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A. H. 642.
A.D. 1244.

by their brother Beiram, conferred upon the former the government of Byraich, and to the

latter he gave that of Kunowj. In the year 612 an army of Mogul Tartars made an

incursion into Bengal, by the way of Khutta and Thibet. * It is generally supposed they entered by the same route which Mahomed Bukhtyar Khiljy took when he invaded Khutta and Thibet from Bengal. † Musaood sent Mullik Kurra Beg Teimoor to the aid of Toghan Khan, governor of Bengal. The Mogul sustained a total defeat; but jealousy soon after breaking out be. tween Mullik Kurra Beg and Toghan Khan, they proceeded to open hostilities; and the King directed Toghan Khan to resign the government to Mullik Kurra Beg, and to return to Dehly. In the following year, intelligence arrived that another army of Moguls, from Kandahar and Talikhan, under the command of Mungoo Khan, had advanced as far as the Indus, and invested Oocha. The King immediately ordered his army into the field, and putting himself at its head, marched against the enemy. When he reached the banks of the river Beea, the Moguls raised the siege of Oocha, and began to retreat; and the King, hearing they had totally evacuated the country, returned to Dehly.

Shortly after this, abandoning himself to wine and women, he exercised various acts of cruelty, injustice, and oppression, in spite of the adıno

* If this statement can be relied on, it is extremely curious.

+ Mullik Mahomed Bukhtyar made an invasion into Chinese Tartary, either through Nepal or Assam, it does not appear certain which, but, probably, Assam.

nition of his ministers and friends. The princes and nobles, unwilling to submit to his caprice and wickedness, privately sent for Nasir.ood-Deen Mahmood, the King's uncle, from Byraich, who advanced with all the troops at his command to the capital.

He found the imbecile Musaood Mohurrum 23. already deposed, on the 230 Mohur. A. H. 644. rum, A. H. 614. He had been cast

June 10. into prison by the nobles, and was A. D. 1246.

allowed to remain there the rest of his life. He reigned four years, one month, and one day.


Life of the King previously to his accession - his love of liter

ature - his remarkable character. Gheias-ood-Deen Bulbun, the King's brother-in-law, appointed minister.— Bulbun's nephew, Sheer Khan, nominated governor of the north-west provinces, to keep in check the Mogul incursions. The King transfers the whole weight of the government on his minister. - The King proceeds to Mooltan. - The minister attacks the Gukkurs for having united with the Moguls in their incursions. - The Gukkurs defeated, and several thousands carried into slavery. Several of the ancient nobles holding estates in Punjab on feudal tenure directed to reside at court, while their sons are left in possession of them.-The King returns to Dehly - proceeds to the Doab, lying between the Jumna and Ganges

- reduces some Hindoo rajas proceeds to Runtunbhore. The King recalls his brother Julal from Kunowj the latter withdraws from the kingdom to Chittoor. --The King espouses the daughter of his minister Bulbun.- Eiz-ood-Deen Bulbun, another chief of the same tribe, is made governor of Oocha and Nagore rebels but is subsequently pardoned. - The King besieges Nurwur, which is taken. - Chundery and part of Malwa subdued and occupied by the King's troops. Sheer Khan, the minister's nephew, governor of Punjab, marches to Ghizny, and expels the Moguls. - Oocha and Nagore made over to Sheer Khan. Imad-ood-Deen Zunjany intrigues against the minister Gheias-ood-Deen Bulbun, who retires to his estate at Hansy. Hansy taken from him. The ex-minister has recourse to arms the nobles of the court support him is restored to his office. Imad-ood-Deen Zunjany, ex-minister, rebels - is defeated, and suffers death. - Kootloogh Khan in rebellion is joined by the ruler of Sind - they are defeated by the minister. - The ruler of Sind retires to his government, where he dies. Kootloogh Khan disappears. - The Rajpoots of Mewat in insurrection - are attacked by the minister desperate conflict. Mewatties subdued with heavy loss. — 200 of their leaders pui to death after being taken prisoners. – An embassy is received from Hoolakoo, King of Persia. Splendid reception of the ambassador. Character of Nasir-cod-Deen his death.

We have already related that when the eldest son of Shums-ood-Deen Altmish died in Bengal, he conferred the government of that principality on his youngest son Mahmood, to whom he also gave the title of Nasir-ood-Deen. These were nominal honours, as Mahmood was at that time too young to assume the charge. At his father's death he was confined by the cruel Queen, Shah Toorkan, and remained in prison till released by the late King Musaood, who gave him the government of Byraich. During the period of his administration, he waged successful wars with the infidels, and rendered his province happy and Aourishing. The fame of his justice and good management became notorious, and the nobles, in the late revolution, naturally looked towards him as

successor to the crown. He was accordingly seated on the throne of his father Shums-ood-Deen Altmish, of which, independently of his birth, on account of his bravery, wisdom, and learning, together with his many other good qualities, he seemed peculiarly fitted to become the ornament. During his imprisonment he preferred maintaining himself by his writings to accepting any public allowance ; and he used often to say, that he who would not work for his bread did not deserve it. When he ascended the throne he became the patron of learning, the protector of the people, and the friend

of the poor.

The poets of the age vied with each other for the prize at his coronation, which was gained by Minhaj-oos-Siraj Joorjany, who afterwards compiled the Tubkat Nasiry, which he dedicated to Nasir-ood-Deen Mahmood. The office of minister was conferred on Mullik Gheias-oodDeen Bulbun, junior, who was originally the slave of Shums-ood-Deen Altmish, and afterwards received the hand of his sovereign's daughter. Bulbun now received the title of Alugh Khan, and the whole executive power of government was vested in him. Gheias-ood-Deen's nephew, Sheer Khan, received the title of Maazim Khan, and was appointed to the government of the Punjab, Mooltan, Bhutnere, and Surhind, and was directed to maintain a standing army to watch the motions of the Moguls, who now occupied the provinces of Ghizny, Kabul, Kandahar, Bulkh, and Hirat. The forts of Bhutnere and Surhind were rebuilt at this time by Sheer Khan. It is related when Nasir-ood-Deen appointed Gheiasood-Deen Bulbun, junior, to the office of vizier, he told him, that he confided his own honour to his loyalty and good conduct, enjoining him to do nothing for which he could not answer to God. The Vizier faithfully promised to fulfil the King's wishes, and, by exerting himself with unwearied diligence in his office, regulated public business so well, that nothing escaped his eye, or passed without his particular inspection.

In the month of Rujub, the King Rujub, A. H. 644.

took the field, and marched toward July, A. D. 1247.

Mooltan. The army encamped for

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