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is raised against them. The contact of the community with them is usually through the hands of the court. Two facts can be put over against each other in our modern community life. One is the apparent increase of crime, particularly the extent of juvenile delinquency. The other is the changing attitude of the community toward the offender. The spirit of Christianity has brought brotherhood into the relation of the community to those who sin against it. Not punishment, but reformation, is now our goal.

The extent of juvenile delinquency is an indictment of our community life. Think what it means that in one American city fifteen thousand young people under the age of twenty were arrested and brought into court in one year! It means that the vast structure of the church, working for religious education; of the school, working for moral, intellectual, and economic development, have by so much failed to realize their constructive pur ose.

The first work which one group of men found to do was to serve as big brothers to the boys who came before the juvenile court. This naturally led them to consider the causes of delinquency in their community. The definite causes that send boys and girls wrong must be studied everywhere. This is a service which the trained men and women of the colleges can render to their home towns. Have they courage enough to dig these causes up by the roots ?

The roots sometimes run a long way underground and come up in unexpected places. The records of ten thousand juvenile delinquents were traced back to the homes to discover the causes that contributed to their condition. There were three great groups. There was first, the depleted family life in the region of bad housing. There was second, the perversion of the recreation instinct and need. The third great group was improper conditions of work, long hours, and over-fatigue. Who are the real criminals disclosed by such a study of causes? How can we bring the power of public opinion to bear upon them?

Those who know the principles of the new penology, and share the Christian motive for their achievement can overcome

this resistance. Those who carry Christianity to lands where dungeons and tortures are the common lot of prisoners must be equipped to change these conditions.

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Social study confronts us with the need for more than purely personal religion. The Gospel accomplishes miracles of transformation in individual lives, yet who dare write the triumph of environment over personal faith, of community pressure over personal aspirations ? The missionary sees the pride of the school dragged off to child marriage. The settlement worker sees the winsome girl slowly degenerating under the terrible pressure of vice and the exploitation of industry. Of what avail is it to build hospitals and leave unchecked the dust trades, the plague spots of bad housing—all the forces that make for deterioration among the poor? An English alienist declares that one of his tests of insanity is to set the suspected person to the task of filling a barrel with water while there is an open faucet at the bottom. How would our community stand a similar test in its Christian social work?

Three remarkable maps of Chicago reveal the typical areas of weakness in community life. One shows where the families were given aid by the relief societies; another where the mortality is the highest; and still another where live ten thousand juvenile delinquents. The strange truth is that delinquency, disease, destitution are all massed in the same neighborhoods. They are the regions of economic inefficiency—the districts where live the victims of industrial exploitation. In other parts of the city the family has been able to strengthen its life to resist the attacks of these social wrongs. How can the community now do the same for these regions of need? Is not the abolition of the liquor traffic the first step in the removal of one of the most powerful causes of poverty, disease, and delinquency? What will come next? Now turn to a map of the world and mark those regions where poverty is most baffling; where disease works greatest havoc; where

crime is most unchecked. Here also the strange fact appears that these are all massed in the same areas. What have the missionaries done to remove them? To whom do they call?

I.

SUGGESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AND ACTION
I. Cost of Poverty, Disease, and Delinquency

What percentage of the people is a drag on our community as a whole because of poverty, disease, and delinquency?

How much does their care cost the public? How many people's service does their care require ?

3. Estimate the increase in the productivity of our community if poverty, disease, and delinquency were eliminated.

2.

I.

2.

II. Saving the Community Loss

What are the chief causes of poverty in our immediate neighborhood ? How much poverty could be eliminated by the poor themselves? How much by the community? How much is irremovable? Why?

What preventable diseases have wrought most havoc in our town the past year? How much was due to the carelessness of the individual ? How much to the carelessness of the community ? If average life is forty-five years, how many years were lost to our community life from preventable diseases ? What single force in our community is the most destructive of health?

3. How many persons were convicted of crime in our community last year? What proportion were juvenile delinquents ? List the causes.

III. Elimination of Poverty, Disease, and Delinquency

1. What is the most immediate step in elimination of poverty from our community ? Consider higher wages, relief work, a thrift campaign, minimum wage law, and other possible measures.

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2. What phases of a public health program in our town are already in operation? What are the next steps ?

3. Is the point of view in local treatment of criminals retribution or reformation? What immediate changes would the latter involve in the trial of offenders and the treatment of criminals? What are the most urgent steps in the prevention of juvenile delinquency?

IV. Poverty, Disease, and Delinquency in Mission Lands

1. Compare the general conditions of poverty in India and China with those of the poorest section of the poorest community we know. In what ways does missionary work affect these conditions ?

Consider the relative chances of preventing and recovering from disease in the Orient or Africa and in America. How does this affect our view of medical missions ? What is the true function of the Christian doctor?

3. Describe prevalent methods of treating moral offenders in the Near and the Far East.

2.

CHAPTER VI

PROTECTING THE WORKER

At the foundation of community life is the mass of manual labor. What does industry do to the folks at the bottom? They have long been the mud-sill of the community house, over which the rest of its people have walked to comfort or to power. The vast hordes of slaves who toiled under the bitter lash to build the great monuments of history have passed into oblivion. What value has the life of the common man today in Africa or India or China ? What is the fate of the unskilled workers in our own construction camps and vast industrial enterprises ? “We think no more of killing a man than of killing a dog," said a fighting man in the Balkans. And an American manufacturer says of the effect of his industry on immigrant workers: “We eat 'em alive.” Are we grinding up in our machines the strength of manhood, the laughter of children, the yearning heart of motherhood, to make "cheap goods and nasty"? The Christian community is beginning to measure its industry by Jesus' principle of reverence for personality. Can it stand the test ?

DAILY MEDITATIONS
FIRST DAY: Getting a Right Attitude Toward the Worker

And it came to pass in those days, when Moses
was grown up, that he went out unto his brethren,
and looked on their burdens: and he saw an Egyptian
smiting a Hebrew, one of his brethren. And he looked
this way and that way, and when he saw that there
was no man, he smote the Egyptian, and hid him in
the sand.—Exodus 2: II, 12.

Read Exodus 5: 1-4. Here is the reaction of one strong man to injustice. Moses had to learn in the desert a different method, and then, out of

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