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ood-Deen Bulbun used to affirm, that one of the greatest sources of the pride of his reign was, that “ upwards of fifteen of the unfortunate sovereigns “ from Toorkistan, Mawur-ool-Nehr, Khorassan,

Irak, Ajum, Azoorbaizam, Iran, and Room, who o had been driven from their countries by the “ arms of Chungiz Khan, were enabled to find “ an honourable asylum at his court at Dehly." Princely allowances and palaces were assigned to each, and, on public occasions, they ranged themselves before the throne according to their rank; all standing on the right and left, except two princes of the race of the Caliphs, who were permitted to sit on either side of the musnud. The parts of the town in which the royal emigrants resided took their names from the princes who occupied them, and were denominated Mohullas ;

such as

The Mohulla Abassy.

Khwaruzm Shahy.

The Mohulla Roomy.


In the retinue of those princes were some of the most illustrious men of learning whom Asia at that time produced. The court of India, therefore, in the days of Gheias-ood-Deen Bulbun, was esteemed the most polite and magnificent in the world. A society of learned men assembled frequently at the house of the prince, commonly known by the name of Khan Shaheed, at which the Ameer Khoosrow of Dehly, the poet, presided. Another society of musicians, dancers, actors, and story-tellers *, frequently met at the house of the King's second son, Kurra Khan Bagera, who delighted in such amusements. The omras followed the example of their superiors, so that various societies were formed in every quarter of the city, and the King's taste for splendour in his palaces, equipages, and liveries, was imitated by the courtiers.

* “ Parish," or ward.

So imposing were the ceremonies of introduction to the royal presence, that none could approach the throne without a mixture of awe and admiration. Nor was Gheias-ood-Deen Bulbun less splendid in his processions. His state elephants were covered with purple and gold trappings. His horseguards, consisting of a thousand Tartars, appeared in glittering armour, mounted on the finest steeds of Persia and Arabia, with silver bits, and housings of rich embroidery. Five hundred chosen foot, in rich liveries, with drawn swords, preceded him, proclaiming his approach, and clearing the way. His nobles followed according to their rank, with their various equipages and attendants. The Nowrozet

* The kissa go's, or story-tellers, of the East, are so famed, that any particular notice of them seems unnecessary. A lively description of Persian story-tellers will be found in a deservedly popular work, lately published, entitled Sketches of Persia, vol. i. chap. xi. p. 175, &c.

+ Nowroze is the festival of the vernal equinox.

and other festivals, and the anniversary of his own birth, were held with much pomp.

As an instance of his inflexible justice, it is related that Mullik Feiz Shirwany, the son of the keeper of the royal wardrobe, an officer of rank, who maintained a guard of 1000 horsemen, and was governor of the province of Budaoon, put to death one of his personal dependents, with his own hand, while in a state of drunkenness. After some time, Gheias-ood-Deen Bulbun happened to go in person to Budaoon, when the widow of the deceased came to complain of the injury. The governor, Mullik Feiz, was sent for, and tried, and was beaten to death in the presence of the whole court, after which his body was hung over the gate of the town. Another instance is also mentioned of one Hybut Khan, an officer of the household troops, who held the government of Oude, who also put a person to death while in a state of intoxication. On the complaint coming before the King, and the fact being proved, the governor received a public whipping of 500 lashes, and was given over as a slave to the widow of the deceased; nor did he procure his release till he had paid 20,000 silver tunkas for his ransom, after which he kept his house and soon died. Gheiasood-Deen used to tell his children, that Shums-oodDeen Altmish said, in his presence, that he heard Syed Moobaruk Ghizny twice repeat to Mahomed Ghoory, that “kings were too apt to conduct them“ selves as if they were gods upon earth, contrary “ to the ordinances of prophets and of religion ; “but, said this holy man, a king can only be saved

“ from perdition by the exercise of four duties, “ and if there be a deficiency in any one of “ these, no mortal will be subject to more rigid “ scrutiny, or meet with less mercy on the day of

judgment.” These duties are, 1st, “ To as

sume dignity, and exercise power at proper sea“ sons, and allow nothing to induce him to forget " the majesty of God, or the happiness of his subjects. 2dly, Not to permit immorality and in

decency to be openly practised within his realm, “ without imposing heavy fines, or some other “punishment. 3dly, To make selections from men “ of character for the offices of government, and “ not to permit men of notoriously vicious habits “ to find an asylum within his realm. 4thly, To be “ patient and just in the administration of justice.

“ These are the rules," said this Prince, “which I “ have adopted for my own conduct; they are those

on which I hope my successor will also act; “ and I warn you, that, although you are my own “ children, you will meet with no consideration on “ that account, if you infringe the laws of the “ empire.”

Gheias-ood-Deen Bulbun, in his youth, was addicted to the use of wine; but, on his accession to the throne, he became a great enemy to this luxury, prohibiting the use and manufacture of fermented liquors throughout his dominions, under the severest penalties. So rigid was he in enforcing his authority, that, for the disobedience of one man, he would order a force to the remotest parts of the empire, if necessary, to bring him to punishment. In cases of insurrection or rebellion, he was not satisfied, as

A. H. 664.
A. D. 1265.

had formerly been the custom, to chastise the leaders, but he extended the capital punishment of high treason to the meanest of their vassals and adherents. This severity rendered it necessary for the Soobas to have the King's mandate for every military expedition or act of hostility which they undertook.

That his army might be kept in constant exercise, he led them out twice every week to hunt for forty or fifty miles round the city, and established laws for the preservation of the game.

In the year 664, he was advised by his council to undertake an expedition to

reduce the kingdoms of Guzerat and Malwa, which had been annexed to the empire by Kootb-ood-Deen Eibuk, but had since shaken off the Mahomedan yoke. To this measure he by no means assented, saying, that the Mogul Tartars were become so powerful in the north, having conquered all the Mussulman Princes, that he thought it wiser to secure what he possessed, than leave his country unprotected from foreign invasion. In this same year, Mahomed Tatar Khan, the son of Arslan Khan, who during the late reign had neglected to remit the annual revenue, sent 63 elephants, and other presents, as a peace-offering from his government of Luknowty, which were graciously received ; and from that day the supremacy of Dehly was re-established. In the course of this year, an army was ordered to extirpate a plundering banditti of Mewatties, who had occupied an extensive tract about eighty miles south-east of the capital, towards the hills, from whence they

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