. Courage, my dear friend, for the Lord will not forsake His Church, though He may seem to tarry. She shall yet increase and be victorious. May the merciful and loving God watch over and comfort you and your children, and grant you strength in the Holy Ghost to be conquerors in Christ over all troubles. Remember me and mine in your prayers to God. Memmingen, 9th November, 1531."

Many years before, Anna Zwingle had withdrawn herself from all worldly pleasures and excitements, and found all her joy in her duties as a wife and mother and sister of mercy, but after the sad stroke that left her a second time a widow, she secluded herself still more, devoting herself to the care of the children of her son and daughter by her former marriage, who had been left fatherless along with her own. Her faithful God raised up for her a friend and helper indeed in her husband's noble friend and successor in the Church, Henry Bullinger, who cared with the love of a son for the widow and children of his departed father. He received them into his own house, and cherished them as the members of his own family. He also undertook charge of the education of the children, as if they had been his own.

The eldest son, William, survived his father only ten years, and died while a student of theology at Strasburg. Huldreich, the younger, he educated at the High School in Zurich, where he afterwards became deacon at the Minster, and finally theological professor. He also gave him in marriage his eldest daughter. Of Zwingle's two daughters, the younger, Anna, died in early life. The elder, Regula, distinguished for her beauty and her piety, and the striking resemblance she bore to her mother in appearance and character, married in 1541 his foster son, Rudolf Gualtha, who afterwards became his successor in the Church.

Anna survived her husband seven years. The few notices preserved of her during that period all testify of her devotedness to God and her loving service to her neighbour. She died after a few weeks' illness, gently and quietly as she had lived. Bullinger, after her death, wrote to Vadian, “I could wish for myself nothing more blessed than the end of this noble woman. Gently, her soul passed away like the fading of twilight, and, while praying and commending us all to God, soared upwards and went home to her Lord.”




By the Reb. M. A. Sherring, M.A., LL.B.


THERE are few cities in the world despotic hand, in all his religious rites of greater interest to the Christian and practices; about which he cares and the philosopher than Benares, infinitely more than about anything the sacred city of the Hindus. Pre- else. siding over the religious destinies of This city has been linked with the one hundred and eighty millions of religious history of India during people, whom she inspires with her many long ages.

many long ages. There it was that spirit and controls at pleasure, it is a Buddhism, the religion of China, matter, not merely of curiosity, but Japan, Burmah, Ceylon, Thibet, and also of great importance, to know, Nepal - the religion of more than what part she is likely to take in that one-third of the human race- - sprang extraordinary movement of religious into existence. Buddha, or, as he reform which has already commenced was first called, Sakya Muni, was a in India; for it is self-evident, that, Rajpoot prince of the second Hindu according as Benares declares herself, caste, and was born about a hundred so she will throw the weight of her miles to the north of Benares. After tremendous influence in the one scale spending five years in contemplation or in the other. Calcutta, Madras, as an ascetic, he proceeded to Benares; and Bombay, are commercial centres, and there commenced his ministry as directing largely the trade of the à preacher of a new religion. This country. But they do not speak to was in the sixth century before the the masses, who never ask their Christian era. Aided by priests from opinion, and are never guided by the sacred city, and sustained untheir authority on any subject con- doubtedly by the prestige of its name, nected with themselves or with their Buddhism spread rapidly through social usages. Benares, on the con- Northern India, and, in course of trary, is the living oracle of the time, to other countries. For seven nation, and governs the Hindu with a or eight hundred years, the period of


Buddhist dominancy in India, Benares no sight in all the world surpasses maintained her religious ascendancy that of Benares as seen from the river and authority. How long prior to Ganges. Her massive edifices of the sixth century, B.C., her high various styles of architecture, piled reputation had lasted, it is impossible upon its banks in wonderful proto say. That it had continued during fusion ;—the mosques and minarets, the earlier ages of Hinduism, for the elaborately-sculptured temples, several hundred years, admits of no the ornamented balconies, the huge doubt. On the decline and fall of stone stairs, the gorgeous palaces, Buddhism, from the fifth to the eleventh stretching along almost as far as the or twelfth century, Anno Domini, eye can reach,—all combine to proHinduism gradually regained her duce an effect of charming brilliancy. ancient position, which she has held There are some spots in this world so securely to the present moment; and exquisitely beautiful that in gazing the sacred city, without losing in

upon them the mind is filled with dignity or honour, in turn gradually ecstacy. Such a spot is Benares. shifted from the one religion back Macaulay's graphic description of her again to the other. Allusions to

appearance towards the close of the Benares are exceedingly abundant in last century is applicable to her preancient Sanskrit literature; and per- sent state. He speaks of her as a city haps there is no city in all Hindustan which in wealth, population, dignity, more frequently referred to. It is and sanctity, was among the foremost evident, therefore, that twenty-five cen- in Asia. It was commonly believed turies ago, at the least, Benares was that half-a-million of human beings famous. When Babylon was strug- was crowded into that labyrinth of gling with Nineveh for supremacy,

lofty alleys, rich with shrines and when Tyre was planting her colonies, minarets, and balconies, and carved when Athens was growing in strength, oriels, to which the sacred apes clung before Rome had become known, or

by hundreds. The traveller could Greece had contended with Persia, scarcely make his way through the or Cyrus had added lustre to the press of holy mendicants and not less Persian monarchy, or Nebuchadnezzar holy bulls. The broad and stately had captured Jerusalem, and the in- flights of steps, which descended from habitants of Judæa had been carried these swarming haunts to the bathing into captivity, she had already risen places along the Ganges, were worn to greatness, if not to glory. Nay, every day by the footsteps of an inshe

may have heard of the fame of numerable multitude of worshippers. Solomon, and have sent her ivory, The schools and temples drew crowds her apes, and her peacocks, to adorn of pious Hindus from every province his palaces, while, partly with her where the Brahminical faith was gold, he may have overlaid the temple known. Hundreds of devotees came

thither every month to die; for it was And now, after the lapse of so many

believed that a peculiarly happy ages, this great city retains most of fate awaited the man who should pass the freshness and all the beauty of

from the sacred city into the sacred her early youth. For picturesqueness, river.

river. Nor was superstition the only

of the Lord.

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