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mentioned above. This form of the passive is only used in a few tenses, thus HITOTT" to beat,” Passive present À Arriet “I am beaten,” Future ATTTATOTT “I shall be beaten," Potential (old present) # ATTA“I may be beaten.”
H With these exceptions, there is no synthetic form for the passive in the modern languages. This phase is usually formed by an analytical process. It is not much used, the construction of sentences being more frequently reversed, so as to make the verb active. The large number of neuter verbs also renders a passi for the most part unnecessary. It does exist, how ever, and is formed by adding the verb at “to go,” to the past participle of the passive, doing all the conjugational work, and the participle merely varying for number and gender.
Thus from HTT“ beat,” H. Sing. HTTT INTT “to be beaten” m., नारी जाना /., Plur. मारे जाना m., मारी जाना.., P. मारिआ जाना m., मारी/., Plur. मारेm., मारीओ./. Gujarati also uses this method side by side with the passive intransitive, as Aretorg “to be beaten,” with the participle varied for gender and number as in the others. M. ATT UTT, B. HTTT atgā, O. HTTI frat. In these two last the participle does not vary for gender or number.
Occasionally in G. and M. a passive is formed by adding the substantive verb to the past participle, thus M. f atyrat होती gtat “the cow was tied,” and G. tu mut “the book is
die made ;” such a construction would in the other languages be incorrect, or, if used at all, would have a different meaning altogether.
The use of FITOTT"to go,” to form a passive, seems somewhat unnatural; stat“ to be," would occur as the most fitting verb for this purpose.
I am tempted to hazard a conjecture that the use of tot in this way has arisen from the Prakrit passive form in ijja. This, as we have seen above, has given a regular
passive to Sindhi and Marwari, and it seems possible that the masses who had quite forgotten, or had never known, the meaning of the added j, may unconsciously have glided into the practice of confounding it with the g of the common word T, which would lead them to consider the verbal stem preceding it as a passive participle. Thus a form Hifta“ he is
मारिजे “ beaten,” would easily pass into HTTT UTV, as in modern Hindi. The process must, of course, have been unconscious, as all such processes are, but the supposition does not involve a more violent twisting of words and meanings than many others which are better supported by actual facts.
The non-Aryan party have something to say on this head.? They point out that the Dravidian languages, like our seven, largely avoid the use of the passive by having recourse to neuter verbs, and that with them, as with us, the neuter is often only another form of the same root as the active. Indeed, the similarity in this respect is very striking, the process is, to a great extent, the same in both groups, though the means employed are different. The passive does not, strictly speaking, occur in the Dravidian languages; a clumsy effort is sometimes made to produce one, by adding the verb padu “to happen (Sanskrit qa, modern Aryan ye) to an infinitive or noun of quality. This process, however, is as strained and foreign to elegant speech as the construction with jà is in the Aryan group. It appears, also, that the verb poyu “to go,” is also used in Tamil to form a passive, as also a verb meaning eat,” which latter is parallel to our North-Indian expression HTT CTAT“ to eat a beating"="to be beaten." In this, as in so many other instances of alleged non-Aryan influence, the known facts do not justify us in saying more than that there is a resemblance between the two groups of languages, but that it is not clear which borrowed the process, or whether it was ever
1 Caldwell, pp. 353, 364 (first edition).
borrowed at all. There is no reason why it should not have grown up simultaneously and naturally in both families.
§ 26. We now come to the Causal, an important and much used phase of the verb. Sanskrit forms the causal by adding the syllable aya to the root, which often also takes guņa or vsiddhi, “do,” causal attafa. There is, however, in Sanskrit a small class of verbs which form the causal by inserting q between the root and the characteristic aya. These are principally roots ending in a vowel ; but in Pali and the Prakrits the form of the causal in q has been extended to a very large number of stems, in fact to nearly every verb in those languages. In Pali, however, its use is optional, thus vya
cook,” causal pâcheti, pâchayati, pâchâpeti, pâchâpayati. In Prakrit, also, there are the two processes, by the first of which the aya of Sanskrit becomes e, thus कारयति = Pr. कारे,
= thefa=ETÄT (Var. vii. 26), and by the second the inserted प् is softened to , thus giving करावे or कारावेद (ib. 27). It is from this form, and not from aya, as I erroneously supposed in Vol. I. p. 20, that the modern causal arises. Even in Prakrit the e in káráveï is frequently omitted, as it is also in kárez, and we find such forms as kârai, târaï, side by side with kárávač (Weber, Hala, p. 60), so that there remains only av for the modern causal.
Among the modern languages Marathi stands alone in respect of its causal, and, as in so many other points, exhibits a hesitation and confusion which confirm the impression of its being a backward language which has not so thoroughly emancipated itself from the Prakrit stage as the others. Whereas these latter have passed through the period in which rival forms conflicted for the mastery, and have definitely settled upon one type to be used universally, the former presents us with several alternative suffixes, none of which appears to have obtained undisputed prominence. The authorities for Marathi consist of the classical writers, the one dictionarymaker, Molesworth, and a host of grammarians, all of whom differ among themselves, so that one is driven to ask, “who shall decide when doctors disagree ?”
Kaccâyana, Senart, Journal Asiatique, vol. xvii.
The competing forms are : ava, ira, iva, ari, dva, ävi, and one sees at a glance that they are all derived from one source, the causal with 4, modified in Prakrit to ą. The difficulty lies in the vowels. Where one authority gives a causal in ava to a particular verb, another makes the causal of that same verb by adding iva, and so on. Stevenson (Marathi Grammar, p. 87) teaches that ava is the ordinary form, as basaņen “to sit,” basavaņen " to seat.” This type, however, he adds, is peculiar to the Konkan or lowlands along the coast; in the Dakhin or centre table land above the passes the form iva is more used, as karaṇen “to do,” karivaņen “to cause to do." A third form avi is said to be “of a middle class, and not characteristic of
” ' either dialect, as karavimen. It is to be noted here that the causal suffix, strictly speaking, ends with the v, and the vowels that follow this letter may fairly be regarded as mere junction vowels, used to add the terminations to the stem. In those of the cognate languages which use à as the causal suffix, the junction vowel used is either i, as B. kard-i-te, 0. karâ-i-bå, S. kard-i-nu, or u, as Old-H. kará-u-nâ, P. kará-u-ná, or hardened to ta, as G. kará-ra-vun. Dismissing, then, the final vowel as unconnected with the suffix, we get for Marathi four types, av, äv, iv, iv. Of these four av approaches most closely to the Prakrit, and may therefore be regarded as the original type from which, by a shortening of the vowel, comes ar, which, all things considered, is perhaps the most common and regular; a further weakening of the vowel produces iv; and the fourth form, ir, probably owes its long vowel to the Marathi habit of lengthening vowels at the end of a word, or
in a syllable, where the stress or accent falls. Thus all four forms may be used, as
करणे “ to do," करवणे, करावणे, करिवणे, करीवणे; also करविणे, and artfall “ to cause to do.” I
Causals may be formed from every verb in the language, whether neuter, active, active or passive intransitive. The meaning of the causal differs, of course, according to that of the simple verb.
Those formed from simple neuters or active intransitives are generally merely actives in sense, as TH“ sit,”
Those from passive intransitives are passive causals, as
कटाव canse to be cut.”
Simple roots ending in vowels insert a v between the stem and the suffix to avoid hiatus, as
CIT “ eat,"
ataq (junction vowel T) “cause to eat."
So also with roots ending in Z, as
facaq “cause to write.”
The various forms of the causal suffix in Marathi may be regarded as types of a stage of transition which the other lan
1 Godbole's Marathi Grammar, p. 102, § 279.