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princes, kept no concubines. He had but one wife, whom he obliged to do every homely part of housewifery. When she complained, one day, that she had burnt her fingers in baking his bread, and desired he would allow her a maid to assist her, he rejected her request, saying, that he was only a trustee for the state, and was determined not to burden it with needless expenses. He therefore exhorted her to persevere in her duty with patience, and God would reward her on the day of judgment.

As the Emperor of India never eats in public, the table of Nasir-ood-Deen was rather that of a hermit than suitable to a great king; and after his accession to the throne he continued the whim. sical habit of purchasing his food from the efforts of his penmanship.

One day as a nobleman was inspecting a Koran of the King's writing before him, he pointed out the word Fee, which was written twice over: the King looking at it, smiled, and drew a circle round it. But when the critic was gone, he began to erase the circle, and restore the word. This being observed by one of his old attendants, he begged to know his Majesty's reason for so doing; to which he replied, that he knew the word was originally right, but he thought it better to erase it from a paper, than touch the heart of a poor man by bringing him to shame.

In the year 663, the King fell sick, A.D. 1264. Jumad-ool

and having lingered some months of Awul 11. the disease, he expired on the 11th February 18.

Jumad-ool-Awul, 664, after a reign of A. D. 1266. twenty years and upwards.

A. H. 663.

A. H. 664.


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His early life and character his conduct on his accession to

the throne his repugnance to the employment of men of low origin - his court the resort of many of the princes and nobles expelled by Chungiz Khan and the Moguls from their own dominions his encouragement of learned men.- Description of his court and equipage. - Singular instance of stern justice.Makes war on the Mewatties.—100,000 Mewatties put to death. -The army employed to fell the forests of Mewat, which become good arable lands. The King marches an army to Lahore, and repairs the city walls. - Settles pensions on the old officers of the army-The King's nephew, Sheer Khan, dies-is buried in a magnificent tomb at Bhutnere. Moguls invade the Punjab. - The King's eldest son Mahomed opposes and defeats them is made governor of Mooltan. Toghrul Khan, ruler of Bengal, revolts. - An army is sent against him, which is defeated, and the general slain. The King proceeds in person to quell the revolt. - Toghrul flies to Orissa - is pursued by the King's army, and slain. - The King returns to Dehly, after an absence of three years. The Prince Mahomed comes to the capital - his father's advice to him.Moguls invade Punjab. The Prince marches against them - defeats them, but is himself killed in the action his romantic gallantry - his character. - The King's grief for the loss of his son. Appoints the Prince's son, Kei Khoosrow, to succeed him in Mooltan. The King's health gradually declines. Sends for his son Kurra Khan, governor of Bengal, who comes, but again quits the capital. - The King makes

* This prince has been usually called Balin by most European writers. Erskine, in his edition of Baber's Commentaries, I find, styles him Bulbun; and I perceive the Hindoo authors give him the same name. Bulbun is also the reading I have universally found adopted by the best informed natives of India.

his will in favour of his grandson Kei Khoosrow, governor of Mooltan. Death of Gheias-ood-Deen Bulbun. Mullik Fukhr-ood-Deen Kotwal opposes the succession of Kei Khoosrow, but raises Kei Kobad, the son of Kurra Khan, to the throne.

GHEIAS-00D-DEEN BULBUN was a prince of just principles, and endowed with many great and amiable qualities. He was a Toork of Kurra Khutta, and of the tribe of Albery. In his youth he was taken by the Moguls, that conquered his country, and sold him to a merchant, who conveyed him to Bagdad. His father was a chief of great power, and commanded 10,000 horse in the war in which our young hero was carried off. He was bought at Bagdad, in the year 630, by Khwaja Jumal-ood-Deen, of Bussora, a person famed for his piety and learning. His patron, having ascertained that he was of the same tribe as Shums-ood-Deen Altmish, conveyed him to Dehly, and, presenting him to that monarch, was rewarded so handsomely, that he returned with an independent fortune to Bagdad.

Shums-ood-Deen Altmish employed him first in the superintendence of his falconry, in which he was very skilful. He rose by degrees from that station, by the influence of his brother Eibuk Kishly Khan, (who happened to be then in great favour at the court of Dehly,) till he became a noble. In the reign of Rookn-oodDeen Feroze he commanded in Punjab, when, on hearing that his enemies at court had exasperated the King against him, he refused to obey the royal mandate to return, and long maintained

independent possession of the province. Having subsequently joined the confederate chiefs who marched to Dehly to depose Sooltana Ruzeea Begum, he was taken prisoner, and remained some time in confinement; but, effecting his escape, he joined the party of Beiram against the Queen. During the reign of Beiram he was particularly befriended by Budr-ood-Deen, the Ameer Hajib, through whose influence he procured the government of Hansy and Rewary, in which office he distinguished himself in several actions against the inhabitants of Mewat.

During the reign of Alla-ood-Deen Musaood, in the year 642, he was promoted to the office of Ameer Hajib, and in the late reign of Nasir-oodDeen Mahmood he was raised to the vizarut, which high office he filled in such a manner as to relieve the King from all anxiety and embarrassment, and on the death of his sovereign, who was also his brother-in-law, he ascended the throne not only without opposition, but even with the general consent of the nobility and people.

In the reign of Shums.ood-Deen Altmish, forty of his Toorky slaves, who were in great favour, entered into a solemn covenant to support each other, and on the King's death to divide the empire among themselves. Jealousies and dissen. sions afterwards arose among them, and prevented this project from being carried into execution. Gheias-ood-Deen Bulbun was of this number, and as several of them had succeeded to great power in the kingdom, the first act of his reign was to rid himself of all who remained. Among

these was his own nephew, the celebrated Sheer Khan.

The death of these chiefs removed all apprehension from his mind, and he afterwards became so renowned for his justice and the wisdom of his administration, that his alliance was courted by the kings of Persia and Tartary. He took particular care that none but men of merit and family should be admitted to any public office, and for this purpose he endeavoured to make himself acquainted with the talents and connections of every person about his court. While, on the one hand, he was liberal in rewarding merit, on the other, he was no less rigid in punishing vice ; for whoever misbehaved in his station was certain of being immediately disgraced. He made it a rule never to place any Hindoo in a situation of trust or power, lest that race should employ its delegated authority to the destruction of the Mahomedans.

During a reign of 22 years he scrupulously ex. cluded men of low origin from his court; and being one day told that one Fukhroo, an old servant of the state, who had acquired a vast fortune by usury and by monopolies in the bazaar, would present him with some laks of rupees if he would honour him with one word from the throne, he rejected the proposal with disdain, and said, " What must his subjects think of a king who o should condescend to hold discourse with such a

creature ?"

In the history of these times, compiled from the Tubkat Nasiry and other works, besides that of Ein-ood-Deen Beejapoory, it is stated, that Gheias

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