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forms which I regard as neuters been true “umlautend” passives.
Of the double verbs, then, as I prefer to call them, some differ only in the vowel, and the difference consists in this that where the vowel of the neuter is always short, as a, i or u, the corresponding active has å, e or o, occasionally i orů. As types may be taken, H. kațnâ, n, and kâțnâ, a; phirnâ, n, and pherna, a; khulnâ, n, and kholnâ, a; lipnâ, n, and lipnâ, a; guthná, n, and gúthnâ, a. Of the other class, in which the final consonant differs, there are so many varieties, that it will be better to discuss them separately. Sindhi has the largest number of them, and it is with Sindhi therefore that we must begin.
§ 19. Trumpp (Sindhi Gr. p. 252) gives a list of these verbal stems, but it would have been out of place for him to have offered any analysis. The following verbs I take from him, but the explanations are my own. The first group consists of these verbs. (1.) Neuter ending in y.
Active ending in न्ध.
arry “to bind.”
Uy“ to hear.”
tyy “to cook.” 1. Skr. / बंध, ix. बनाति, Pa. बंधति, Pr. बंधह, whence S. बंध, H. बांध, P. बन्ह. In all the rest बांध a. Skr. passive is बध्यते, whence Pa. बज्झति, Pr. बज्झइ, S. बझ, H.बझ, used as a hunting term “to be caught,” also “to stick, adhere,” P. an. Here, though undoubtedly derived from the passive, the stem ay is really a neuter or passive intransitive and its conjugation closely resembles the active. There is a regular passive S. बंधिजणु. 2. Skr. v qu “ to know,” i. atua, iv. guâ, from the latter come
बुध Pa. gosifa and Pr. 548, whence S.ag, originally “to know,” but now meaning “to be heard,” H. HTT“ to understand,” is active. So also
0.74, B. 4, G. 93. But M. is both a and n. The form of the बुझ, बूझबुज
. iv, conjugation is identical with the passive, bence S. makes बुझ a neuter and dat is probably due to a false analogy with aut.
3. Skr. V TY or Ty i tufa originally “ to destroy,” but in moderns always “ to cook,” Pa. id., Pr. 7, S. TH, H. TIE a, and so in all but P. Passive रध्यते, Pa. रन्झति, Pr. रन्झइ, S. रझ, not found in the others. (2.) Neuter in 4.
Active in a
y" to seize.”
GET"to milk.” 1. Skr. V 272" to get,” i. , Pa. fa, Pr. OET (H= Vol. I. p. 268), S. 46, Old H. E, H. , P. afg and , G. a, m. â, o. ä, B. Out, all a. Pass. लभ्यते, Pa. लब्भति, Pr. लब्भह, S. लभ, old H. Tot, not in the others.
2. Skr. / यम् “coire,” i. यभति, Pr. जहइ, s. यह, Pass. यभ्यते, Pr. Ha78, s. H. Not in the others, except perhaps M. Hall, where the aspiration has been thrown back on the .
3. Skr. / दुह, ii. दोग्धि, Pa. दोहति, Pr. दोहद् and दुहह, S. डुह, H. दुह and दोह, and so in all a. Pass. दुह्यते, Pa. दुह्यति (Childers
( writes duyhati, which can hardly be expressed in Devanagari letters), Pr. Joh. From this we should expect S. go. The form ga recalls
दुज्झद a similar one in Jaina Pr. fHata for fag (Weber, Bhàg. 389, 429), Skr. fhua, but this seems to rest upon a doubtful reading of one of those obscure composite characters sometimes found in MSS. written with the thick Indian reed pen. See also Cowell's Var. viii. 59, note. Possibly we have here again a false analogy with 74, like gjy with ay.
1 Hemachandra collects a number of passives in bh from roots ending in h, dubbbaï, libbhaï, vabbhaï, rubbhaï, from duh, lih, vah, ruh (or ruddh ?). -- Pischel, Hem., iv. 245.
(3.) Neuter in झ.
Active in है.
" to torment." Skr. / दह “ burn,” i. दहति, Pa. डहति, Pr. दह, S. डह, H. डाह, दाह, Pass. दह्यते, Pa. डाति (Childers dayhati), Pr. दज्झ, S. झ.
. (4.) Neuter in ज.
Active in T, U, 9. 1. भजणु “to be broken,"
भजणु “to break."
भुजणु “to fry."
सुणणु “to hear."
खणणु “to raise."
“ .” 1. Skr. / भंज “ break," vii. भक्ति, Pa. भंजति, Pr.भंजद अ becomes in s. , hence भत्र, Pass. भज्यते, Pr. भज्ज, S. भज़ (ज्ज = ज़), H. भंज and भज,
पुरुषातन भजे कित्ति हान । “Manliness is broken, fame destroyed.”—Chand, Pr. R. i. 172. P. मज्ज, G. भांज.
2. Skr. V धज्ज or भृज, i. भर्जते, vi. भृज्जति, Pa. भज्जति. Pr. would probably be भुजइ. I have not met the word, भुंज (Bhag. 278) is
" to enjoy," S. भुत्र postulates a Pr. भुंज. In the other languages the n occurs. H. भुन “to fry,” and भून, P. भुन्न, G. भुज, M. भाज, but also भुंज, 0. भाज, B. id., Pass. भृज्यते, which would give Pr. भुज्जद, whence S. भुज़, but the whole stem is somewhat obscure. P. भुज्ज. 3. Skr. / छिद् “ cleave," vii. छिनत्ति, Pa. छिन्दति, Pr. छिन्दर
v fec“ (Var. viii. 38), whence S. छिन by the process रन= रण्डा (Vol. I. p. 299), Pass. विद्यते, Pa. छिज्जति, Pr. छिज्जद्द, S. छिज़.
4. Skr./ श्रु " hear,” which, as already explained, is always मुण in Prakrit and in modern languages. Pass. श्रूयते, Pa. सूयति or सुव्यति, Pr. generally सुनिज्जह (Var. viii. 57), also सुबह, but a form सुज्जर is
) also possible, whence S. सुज.
लूहणु “ to scorch."
5. Skr. v stik “rise,” i. Deicfa, which would give a Pr. CLEE, whence S. खण, Pass. स्वद्यते, Pr. खज्ज, S. खज़. This stem does not seem to occur in the other languages, it is peculiar to S., and must not be confounded with खणणु “to dig," from Skr. / खन्, nor with Skr. खण्ड “to divide.” (5.) Neuter in स.
Active in है.
कुहणु “to slay."
“” 2. गसणु “ to be rubbed."
“ to rub.”
“ to be scorched.”
“ to inflict loss.” 1. Skr. / कृष् and कुष् “ tear" " drag," i. कुषति, Pr. कुसद, S. कुह, ( सह, Vol. I. p. 259), Pass. कुष्यते, Pr. would be कुस्सह, whence S. कुस, by rejection of one s. Persian was “to kill.” 2. Skr. / घृष् “rub," i. घर्षति, Pr. घसद्, S. गह, Pass. घृष्यते, Pr.
/ घिस्सद् and घस्सइ, S. गस. The other languages have a different series of stems. H. घस and घिस, n and a, घसीट, a, P. id., G. घस and घसड, a, M. घास, घसट, घांस n and a, 0. B. घस.
3. Skr. V लूष् “ burn," i. लूषति, Pr. लूसह, S. लूह, Pass. लूष्यते, Pr. लूस्सह, S. लूस. 4. Skr. / मुष् “ rob," i. मुषति, Pa. मुसति, Pr. मुसइ, S. मुह, Pass.
V मुष्यते, Pr. मुस्सइ, S. मुस.
There are several other pairs of stems which exhibit special types; all, however, are explainable by the above noted process.
. Thus(6.) Neuter in प.
Active in ह.
कुहणु “to touch."
“ ” Skr. V छुप “touch,"i. छुपति, Pa. id., Pr.छुप. प being unsupported goes out and ह is employed to fill up the hiatus, giving S. छुह. Pass. कुप्यते, Pr. छुप्पद, whence S. कुप, by rejection of one प. In the other languages only the active is found. Old-H. छुह, H. छू,
छूह, G. छु, छू, छो, 0. छु, B. id.
§ 20. There is a group of words running through nearly all the seven languages in which the divergence between the two members of each pair is slighter than that just discussed. It consists in the final consonant of the neuter being the surd cerebral Z, while that of the active is the sonant 3; the neuter at the same time has the simple short vowel while the active has the corresponding guna vowel. The words are in Hindi. NEUTER,
BOTE “set free."
, टोड (तोड) “ break."
TE “join.” The process in these words differs somewhat from that in the Sindhi stems in the last section, as will be seen from the following remarks.
1. Skr. V g (also ge, ÝZ Westergaard, Rad. Skr. p. 128) “to ent,” vi. छुटति, but the Bhu type would be छोटति, Pr. छोड, H. छोड, and so in all except M., which has uts, with its usual change of to # (Vol. I. p. 218). H., which is pronounced chhor, wbile M. is sod, is active, and so is the word in all the other languages. It means “ to release, let go, loose.” Pass. छुट्यते, Pr. कुट्टइ, whence H. छुट, and so in all, but M. सुट. It is neuter and means “to get free, be unloosed, slip out of one's grasp, come untied.”
The modern languages appear to have mixed up with this verb one that comes from a totally different root, namely,
Skr. / कृद् "vomit," vii. कृणत्ति, also i. छर्दति and x. छर्दयति, Pa. छड्डेति, Pr. छड्ड and छड, Old H. छंड, P. छड्ड, B. छाड, 0. id., H.
, , Betc, M. HIC. These words all mean “ to reject, abandon," and thus