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A. H. 59.

A. H. 62.

the Caliph Moavia. Saad was recalled in the

year 59, and Abdool Ruhman, the son of A.D.681. Zeead, who formerly invaded Kabul, was

nominated ruler of Khorassan. He was, subsequently, removed to make room for Sulim Bin

Zeead, in the year 62, by Yezeed, the A.D. 683. son of Moavia, who had then succeeded

to the Caliphate. Among the persons who accompanied Sulim to his new government was Mohalib, the son of Aby-Suffra. Shortly after his arrival in Khorassan, Sulim deputed his brother, Yezeed Bin Zeead, to Seestan. Not long after, Yezeed, having learned that the Prince of Kabul, throwing off his allegiance, had attacked and taken prisoner Aby Oobeyda, the son of Zeead, the late governor of Seestan, he marched with a force to recover that province, but was defeated in a pitched battle. When Sulim heard this news, he sent Tilla Bin Abdoolla, an officer of his court, as envoy to the court of Kabul, to ransom Aby Oobeyda; to obtain which object he paid 500,000 dirhems. Tilla afterwards received the government of Seestan as a reward for his services on this occasion, where, having collected a large force, he subdued Kabul, and Khalid Bin Abdoolla (said by some to be the son of Khalid Bin Wuleed, and by others the son of Aboo Jehl) was nominated to its government. Khalid being subsequently superseded, became apprehensive of returning to Arabia by the route of Persia, on account of the enemies he had in that country, and equally so of remaining in Kabul, under his sucHe retired, therefore, with his family,

cessor.

and a number of Arab retainers, into the Sooli. many mountains, situated between Mooltan and Pishawur, where he took up his residence, and gave his daughter in marriage to one of the Afghan chiefs, who had become a proselyte to Mahomedism. From this marriage many children were born, among whom were two sons famous in history. The one Lody, the other Soor; who each, subsequently, became head of the tribes which to this day bear their name.

I have read in the Mutla-ool-Anwar, a work written by a respectable author, and which I procured at Boorhanpoor, a town of Kandeish in the Dekkan, that the Afghans are Copts of the race of the Pharaohs; and that when the prophet Moses got the better of that infidel who was overwhelmed in the Red Sea, many of the Copts became converts to the Jewish faith ; but others, stubborn and self-willed, refusing to embrace the true faith, leaving their country, came to India, and eventually settled in the Soolimany mountains, where they bore the name of Afghans. At the time when Abraha marched against Mecca, he was accompanied by several tribes of infidels from far and near, and, on that occasion, a body of these

* This is one of many works to which Ferishta alludes, but whose names are not included among those from which he drew the materials of this history. I have in vain searched for the Mutla-ool-Anwar in India; for the fact quoted in this place might be more explicit in the original, and lead to important conclusions regarding the dispersion of the Jewish host after it left Egypt.

A. D. 682.

Afghans", it is said, also joined his forces. These tribes were eventually annihilated.

At the time of the settlement of Abdoolla, the Afghans, already converts to the true faith, received the Mahomedans among them, whose flocks and herds increased; and their agriculture flourished so rapidly, that in a few years afterwards, at the time of the invasion of Sind and Mooltan by Mahomed Kassim, they afforded protection to his followers

who remained with them. In the year 63, A. H.63. the Mahomedan Afghans, issuing from

their mountains, invaded and laid waste the inhabited countries, such as Kirman, Sheewuran, and Pishawur. The Raja of Lahore, who was related to the Ray t of Ajmeer, sent 1000 horse to attack and annihilate these marauders ; but the former being defeated with severe loss, the Raja despatched his nephew with a force of 2000 horse and 5000 infantry to make a second endeavour to expel them.

The Afghans having procured reinforcements from Khulij, Ghoor, and Kabul, to the number of four thousand men, marched against the Indian forces, The two armies fought, in the five ensuing months, seventy actions; but the winter setting in severely, the Indians were compelled to retreat to Lahore, an object which they effected with great difficulty. In the following spring the Indians again took the field, under their

* By this is meant evidently the race of Copts which refused to become converts to the Jewish or true faith,

+ The terms Ray and Raja will be found to be synonymous throughout the work.

former general. The Afghans met them on a plain between Kirman and Pishawur, where several indecisive actions took place, till at length the rainy season being about to commence, the Indians took the opportunity of a temporary advantage which they had gained over the Afghans to retreat by forced marches, so as to cross the Neelab while yet fordable. The same cause also induced the Mahomedans to return within their frontiers. About this period some disputes arising between the Gukkurs * and the Raja of Lahore, this race formed a treaty of alliance, defensive and offensive with the Afghans, who compelled the Raja of Lahore to submit to terms from the Gukkurs, to whom he could otherwise himself have dictated conditions.

This treaty included the cession of certain territories in perpetuity to the Gukkurs, and to the tribe of Khullij, which was permitted by the Afghans to reside in the country of Lumghan; it was secretly provided, also, that they should protect the Indian frontier from the Mahomedan invasions. The Mahomedan Afghans, notwithstanding, still continued their depredations, and advanced near Pishawur, where they erected a fort in the hills to which they gave the name of Khybur, subduing at the same time the province of Roh. This district extends from Swad and Beejowr, on the north, as far south as Seewy near Bhukkur in Sind;

* Mr. Elphinstone mentions this race of people, whom he encountered on his return from Kabul in the Punjab. Elph. Kabul, Introduction, p. 78.

and from east to west from Hussun-Abdall to Kabul and Kandahar.

During the reign of the Samany kings, the Afghans formed a barrier between the kingdom of Mooltan and Lahore, and thus we find the Samany troops always limited their predatory excursions to Sind and Tatta. When the government of Ghizny devolved on Aluptugeen, his general, Subooktugeen frequently invaded the provinces of Mooltan and Lumghan, carrying away its inhabitants as slaves, in spite of the efforts of the Afghans. Jeipal, the Raja of Lahore, concerted measures with the Bhattia * Raja, and being convinced that his troops were unable to withstand the inclemency of the northern climate so as to retaliate on the invaders, concerted measures with the Bhattia Raja to obtain the services of Sheikh Humeed, Afghan, who being appointed governor of Mooltan and Lumghan, placed garrisons of Afghan troops in those districts.

From that period the Afghans became military chiefs. On the death of Aluptugeen, Subooktugeen succeeded to his power; and Sheikh Humeed perceiving that his own country would, in all probability, suffer in the incursions with which Subooktugeen threatened India, united himself with that prince.

Subooktugeen, from motives of policy, avoided the districts of Sheikh Humeed by every means in his power; but his son Mahmood, on the contrary,

* He was

one of the princes tributary to the Raja of Lahore; his capital was Bhutnere, — Bulneer of Arrowsmith.

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