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pedant,” from paņdita a (so-called) learned man”;' yoktrayati “he yokes,” from yoktram "a yoke.” Probably from this cause it arises that there are in the moderns neuter verbs with a causal termination, as M. acaifau “to bang,” “crack,”

' H. ETTT" to be amazed,” TUTIT “to totter.” See 8 28.

All these points will be noticed in detail in their proper place, they are cursorily mentioned here as an introduction to the general subject, and to show that there is an interchange and playing to and fro of forms and meanings which is somewhat difficult to unravel, and the more so as in colloquial usage the verbs are often very laxly and capriciously employed.

$ 12. Single neuter verbs are to a great extent early Tadbhavas as far as their stems are concerned, and consequently retain the Prakrit type. Thus they exhibit few or no traces of the tenfold classification of the Sanskrit or of the numerous phonetic changes that take place in the interior of the verb, but follow as a rule the form of the root in the present tense of the Bhû class. Here follows a list of some of the simplest and most used stems in the modern languages derived from verbs which in Sanskrit are Bhû. In the dictionaries the modern verbs are generally shown under the infinitive mood, but in the following lists I have thought it better to give only the stem; the reader can add the form of the infinitives if he wishes to refer to them in the dictionaries, as H. OT, P. UT or 97, S. T, G. I, M. T, 0. cat. In the Bengali dictionaries TT णु,

बा. verbs are given under the stem alone.

Skr. / भू “be," pres. भवति, Pa. भवति and होति, Pr. भोदि, होदि, ETE, H. Et and so in all, except S. 57, and in 0. ETT is contracted

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1 A pandit in the present day in India is an individual who is supposed to be deeply read in all the most useless parts of Sanskrit literature, and is densely ignorant and contemptuous of all other branches of human knowledge.




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to R. This verb will be treated at full length further on as the chief auxiliary of these languages (see Chapter IV. $ 66).

/ चल " move,” चलति, Pa. id. Pr. चल, H. S. चल, P. चल, G. चाल, चळ, M. चाल, चल, चळ, 0. B. चाल.

/ लग “ stick,” लगति, Pa. लगति and लग्गति, Pr. लग्गइ, where the ग्ग is probably caused by the passive लग्यते or the p.p.p. लप, H. लग, P. लग्ग, S. लग, in the rest लाग. It is neuter in the moderns.

। कम्प् “ tremble," कम्पति, Pa. id., Pr. कंपह, H. कंप, कांप, P. कम्ब, s. कंब, G. M. B. कांप, 0. कम्प.

VHF "wander,” Pa. Hafa, Pr. HAT (Vik. iv. passim), H. HA, भौं, भंव, P. भरम, भौं or भउं, S. भर्म, भम, भउ, भंव, G. धम, भम, M. भोव, भोंव.


There is little that is remarkable in the above list, the modern forms being regularly produced by the working of the usual phonetic laws. The verb sthå“ stand,” being one of the common auxiliaries, demands a fuller notice. Here follow some of the principal tenses in the old languages :




Vस्था and ष्ठा i. s.3 तिट्ठति ठाति चिष्ठदि (Mig.), चिट्ठदि(Caur.), pres. तिष्ठति।

ठाअह, ठाइ (Var.viii. 25,26). P.3. तिष्ठति तिटुंति, ठांति चिठंति, चिटुंति, ठांति. Impv. s.2. तिष्ठ ति? चिष्ठ,


ठाहि. S. 3. तिष्ठतु तितु, ठातु चिष्ठदु,

चिष्ठदु, चिट्ठदु, ठाउ. Future S. 3. स्थास्यति ठस्सति

ठाहिए. Infn. स्थातुं ठातुं चिट्ठिदु. P.p.p. स्थितं ठिटुं चिट्ठिदं, टिश्र, ठिअं. Gerund स्थित्वा ठत्वा, ठत्वान ठिच्च, ठि.

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Of the three forms in Pali that having y as its root-syllable has survived to modern times, though in most cases with the dental instead of the cerebral aspirate. In H. there is only a fragment in the shape of a past participle S. था m. थी., P. थे m. थीं. S. G. and O. have a whole verb, thus




Infinitive थिअणु “to be." थq (थाअg) थिबा (थाबा) Aorist s. 1. थिमा


थाएं (=Skr. pres.)

2. थिएं, थी थाअ (थाय) थाउ
3. थिए

थाअ (थाय) थाए
P. 1. थिऊं


थाउं 2. थिो थाओ

था 3. थिअनि थाय

थांति Present part. थींदो थतो

थाउं Past part.


थो and थयेलो थिला Future S. 3. थोंदो थशे

थिब P. 3. थोंदा थशे

थिबे The structure of these forms will be found discussed in Ch. IV. 8 69. M. has an old poetical ठेणें “to be,” but from

“” the Pr. form for there is, as far as I know, only one descendant, and that is the modern Oriya adjective fast“ standing,” which seems to point to Pr. fafzi, Skr. fer.

It is interesting here to notice the parallel treatment of Sanskrit et and Latin sta in their respective descendants. Both roots survive, but have almost entirely lost the sense of “standing," and have come to mean "be,'

.” “become.” In S. G. and O. the above quoted verbs are used as auxiliaries denoting a more special and definite kind of being or becoming, and are thus distinguished from the less definite auxiliaries derived from 7 or w. Sindhi huanu and thianu, Gujarati hovun and tharun, Oriya hoibâ and thibâ, stand to each other exactly in the same relation as Spanish ser from esse does to estar (from stare). Thus Pedro es enamorado Pedro is loving (by disposition),” but Pedro está enamorado Pedro is in love (with some one).” So el es bueno “he is good (by nature),” but el está bueno "he is well (in health).” In Italian, although stare still means “to stand,” yet it is constantly and regularly used in the sense of being, thus sto leggendo I am reading," does not imply that the speaker stands while he reads, but merely indicates that he is engaged in reading; just so an Oriya would say paşhu thâun. Stai bene ? "art thou well ? " sta qui vicino “he is living close by,” would be correctly rendered in 0. by the exactly parallel expressions bhala thâü ? and ethi nikat thâe. In French, as in Hindi, the verb has been lost, and a Frenchman has to use the roundabout expression il se tient debout for “he is standing," literally “he holds himself on end,” just in the same way as the Indian has to say khasâ hai literally “he is propped up,” (खडा= Pr. खड्डा= Skr. स्कब्ध from V स्कम् to support). =

= v

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§ 13. Examples of verbs derived from roots which in Sanskrit belong to other conjugations than the first are now adduced to show how completely all traces of the peculiarities of those conjugations have been abandoned.

Skr. / या “go,” ii. याति, Pa. id., Pr. जादि and जाअदि (the latter as if from a Bhù verb Ulfa), H. JT, P. M. B. id., G. and O. retain JT in some tenses, but in others shorten it to G. 5, 0. FG.

V स्वप् "sleep," ii. स्वपिति, Pa. सुपति, Pr. सुवद, सुअह, सुबेद, H. सो, P. सौ, S. सुम्ह, G. सु, B. and 0. सो.

v 217" fear,” iii. faäfa, Pa. Hefa, Pr. ajtu, utuff, ates (Var. ii. 19), M. भि, भे, G. बीह, बीही, बिह (not in the rest).

V नृत " dance," iv. नृत्यति, Pa. नच्चति, Pr. णच्च, H. नाच, P. नच, S. नच, G. M.0. B. नाच.

Vशक् “ be able,” v. शक्नोति and iv. शक्यति, Pa. सक्कति, सक्कोति, सक्कुणोति, Pr. सक्कइ, सक्कणोति, and सक्कु, H. सक, P. सक्क, S. संघ, G. M. शक.

In nâch, as in several other verbs derived from Div roots, the characteristic y of the Div class seems to have got mixed up with the root and has thus been preserved. Although in sak both Pali and Prakrit retain some traces of the peculiar type of the Su class, the moderns entirely reject them and form as if from a Bhû root, thus H. " he can,” postulates a Sanskrit Tafa, and so with the other languages.

How the following verb came by its modern form I know not, but all the authorities agree in referring it to v ब्रू.

It is a very common word, and it is just these very common words that are the most difficult to trace. Perhaps a became at, and

बूर So बूल and बोल.

Skr. V“ speak,” ii. graifa and ga, Pr. aluf (Mșich. 230, end of Act vi.) Old H. qu (o is short in Pr.), H. ata, s. at, all the rest ata.


§ 14. In the above examples the modern verb retains the form of the present tense, but there is a tolerably large class of stems which retain the type of the p.p.p. of Sanskrit as modified by the Prakrits. These verbs express positions of the body, states or conditions whether material or mental, and the possession of qualities. The past participle of the Sanskrit has been treated as an adjective and a new verb formed form it, just as in English we have verbs “ to contract,” “ to respect,” “ to edit," from the Latin contractus, respectus, editus, the respective past participles of contrahere, respicere and edere.

The modern Romance languages often preserve a long string of nouns derived from a Latin verbal root, while they have lost the verb itself; for instance, French, while it possesses no verb


1 Since writing the above I see that Hemachandra gives bollaï as one of the ten Prakritisms of kath; he means it evidently not as derived from kath, which is impossible, but as a popular equivalent (Pischel's Hem. iv. 2). In the same sûtra he gives also sanghaï for kath, in which we see the origin of M. sânganento speak.” Hemachandra has also bolliai =kathayishyati (iv. 360), bollium=kathayitum, bolliem =kathyante (*), ib. 383. But he gives bruva as the equivalent of brû in iv. 391, so that the origin of bol still remains doubtful.

2 This process was indicated by me in Vol. I. p. 179. Hoernle afterwards discussed it as if it was his own discovery in Indian Antiquary, vol. i. p. 357. Perhaps he had not then seen my first volume.

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