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Mabomed Ghoory, in his last expedition to India, conferred on Taj-ood-Deen the privilege of carrying the black standard of Ghizny, an honour which was usually confined to the heir apparent. On the death of that monarch, the Toorky officers espoused the cause of the Prince Mahmood, the son of Gheias-ood-Deen; but Mahmood being unambitious, and naturally indolent, declined the additional cares of the Ghizny government, and remained satisfied with the throne of his ancestors at Ghoor; he, however, assumed the imperial title, and proclaimed Taj-ood-Deen Yeldooz King of Ghizny, content to receive homage from that chief.

The first act of Taj.ood-Deen, after his accession, was the invasion of the Punjab, and the seizure of Lahore, as we have seen in the former reign, on which occasion, being defeated by Kootb-ood-Deen Eibuk, he lost his kingdom, which he, however, soon after regained. At length, in conjunction with the King Mahmood of Ghoor, he sent an army to Herat, which he reduced, as also great part of Seestan. Mahmood also engaged in war with Mahomed Shah, King of Khwaruzm. Mahomed Shah, following up his successes, took Ghizny, and compelled Taj-ood-Deen Yeldooz to retire to Kirman. Yeldooz, finding the northern hordes an overmatch forhim, recruited his army, and marched, some time after the death of Kootb-ood-Deen Eibuk, with a view to conquer India. After reducing a few of the northern districts, he was defeated near Dehly by Shums-ood-Deen Altmish, and being taken prisoner, died in confinement. The whole length of his reign was nine years. As we have already

given the history of two of Mahomed Ghoory's adopted slaves, who assumed the title of King, it may not be improper here to say something of Baha-ood-Deen Toghrul, who raised himself from the same low situation. Baha-ood-Deen Toghrul was a chief of some repute in the service of Mahomed Ghoory. When the fort of Byana was taken, the command of it was given to Baha-oodDeen Toghrul, and the King proceeded himself to Gualiar, as we have seen before. But after he left Hindoostan, Toghrul continued to infest the country about Gualiar, having been assured by the King at his departure, that if he conquered the place, he would confirm him in its government.

Seeing that all his efforts were unavailing, owing to the garrison finding means of obtaining supplies, he ordered small forts to be built all round, in which he placed garrisons, and by this means effectually blockaded the hills. It held out, how. ever, nearly a whole year ; when, being distressed for provisions, the Raja sent a deputation privately to Kootb-ood-Deen Eibuk to come and take possession of the place, rather than deliver it into the hands of Baha-ood-Deen Toghrul. Kootb-oodDeen Eibuk accordingly sent his troops to occupy Gualiar, a circumstance which had nearly produced a war between the two chiefs. Death, however, terminated the feud, for at this moment, Toghrul suddenly expired. The actions of the other two princes, formerly slaves of Mahomed Ghoory, will be found in the histories of Sind and Bengal, to which they more properly belong.

ARAM

Succeeds his father on the throne at Dehly. - Dissensions in the

state. -Mooltan and Oocha taken and occupied by Nasir-oodDeen Koobacha. Bengal usurped by Mahomed Bukhtyar Khiljy. - Imbecility of Aram apparent. - A deputation from the nobles wait on Shums-ood-Deen Altmish, the son-in-law of Kootb-ood-Deen Eibuk, inviting him to ascend the throne.Aram opposes Altmish, but is defeated, and loses his kingdom.

AFTER the death of Kootb-ood-Deen, his son Aram ascended the throne of Dehly, though he was ill adapted to govern such an empire. Nasirood-Deen Koobacha, one of the adopted slaves of Mahomed Ghoory, marched with an army towards Sind, which he conquered, as also Mooltan, Oocha, Shivuran, and other places. Mahomed Bukhtyar Khiljy, another of the slaves of Mahomed Ghoory, having possessed himself of Bengal, asserted his in. dependence; and at the same time other dependent chiefs threw off their allegiance in many parts of the empire.

In this state of affairs, Ameer Ally Ismael, and Ameer Daood Delimy, together with other nobles at Dehly, becoming discontented, sent a deputation to Shums-ood-Deen Altmish, the son-in-law and adopted son of Kootb-ood-Deen Eibuk (then governor of Budaoon), inviting him to ascend the throne. Shums-ood-Deen, without hesitation,

marched his army to Dehly, and by the assistance of his party met with a cordial reception.

Aram, fearful of trusting himself in his capital, had previously withdrawn into the country, and having recruited a fine army, advanced and gave battle to Shums-ood-Deen Altmish within sight of the city, in which Aram lost the victory, and with it his kingdom, which he enjoyed scarcely one year.

SHUMS-OOD-DEEN ALTMISH:

His origin - espouses the daughter of Kootb-ood-Deen Eibuk

is created general-in-chief of the King's army deposes his brother-in-law Aram, and ascends the throne. Dissensions in the state. - The Toorky cavalry quit him, and sometime after march to Dehly to dethrone him. The Toorks are defeated. - Taj-ood-Deen Yeldooz, being expelled from Ghizny by the troops of Khwaruzm Shah, occupies Punjab, and even seizes on Tahneswur is defeated by Altmish, and taken - dies in prison. - Altmish defeats Nasir-oodDeen Koobacha of Mooltan, in two actions in Punjab proceeds to Bengal, and establishes his authority over Gheiasood-Deen, the son of Mahomed Bukhtyar Khiljy leaves his son Nasir-ood-Deen Mahmood in Behar. The latter defeats and kills Gheias-ood-Deen Bukhtyar in battle, and secures the occupation of Bengal. Shums.ood-Deen Altmish proceeds to Mooltan - expels Nasir-ood-Deen Koobacha, and leaves his minister, Nizam-ool-Moolk Jooneidy, in charge. Shumsood-Deen reduces Runtunbhore, Mando, and all Malwa. An embassy from the Caliph arrives at Dehly. - Nasir-oodDeen Mahmood, the King's eldest son, dies in Bengal. The title and territory conferred on the King's youngest son. The King retakes Gualiar, which had fallen into the hands of the Hindoos takes Bhilsa and Oojein - proceeds towards Mooltan is taken ill on the road returns to Dehly his death.

It is related in the Tubkat Nasiry, that Shumsood-Deen Altmish was a descendant, on his mother's side, from a noble family of Khutta, and that his father was of the tribe of Albery, and was called Eelum Khan. In his youth he was the favourite of his father, and being envied by the

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