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Patronises literature. Mahomed Bhyleem makes conquests in

India - aspires at independence - is defeated by the King, and he and his ten sons are killed. - Sooltan Beiram seizes and puts to death his son-in-law, Kootb-ood-Deen Ghoory. Seif-ood-Deen Soor, the brother of Kootb-ood-Deen, revenges his death - marches to Ghizny, which is evacuated by Beiram.

The King returns to his capital. The inhabitants of Ghizny betray Seif-ood-Deen into the hands of Beiram, by whom he is put to death with great ignominy. Alla-oodDeen Soor marches from Gkoor to avenge his brother's death. - Battle of Ghizny. - Beiram defeated retires to Lahore - his death.

Sooltan BEIRAM, the son of Musaood, was blessed with a noble and generous disposition. Having an uncommon thirst for knowledge, he was a great promoter of literature, and proved himself a liberal patron of learned men. Many of these resorted to his court, particularly Sheikh Nizamy, the author of the Mukhzun-asrar, dedicated to that monarch, and Syud Hussun Ghiznevy, both of them poets, and philosophers of great fame. Several works were, by his order, translated from various languages into the Persian tongue; among which was an Indian book, called the Kuleel-00-Dumna. This work was sent formerly, before the dissolution of the Hindoo empire of India, by the king of that country, accompanied with a chess-board, to Nowsherwan, King of Persia, surnamed the Just,

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when it was rendered into the Pihlvy tongue by Boozoorjmehr, his vizier. Boozoorjmehr, after compre. hending the game of chess, is reported to have won several games from the ambassador who brought it, and who was famed for his skill in the game of « Nurd,” which it is said was invented on this occasion by Boozoojmehr, the minister of the Persian king. The present of the chess-board was said to be intended as an experiment of the genius of the minister, and to indicate, that in the great game of state, attention and foresight were of more importance than chance; while the book, in its whole tenour, strongly inculcated that wise maxim, that wisdom is always in the end an overmatch for strength. The nurd table, which was returned, signified, that attention and foresight alone cannot always ensure success; but that we must play the game of life, according to the casts of fortune.

The Kuleel-oo-Dumna, translated into Pihlvy from Sanscrit, in the reign of Nowsherwan, was rendered into Arabic, by Ibn-ool-Mukba, in the reign of Haroon-ool-Rusheed, and in the reign of Sooltan Beiram Ghiżnevy it was converted into Persian from the Arabic, and subsequently, in the reign of Sooltan Hoossein Mirza Khwaruzmy, Moolla Hussun Waiz Kashfy rendered the old Persian work, full of Arabic words, and of Arabic poetry, into plain and elegant Persian, to which he gave the name of Anwar Soheily. Beiram, in the

* A game not unlike backgammon. It is known in England by its Hindù name, pachees.

Rumzan 27.

days of his prosperity, went twice into Hindoostan, to chastise his refractory subjects, and the collectors of the revenue.

On the first occasion he reduced Mahomed Bhyleem, who had charge of the government of Lahore on the part of his brother Arslan. Having defeated and

taken him prisoner, on the 27th of A. H. 512.

Rumzan, in the year 512, he pardoned Dec. 5.

him, upon his swearing allegiance. A. D. 1118. The King then reinstated him in the government, and returned to Ghizny. In the mean time, Mahomed Bhyleem built the fort of Nagore, in the province of Sewalik, whither he conveyed his wealth, his family, and his effects. He then raised an army, composed of Arabs, Persians, Afghans, and Khiljies, and committed great devas. tations in the territories of the Indian independent princes with such success, that he aspired at length to the throne. Sooltan Beiram, apprised of his motions, collected an army, and marched a second time towards Hindoostan. Mahomed Bhyleem with his ten sons, who had each the command of a province, advanced to oppose the King as far as Mooltan. A battle ensued; but the curse of ingratitude fell like a storm on the head of the perfidious rebel, who, in his flight, with his ten sons and attendants, sank into a deep quagmire, wherein they all perished. The King after this victory having appointed Salar Hussun, the son of Ibrahim Alvy, to the chief command of the conquered part of India, returned himself to Ghizny. He soon after publicly executed Kootb-ood-Deen Mahomed Ghoory Afghan, to whom he had given his daughter in marriage. Seif-ood-Deen-Soory, Prince of Ghoor, brother of the deceased, raised a great army to revenge his death, with which he marched direct to Ghizny, which was evacuated by Beiram, who fled to Kirman. This is not the Kirman of Persia, so well known, but a town lying between Ghizny and India, which had been built by the Afghans to guard a pass in the mountains. Seif-ood-Deen Ghoory, without further opposition, entered Ghizny, where, having established himself with the consent of the people, he sent his brother, Alla-ood-Deen Soor, to rule his native principality of Ghoor. Notwithstanding his endeavours he failed in rendering himself popular at Ghizny; and the inhabitants conceiving a dislike to his government, secretly wished the re-establishment of their former king. Some of the chiefs, availing themselves of this favourable circumstance, informed Beiram of their disposition towards him. It was now winter, and most of the followers of the Prince of Ghoor had returned to their families, when Sooltan Beiram unexpectedly appeared before Ghizny with a considerable army. Seif-ood-Deen being in no condition to oppose him with his own troops, and placing little reliance on those of Ghizny, was preparing to retreat to Ghoor, when the Ghiznevides entreated him to engage Beiram, promising to exert themselves to the utmost. This was done only to enable them to put their design of seizing him into execution. The Ghoory prince advanced, but was instantly surrounded by the troops of Ghizny, and taken prisoner, while Beiram in person put the forces of Ghoor to flight. The unhappy

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