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come round to the same meaning as TE, with which in consequence B. confuses it. So does Oriya. Even so early as Pali the meaning has passed over from that of vomiting to rejecting, releasing and the like. In modern H., however, BIET retains the meaning of vomiting, and M. Hic means “to spill," with secondary senses of "giving up," “ letting go.”

2. Skr. / त्रुट " break" (n), i. त्रुटति, iv. त्रुट्यति, Pr. तुडइ, H. तूट and ZZ, with abnormally long u, P. , S. JE, B. id., M. ge. It is

टट्ट टुट,

तुट neuter in all and means “to be broken, to break itself.” Being neuter in Sanskrit, a new process has to be brought into play, namely, causal itzufa, H. aite, and so in all but S. TS. It is active, meaning“ to break in pieces, tear, smash.” 3. Skr. V


has three forms, each of which has left modern descend. ants, and there is a different shade of meaning to each of the three groups. (a) / स्फट् “split,"i. स्फटति, Pa. फरति and फलति (ट= ड=ल),

Pr. फल and फटइ, H. फट (rustic फाट), P.S. फट and फाट,

the rest only TTE, neuter. Causal स्फाटयति, Pr. फाडेद, H. फाड and so in all. This group

with stem-vowel A indicates the splitting, cleaving, or rending asunder of rigid objects. Thus we say in H. ang mga ne “ the wood splits, or cracks, in the sun,” but atd at zion #

TË “ he cleaves the wood with an axe."
(6) v femiz “burt,” x. fecafa, but also vi. ferizfa, Pr. face,

H. funz, and so in all but P. furg, neuter.
Causal स्फेटयति, Pr. फेटद् and फेडइ, H. फेट, फेंट and फेड, and

so in all but B. active. This group, with stem vowel I,
implies, gently loosing or breaking up into small pieces. It is
used for beating up into froth, winding thread, untying; also
metaphorically getting out of debt, discharging an obligation,

and in P. injuring. (c) / स्फुट “ burst open,” i. स्फोटति, vi. स्फुटति, Pa. फुटति,

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Pr. फुट्ट or फुडद् (Var. viii. 53), H. फुट and फूट, all the rest

92, except P. 5, neuter. Causal स्फोटयति, Pr. फोडे, H. फोड, and so on in all but

B. ontz. Words with the stem vowel U imply the breaking or bursting of soft squashy things, as a ripe fruit, a flower bud, a boil and the like. Only in M. is there some idea of splitting or cracking, but there also the more general idea is

that of squashing, as sta gozê “ the eyeballs burst." 6. Skr. V जुट or जुड,

a somewhat doubtful root, looking like a secondary formation from yo. It must have had a definite existence in the spoken language as its descendants show. They appear to have treated it as a neuter pres. asfa, gzfa. Pa, and Pr. do not appear to know this root, which, however, is very common in the moderns. H.

जुट “to be joined,” also us, and so in all.

Causal जोटयति, H. जोड, and so in all except P. जुट्ट and जूड,

meaning "to join two things together." These instances suffice to exhibit the nature of the parallel that exists between twin verbs of this class, which is a somewhat limited one.

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$ 21. More usual is the difference which consists simply in the change of vowel of which I will now give some examples : 1. Skr. V q “cross over,” i. Atfa, Pa. id., Pr. , in all at a “to

ATTn be crossed over,” metaphorically " to be saved.”

Causal attafa “ to take one across, save,” Pa. atifa, Pr. aris

and atir (Var. viii. 70). In all att "to save.” The word is one which belongs chiefly to religious poetry, but its compound form

a word of every-day use; viz. 2. Skr. V 8T, Pres. Baltfã “ descend,” H. GoT, and in all except . / उत्तृ, उत्तरति

BAT, S. It is n, and is used with a very wide range of meanings all akin to

with उद्



that of coming down; as alight, descend, fall off, drop down, disembark, abate, decrease.

Causal WTI Tafa“ take down,” H. Gart, and so in all except G.

and 0. Active, meaning “pull down, take off, unload, discharge,

cast out.” 3. Skr. / मृ “die," vi. म्रियते, Pa. मरति, Pr. मरह, H. मर, and so in all.

Causal मारयति, Pa. मारापति, Pr. मारे, H. मार in all, but not

necessarily meaning “to kill.” It rather means to beat”; the sense of killing is generally expressed by adding to HIT the

ancillary GT“ throw" (see $ 72, 12). 4. Skr. V “move,” i. #tfa, Pr. #TE. In H. FT neuter, means to be completed,” and in all it has the general sense of being settled, getting done.

In 0. to come to an end, be done with, as a haft TaT “ that affair is done with.”

Causal Hitafa, Pr. HTĪT, H. HTT“ to finish,” and in all. In 0.

this verb becomes ancillary (see § 72). 5. Skr. V " seize,"i. Etfa, Pa. id., Pr. GTE. This verb is peculiar.

हरद. H. Ta, " to seize," so also in G. P. B. In these languages it has the sense of winning a game, a battle, or a lawsuit. In M. ET means first to carry off, then to win. In this sense it is active, as ato fet डावास शंभर रुपये मांडले ते म्यां हरले “ In the first game he staked 100 rupees, that I won.” When used as a neuter, it means to lose, as ft 917 TOY“ I lost the lawsuit.” 1

Causal हारयति, Pa. हारापति and हारेति, Pr. हारे, H. हार, and


so in all but M. n. In these languages it means to lose at play, etc. M. is here also somewhat difficult, and Molesworth admits that ETT and T are sometimes confused. Thus it is active in the sense of

1 See Molesworth's Marathi Dict. 8. v. T and TTT.

winning, as pri rat 147 Tê ETT "I won from him 100 rupees."

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The use of the causal in the sense of losing goes back to Sanskrit times, where the meaning is “ to cause to seize," and then “to permit (another) to seize,” hence “ to lose.” So also in Prakrit, in Mş. 90, the Samvahaka says : भाअधेअविशमदाए दशशुबमअं जूदे हालिदं (Skr. भागधेयविशमतया दशमुवर्णकं बूते हारितं sc. मया) “By the untowardness of fortune I lost ten suvarnas at play.” From this and similar instances it would appear that in M. it would be etymologically more correct to use GT in the sense of winning, and IT in that of losing; which usage would be more in unison with that of the cognate languages. In Kash. hárun is stated to mean both lose and win, but there must be some way of distinguishing the two meanings.

Some more examples may now be given of pairs of words derived from Sanskrit roots ending in a consonant. 1. Skr. / स्फर and स्फुर् “tremble," i. स्फरति, Pa. फरति, Pr. फुरह. “” i

. If I am right in my derivation, there must either have been a third root स्फिर् (as in स्फट, स्फिट, स्फुट), or the moderns have softened a to i, the former is the more probable. H. फिर n“ to turn (oneself),” “to spin round," "revolve," and so in all except G. It is perhaps on the analogy of similar roots, and not directly from a causal of ferit, that all the moderns have ôt a “to turn (a thing) round,” “ to make it revolve.”

2. Skr. Vuo “ to move to and fro” (n). Allied to this is you, i. घोणते, apparently unknown in Pali, Pr. घोलद्, H. घुल, P. M.

, ਬਰਨ, yoo, B. ya, meaning to be dissolved by stirring in water, as sugar or similar substances, “to melt."

Causal घोणयति, Pr. घोले, म. घोल, P. घोल and घोळ, G.M.0.

uToo, B. OTOT “to dissolve substances in water." 3. Skr. V og "fall,” i. uafa, Pa. id., Pr. 95C (Var. viii. 51), H. TE “to fall," and so in all.

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Causal पातयति, Pa. पातेति, Pr. पाडे, H. पाड “ to fell,” and so

in S. G. M. B., but somewhat rare in all. 4. Skr. V TE“ decay,” i. and vi. atea, Pr. TEE (Var. viii. 51), H. H3, and in all “ to rot.”

Causal शादयति, Pr. साडेद, P. and S. साड “to destroy by de

composition.” This root is perhaps connected with Sanskrit V TE

“to be sick," whence & in Prakrit and the moderns. 5. Skr. V TA “ bow,” i. aha. It is both a and n in Sanskrit, but strictly would be active intransitive, as in the moderns. Pa. नमति, Pr. णमद्, H. नम and नेव, P. नेउ (ned), S. नंवं, B. नू, 0. मुंइ, नोह (6) " to bow oneself down," " to prostrate oneself.”

Causal नामयति, Pa. नामेति, Pr. णामेह, H. नाव, ना, P. निवा,

S. नंवा, B. नाम, नुया, 0. मुंआ “ to bow or bend," used as an active with the words “body” or “head” as objects, H. TE नावना “to incline the head.” द्वार आद् पद नायेउ माथा॥ “Coming to the door, bowed his head to (the Guru's) feet.”—T. R.

Ay-k. 63. In

very common use is the diminutive H. faFC, P. S. id., but in S., meaning “to bury,” “press down.” M. uses the compound form from Skr. अवनमति, Pr. अोण (p.p.p. ओणोः 1999, Hâla, 9, Mļ. p. 165), M. vua and tuta n to stoop.” Perhaps S. TOT “to listen,a, is to be referred to this, from the idea of bending the head to listen.

The following word is full of difficulties, and I am not able to elucidate it clearly.

Skr. / कृष् “drag,” i. कर्षति and vi. कृषति, Pa. कड्डति, Pr. करिसह, so, at least, says Var. viii. 11, but in Mș. 253 occurs afifa=TA.

कट्टामि The Skr. p.p.p is 79, which would give Pa. and Pr.

कड. Perhaps this is another instance of a verb derived from p.p.p.' H. OTG a, “to drag

Hemachandra gives six popular equivalents of krsh-kaddhaï, sâaddhaï, anchaï, anachchhaï, ayanchaï, and âinchaï, as well as karisaï.-- Pischel, Hem. iv. 187. With regard to the four last, see the remarks on khainch in $ 22.

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