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night was deserted by a number of omras, who went over with their forces to Alla-ood-Deen. The Prince now perceived that there was no safety but in flight. Taking, therefore, his mother, the haram, and treasure with him, he set out for Mooltan, accompanied by Mullik Rujub, Kootb-ood-Deen Oolvy, Ahmud Hubeeb, and Ameer Julal. The citizens, after the departure of the young King, crowded to pay their respects to Alla-ood-Deen, who causing new coin to be struck in his name, made a pompous and triumphant entry into Dehly,

in the latter end of the year 696, and asA. D. 1996. cended the throne, in the ruby palace.

He commenced his reign by splendid shows, and grand festivals, and encouraged every description of gaiety, which so pleased the unthinking rabble, that they soon lost all memory of their former King, and of the horrid scene which had placed the present one on the throne. He who ought to have been viewed with detestation, became the object of admiration to those who could not see the blackness of his deeds through the splendour of his munificence.

Whilst obtaining by these means popularity with the lower classes, he endeavoured also to secure the good will of the great by conferring titles, and of the venal and avaricious by gifts. The office of vizier was conferred upon Khwaja Khuteer, a man renowned for his virtue in those degenerate times. Kazy Sudr-ood-Deen Aarif, entitled Sudri-Jehan, was made chief justice in the civil court; and Oomdut-ool-Moolk, Mullik Humeed-oodDeen, and Mullik Eiz-ood-Deen, were raised to the offices of secretaries. Both were men of great learning and talents. Noosrut Khan was appointed Kotwal of Dehly; Mullik Fukhrood-Deen Koochy was raised to the dignity of chief justice in the criminal court, and Mullik Zuffur Khan to that of chief secretary; many others were also raised to high offices, which it would be tedious to enumerate. Alla-ood-Deen Khiljy, having bestowed six months' pay on his whole army, began to concert measures for extirpating the descendants of the late Julal-ood-Deen Feroze. He despatched Aluf Khan his brother, and Zuffur Khan, with forty thousand horse, towards Mooltan. They, on their arrival, invested that city, and laid siege to it for two months. At length the citizens and troops, betraying the cause of the Princes Arkully Khan and Kuddur Khan, surrendered the place on condition of the lives of the Princes being spared, for the fulfilment of which Aluf Khan gave the most solemn assur


The object of this expedition being attained, Aluf Khan wrote to his brother an account of his success, which was read in all the public pulpits after prayers, and great rejoicings were ordered to be made on the occasion. Aluf Khan, meantime, proceeded in triumph with his army, and brought his state-prisoners towards Dehly. He was met on his way by Mullik Noosrut Khan Kotwal, and was informed that the King had commanded the eyes of the prisoners to be put out. This cruel order was not only carried into effect on the two

princes, but was extended to Oghloo Khan*, the grandson of the great Chungiz Khan, to Ahmud Hubeeb, and to others of less, note. All their effects were also confiscated. The two unfortunate princes were then imprisoned in the fort of Hansy, where they were soon after assassinated; while the Queen-dowager Mullika Jehan, and all the ladies of the late King's haram, and his other children, were confined at Dehly.

In the second year of this reign, Khwaja Khuteer was dismissed from the office of vizier, which was conferred on Noosrut Khan. This minister demanded the restoration of all the sums that the King, at his accession, had bestowed on the nobility and people, a measure which created great disgust, and led to disturbances. During these transactions, advices reached Dehly, that Ameer Dawood, King of Mawur-ool-Nuhr, had prepared an army of 100,000 Moguls, with a design to conquer Mooltan, Punjab, and Sind, and that he was then actually advancing with great expedition, carrying every thing before him with fire and sword. Alla-ood-Deen detached his brother Aluf Khan, to oppose the invaders ; and the two armies met in the districts of Lahore, where a bloody conflict ensued, in which the Moguls were defeated with the loss of 12,000 men, and many of their chiefs. A great number of prisoners of all ranks was taken, who were put to the sword some days after, without sparing even

* Oghloo Khan married the daughter of the late King, and Ahmed Hubeeb was his sister's son.

A. H. 697.

the women and children captured in the Mogul camp. This victory raised the fame of the King's arms, established his power at home, and overawed his foreign enemies. Alla-ood-Deen, about this time, by the advice of his brother Aluf Khan, seized many omras, who, in the late revolution, had taken advantage of the distresses of the Prince Arkully Khan, and of the Queen-mother, to obtain from them large sums of money for their services. He caused these people to be deprived of sight, and their estates to be confiscated, by which means he added considerable wealth to his own coffers.

In the beginning of the year 697,

Aluf Khan, the King's brother, and A. D. 1297.

Noosrut Khan, the Vizier, were sent with an army to reduce Guzerat. Accordingly, having laid waste the country, they occupied Nehrwala the capital, which was deserted by its prince (Ray Kurrun), who fled, and took protection with Ram Dew, King of Dewgur, in the Deccan. By the aid of that prince, Ray Kurrun soon after returned, and took up his residence in Buglana, one of the districts dependent on Guzerat, bordering upon Ram Dew's dominions; but his wives, children, elephants, baggage, and treasure, fell into the hands of the Mahomedans.

Among the captives, was his beautiful wife Kowla Devy. After this exploit, Noosrut Khan proceeded with a part of the army to Cambay, which being a rich country, and full of merchants, yielded a prodigious booty. It was on this occasion that Noosrut Khan seized by force one Kafoor, a handsome slave belonging to a merchant of Cambay. This

person afterwards gained great distinction, and attained to much eminence under the title of Mullik Kafoor. When the Mahomedans had sufficiently satisfied their avarice, and quenched their thirst for blood, they appointed governors to the provinces, and leaving part of the army for their defence, returned towards Dehly. On the army reaching Jalwur, on its return to the capital, the two generals made a demand of the fifth of the spoil from the troops, besides what they had already realised for themselves. This step produced a mutiny in the camp. Mahomed Shah, general of the mercenary Moguls, with many other chiefs, placed themselves at the head of their several divisions. One party attacked Mullik Eiz-ood-Deen, the brother of the Vizier (Noosrut Khan), and slew him with a number of his people; another party proceeded to the quarters of Aluf Khan (the King's brother), who fled on foot to the Vizier's tent, so that the mutineers not finding him, killed the King's nephew (by a sister,) who happened to be sleeping there, supposing him to be Aluf Khan. By this time, the alarm induced the Vizier to cause the drums to beat to arms, and the trumpets to be sounded; those not concerned in the mutiny, conceiving that the enemy was at hand, quickly fell into their stations, and the mutineers separating, dispersed, and escaping in the confusion, fled by different routes to a place of rendezvous. They were, however, closely pursued the next day, and forced to retreat, with some loss, to the districts of Bheem Dew, Raja of Runtunbhore, where

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