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A. H. 821.
A. D. 1418.

In the year 820, Mullik Toghan, chief A. H: 820. of those Toorks who had assassinated A, D, 1417.

Mullik Ladho, besieged Surhind with a considerable army. Zeeruk Khan, governor of Samana, being again ordered against him, Toghan retreated to the hills; but Zeeruk Khan overtook him at the village of Pail, compelled him to pay a heavy fine, and to give up his son as a hostage for his future conduct, as well as to expel the murderers of Mullik Ladho from his camp. After these arrangements, Mullik Toghan was allowed to retain possession of Jalendur; and Zeeruk Khan having returned to Samana, sent both the hostage and the amount realised from Mullik Toghan to the presence.

In the year 821, Khizr Khan having sent his minister against Nursing Ray,

the Raja of Kutehr, he plundered and laid waste that district, and proceeding to Budaoon, crossed the river at Etawa, on which place he imposed a contribution, and returned to Dehly. Khizr Khan subsequently marched in person to Kutehr, and on his route he attacked and defeated a formidable band of plunderers at Kole; he then crossed the Ganges, and having laid waste the country of Sumbhul and Kutehr, returned to his capital. After remaining at Dehly only a few days, he moved towards Budaoon. Mohabut Khan, governor of Budaoon, alarmed at his approach, shut himself up in the fort, to which the King laid siege for six months. In the course of the operations, Khizr Khan discovered that Kowam Khan, Yekhtyar Khan Lody, and several of the

old friends of the late King, Mahmood Toghluk, had formed a conspiracy against his life. This circumstance induced him to raise the siege of

Budaoon, and to retire to Dehly, where Jumad-oolAwul 20.

on the 20th of Jumad-ool-Awul, 822, A. H. 822. having assembled the conspirators, he July 18.

caused the household troops to fall upon A. D. 1419. them, and put them to death.

. About this time, also, the King understood that an impostor had appeared near Machiwara, assuming the name of Sarung Khan, and had collected a body of insurgents, though it was well known that Sarung Khan died during the time of Teimoor's invasion. To suppress this insurrection, Khizr Khan ordered Mullik Sooltan Shah Lody, entitled Islam Khan, at that time governor of Surhind, against the impostor, who being defeated fled to the hills, pursued by the joint forces of Mullik Toghan, governor of Jalendur, Zeeruk Khan, governor of Samana, and Mullik Kheir-ood-Deen, governor of Dooab. The impostor's army shortly after deserted him, each man withdrawing privately to his own home, and the Dehly forces, also separating, returned to their respective stations. In the following year the impostor appeared again, and joined Mullik Toghan, who had again gone into rebellion. Mullik Toghan, however, on discovering that his colleague possessed a large quantity of jewels, caused him to be assassinated; and marching to Surhind, he ravaged the country of Munsoorpoor and Pail on his route. The Dehly army, having attacked the insurgents, under Toghan, gave them a total defeat, and drove them entirely out of the kingdom.

In the year 824, Khizr Khan marched A. H. 824.

towards Mewat, taking and destroying A. D. 1421.

the fort of Kotla. In this year, also, the Vizier dying, that office was conferred on his son, Mullik Sikundur Tohfa. From Kotla, Khizr Khan marched towards Gualiar, where he raised contributions and returned to Etawa, exacting tribute from the son of Soomur Ray. Khizr

Khan, falling sick during this campaign, Jumad-oolAwul 17.

returned to Dehly, where he died on

the 17th of Jumad-ool-Awul, 824, after May 20.

a reign of seven years and a few A. D. 1421.

months. Khizr Khan was esteemed a just, a generous, and a benevolent prince, for the age in which he lived, on which account his death was much lamented by his subjects; and as a token of their respect for his memory the inhabitants of Dehly, by common consent, wore black for three days.

After this the nobles t, having assembled, consented to elevate Moobarik, the son of Khizr Khan, to the throne.

A. H. 824.

* It is worthy of remark, that the Mahomedans assume black garments as the garb of grief.

+ The circumstance of Khizr Khan not having assumed the title of King, and the fact of the nobles assembling to elect his son Moobarik to the throne, at once bespeak the power to which aristocracy had attained over despotism, and proves by how precarious a tenour the prince held his throne.

SYUD MOOBARIK

Succeeds his father. Insurrection in Punjab suppressed.

The minister appointed governor. Survur-ool-Moolk created vizier. New insurrection in Punjab. - The King of Malwa declares war against Dehly, and lays siege to Gualiar is compelled to retreat. Insurrection in Mewat suppressed. The King proceeds to Byana. - The King of Joonpoor makes war with the ruler of Kalpy. - The latter is assisted by the King of Dehly. - The rulers of Byana, Mewat, and Surhind, in open rebellion against the Dehly government. - Byana and Mewat reduced to obedience. - The ruler of Surhind invites the Moguls from Kabul to aid him. The King of Dehly retires from Surhind to Dehly. - The Moguls are attacked, and totally routed. - Revolt in Punjab. - The King's governor taken prisoner. The King proceeds in person, and recovers Punjab. Appoints a new governor.

Lahore taken by the Moguls and Gukkurs. Mullik Sikundur appointed generalissimo expels the Moguls and Gukkurs, and returns to court. The King becomes jealous of his minister. - The latter, apprehensive of the King, causes him to be assassinated.

Wuen Khizr Khan perceived, from the nature of his disorder, all hopes of recovery were at an end, he nominated his eldest son to succeed him. Accordingly, three days after his death, Moobarik ascended the throne, and assumed the title of Moiz-ood-Deen, Abool Futteh Moobarik. He raised his cousin, Mullik Budr, to high honours, and nominated Mullik Rujub to the government of Depalpoor and Punjab.

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A. H. 824.

May,

In the month of Jumad-ool-Awul he

received advices that Jusrut, the brother A. d. 1421. of Sheikha Gukkur, (who had the preceding year defeated and made captive Ally Shah, King of Kashmeer*, on his return from an expedition against Tutta,) presuming on his success, had come to the resolution to attempt the throne of Dehly. For this purpose Jusrut Gukkur invited Mullik Toghan, who had fled to the mountains, to join him, and he appointed him Aineer-col-Omra, or general-in-chief of his troops. Their first operations were directed against Punjab; and having seized Lahore, they secured the person of Zeeruk Khan, governor of Jalendur, which they also took, and subsequently besieged Islam Khan in the fort of Surhind.

Syud Moobarik, in spite of the rainy season, which was then at its height, marched from Dehly; but on his approaching Surhind he found Jusrut Gukkur had raised the siege and retreated to Lodhana. Here Zeeruk Khan contrived to effect his escape, and joined the King. The Dehly army now advanced towards Lodhana, where they perceived Jusrut Gukkur encamped on the opposite bank. He had secured all the boats on the river, a circumstance which obliged the King to halt at Shuval 11. Kubboolpoor till the stream became A. H. 824. fordable. On the 11th of Shuval, MulOctober 8. lik Sikundur (the Vizier), Zeeruk Khan, A. D. 1421.

Mahmood Hussun, Mullik Kaloo, and

* The kings of Kashmeer are the only Mahomedan monarchs of India who are unconnected with the Dehly empire : their history forms a separate chapter in this work.

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