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coal. A complete or even a partial cessation for a which has brought about the present crisis. All the few days would disorganise the whole machinery of other great industries of the country have conceded our national and private life.

this point, and have had no cause to regret the conRailways are so much a part of cession. The North-Eastern and District railways

everyday life that we have come to have recognised the union, and have not found it A Great Industry.

accept their existence as a matter entail either an undermining of the discipline of their of course.

But there are persons staff or an injury to the prosperity of the company. still living who can remember when they were re The great Government Departments, which stand to garded as an ingenious toy of no practical value. the public in much the same position as the railways, When it was first proposed to build a railway in the have also recognised the unions. In fact, at the preneighbourhood of Paris, M. Thiers remarked that the sent day we have come to regard the principle of Parisians must have their plaything, but it would collective bargaining as a normal means of conductnever carry a passenger or a piece of luggage. We

We ing business between great aggregates of workers on have travelled very far since that day. There are to the one hand and vast accumulations of capital on day some 23,074 miles of railway in actual opera the other. It is too late in the day for the railways tion in the United Kingdom. The capital sunk to isolate themselves in this matter from the rest of in them is £1,287,375,000, or almost double the business world. They will be compelled, sooner the amount of the National Debt. They employ or later, to recognise the existence of trade unions, half a million men, and their shareholders pro and it is to the interest of all concerned, and espebably reach the same figure, making a million cially to the interest of the general public, that the persons directly dependent upon the prosperity or transition from the old order to the new should come the reverse of the railroads. The interest of the general about without any violent jar. public in the smooth working of the system may be

A ballot of the members of the judged from the fact that in 1906 the number of

d Lesson

Amalgamated Society is being

from passengers carried amounted to the stupendous total of


taken to decide whether an actual 1,240,333,000. They were conveyed in trains which

strike shall or shall not be deran 253,608,000 miles in the year. The railways in clared. The ballot papers are returnable at the end addition transported last year 105,816,000 tons of of the present month. In the meantime there is an goods and 382,873,000 tons of minerals, figures which opportunity of coming to an amicable settlement. prove the dependence of the business world upon this Mr. Richard Bell, the secretary of the Amalgamated absolutely essential means of communication.

Society, has suggested a preliminary conference to The dispute which threatens to discuss exactly what recognition would entail. No The Cause dislocate this great industry arose

false sentiment of amour propre should be allowed to of the Crisis. out of the demands formulated by stand in the way of the acceptance of this suggestion.

the Amalgamated Society of Rail The public, as a party vitally concerned, has a right way Servants for the improvement of the position of the to expect that both sides shall exhaust every possible men engaged in the railway service.

These were

means of arriving at a friendly settlement before drawn up at a Congress held in Birmingham in proceeding to the last extremity. It is not a question November last year. This programme of reforms

that affects only the two parties engaged in the disincluded :

pute. The general public has an even more intimate An eight or ten-hour day, according to class.

interest, for it is they who will be the principal A minimum of nine hours' rest before duty.

sufferers. If public opinion cannot find means of Overtime of a rate and a quarter minimum ; Sunday duty to be regarded as distinct from the ordinary week's work, and to making itself obeyed in a matter of this nature, it is be paid at a minimum of rate and a half.

high time that we adopted legislation like that of the An immediate acvance of 25. a week to all grades who do not receive the eight-hour day.

Canadian Conciliation and Labour Acts which preAli grades in London to be paid a minimum of 35. a week vent men drawing the sword of industrial strife until above the wages paid in the country. The abolition of the system of working with only one min in

a round-table conference has taken place. Clause 13 motor-cabs on electric railways.

of the Conciliation and Labour Act, 1906, provides The companies, however, declined to recognise the that :Amalgamated Society or to admit its competence to Whenever a difference exists between any railway employer present the demands of the men. They refused to and railway employees, and it appears to the Minister that the

parties thereto are unable satisfactorily to adjust the same, and negotiate with an- third party. It is this refusal

ihat by reason of such difference remaining unadjusted a railway

down upon


lock-out or strike has been, or is likely to be caused, or the regular and safe transportation of mails, passengers or freight has been or may be interrupted or the safety of any person employed on a railway train or car has been or is likely to be endangered, the Minister (the member of His Majesty's Council in Canada, to whom is assigned the carrying out of this Act) may either, on the application of any party to the difference or on the application of the Corporation of any Municipality directly affected by the difference, or of his own motion, cause enquiry to be made into the same and the cause thereof, and, for that purpose, may under his hand and seal of office establish a Committee of conciliation, mediation and investigation to be composed of three persons, to be named--one by the railway employer, one by the railway employees' parties to the difference, and the third by the two so named, or by the parties to the difference in case they cannot agree. The Conciliation Act passed during the present year makes it a punishable offence for any employer to declare a lock-out or for any employee to go on strike on account of any dispute until such dispute has been referred to a Board of Conciliation and Investigation. Until this Board has made its investigation and report no strike or lock-out may be declared under heavy pecuniary penalties, ranging from £20 to £200 per day in the case of the employer and £2 to £5 per day in the case of the employee. If either party is dissatisfied with the award, they are at liberty to settle the dispute by strike or lock-out. Always arbitrate before you fight is the true policy, alike in industrial and international disputes.

Mr. Sydney Buxton, at the Post The Example Office, has supplied the key to the of the

solution of the railway problem. Post Office.

He has fully recognised the various associations of postal servants under conditions which are worth quoting in full. They are set forth in his circular of February 14th, 1906 :

(1) The Postmaster-General is prepared frankly to recognise any duly constituted Association or Federation of Postal Ser.

He is willing to receive representations from the memo bers or representatives of the Association if they be in the Service, or through its secretary (whither he be a member of the Service or not), on matters relating to the Service as a whole, or on matters affecting the class or classes of servants of which the Association is representative. . .

(2) The Postmaster-General is equally ready to receive and to consider similar representations from any other person or persons in the Service, whether individually or collectively. They will receive in all respects as full and favourable consideration as those which are made by an Association.

(3) In regard, however, to matters solely affecting an indivi. dual, and not his class or branch of the Service, the appeal is to come from the individual himself. An arrangement of this description meets the difficulties put forward by the railway directors as a justification for their refusal to recognise the Amalgamated Society. The unions are recognised, but questions of discipline are kept entirely within the hands of the Postmaster-General. In the Government Dockyards the principle of recognition has also recently been conceded, with excellent results. The various trades in the yards are permitted to have as one of their representatives when presenting petitions

a person not employed in the Dockyard service. In this way trade union officials are able to speak on their behalf. A practice which has worked successfully in the Post Office and in the Dockyards, as well as on two important railways, cannot be looked upon as a dangerous innovation.

The Hague Conference is still The

sitting. Despite the natural imSecond Hague Conference patience of a public which is as and

infantile in its expectation as the the Third,

child who wanted the chickens to come before the hen had comfortably settled


eggs, it has done well to sit, and it has done good work

where it has failed to agree.

The educational value of a full discussion of international questions by such a World-Parliament can hardly be exaggerated. The only question handled which has not profited by the handling is that of Armaments. That was, however, not handled, but only touched with a finger-tip. The Conference declared in favour of having a successor. But it did not venture to decide who had to summon its successor, or who had to brin; into existence the Committee that is to arrange the programme in six years' time. To supply the omission M. Beldiman rushed in at the last moment and secured the applause of the Conference for his speech declaring the initiative must be taken by the Tsar. This was just what the Americans did not want, but they did not venture to dissent. So we may take it that, despite the effort to emancipate the Conference from Russia, the duty of putting the machinery in motion will henceforth be vested in the Emperor of Russia. Considering the value of his initiative in 1898, the Tsar fully deserves the honour thus informally conferred upon him.

As for the last thirty years I have
The been advocating an Anglo-Russian

alliance, I heartily welcome the

new Anglo - Russian agreement. Asia is the common bed of England and Russia. Neither of us can kick the other out of our Asiatic bed, therefore it is only common sense to arrange how we can lie comfortably together without crowding each other to the middle, or trying to push •each other over the edge. Any modus virendi that the Tsar and the King can be induced to sign deserves support, and we congratulate Mr. Morley and Sir Edward Grey upon their share in establishing an agreement so satisfactory upon a subject so plicated. As for the objections taken by some excellent Radicals in this country, who have always






Map Showing the Effect of the Anglo-Russian Agreement. The Russian sphere of influence lies to the north of the line Khakhi, Yezd, Ispahan, Kermanshah ; the British sphere of influence to the south-east

of the line Gazik, Kerman, Bander Abbas.

seen red whenever Russia is concerned, they need not be taken seriously. None of them would refuse to make a business agreement to avoid mutual trespass with a neighbour because they thought him a bad husband and a cruel father. If their principle were carried to its logical ultimate, a Russian Ministry controlled by some future Duma would be justified in refusing to make an agreement with a British Government because of the existence of the House of Lords.

The Convention deals only with Persia. Central Asia, but it settles all

outstanding questions in that region that might give place to a clash of interests. The questions dealt with are set forth under three heads : (a) Persia, (b) Afghanistan, and (c) Tibet. In Persia the independence and integrity of the country is to be

respected, and the open door of equal commercial opportunities for all nations maintained. But the country is divided into two spheres of influence and a neutral zone. The extent and situation of these will be more easily understood by a glance at the accompanying map than by a detailed description. The Russian sphere lies to the north, the British to the south-east, with a triangular neutral zone between, with its base upon the Persian Gulf. Within their respective spheres each Power is to have a free hand to seek commercial and political concessions without interference direct or indirect from the other. Nor will they support demands by third Powers for concessions within these spheres. In case of failure to pay the interest on the loans contracted with the English or Russian banks, the Power concerned is to be permitted to assume control of the revenue in her




own sphere of influence. The question of the Persian
Gulf does not come within the scope of the agree- Indian frontier
ment, but in a separate dispatch it is stated that

at every point “His Majesty's Government have reason to believe

at which it that this question will not give rise to difficulties

comes into between the two governments should developments

contact with arise which make further discussion affecting British interests in the Gulf necessary.” The Russian

Russia's CenGovernment has explicitly stated that they recognise tral Asian the special interests of Great Britain in the Gulf, and possessions by formal note has been taken of this admission.

establishing a In Afghanistan the status quo is to

series of buffer Afghanistan be stereotyped. We agree not to

States which and Tibet. change the political position of the


separate country nor to encourage it in

the designs against Russia. Russia on her part recog

two Emnises the region as being outside her sphere of pires by a well

M. Isvolsky. influence, and agrees to communicate with Afghanis- defined neutral

Russia's Foreign Minister tan only through the British Government. This part of the agreement will not come into force until it has received the Ameer's consent.

The clash of white and yellow on Tibet is declared to be a no man's land, lying within the sphere of

the Pacific Slope has now extended A Grave Problem.

northward to British Columbia. influence of neither Power, and only to be treated with through the intermediary of its suzerain the

The anti-Japanese riot which broke Chinese Government. We undertake to evacuate the

out in Vancouver in the first week of September is a Chumbi Valley as soon as Tibet has paid three instal danger signal to which we shall do well to give very ments of the indemnity exacted as the result of the Japanese and the prospect of the arrival of several

careful heed. The landing of some twelve hundred recent expedition to Lhassa. Should any difficulties arise in this matter, Russia and Britain engage to enter

thousand more led the mob to attack the Asiatic

quarter and wreck the Japanese shops. Their anger into a friendly exchange of views. Tibet once more will become the Forbidden Land to Europeans, and

was directed with equal vehemence against the

Hindu immigrants. White attacked yellow and even scientific expeditions are to be prohibited for a period of three years. In brief, the Convention

brown without distinction of nationality. To admit that such occurrences are deplorable and apologise for them, as the Canadian Government promptly did, does not get rid of their grave significance. The Japanese have a treaty right to enter and settle in Canada. But it was never contemplated that advantage would be taken of this right to flood the Pacific Slope with yellow labour. It is plain that the British democracy of Western Canada will not tolerate the possibility of their country being converted into an Asiatic province. It is equally plain that they will be supported by the rest of the Dominion. Indeed, Mr. Borden, the leader of the Conservative party, has already committed his party to the policy of a white Columbia. White and yellow will not mix on the

Pacific Slope any more than oil and water. One By permission o' the proprietors of Tunch.”]

must inevitably predominate. The question is an The Harmless Necessary Cat.

exceedingly grave one, and before we have done with BRITISH LION (to Russian Bear): “Look You can play with his head, and I can play with his tail, and we can both stroke the small it may strain our alliance with Japan to the breakingof his back." PERSIAN CAT: “I don't remeinber having been consulted about this !”

point. But no good purpose is served by ignoring its


ere !

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believes that in order to obtain a hearing at all it is necessary to make use of language which will startle John Bull into listening to his complaints. If the Hague Court can promptly settle this question it will render a very real service both to the Empire and the Republic. At the Cape Dr. Jameson has dissolved Parliament owing to the refusal of the Upper Chamber to pass the Appropriation Bill. The elections, which are to take place at intervals up to February next, will, it is expected, result in the return of a Bond majority with the possibility of a coalition Ministry.

The situation in Morocco is still Marking Time obscure. The French expedition

in Morocco.

ary force at Casa Blanca has fought

two engagements in the near neighbourhood of that town, with the result that some of the tribes have come in on terms. But there is as yet no possibility of withdrawal, and the pressure, as is usual in such cases, is to take a step forward rather than back. France having neglected to organise a police force in the coast

towns when it might have been possible to l'inneapolis Fournal.]

fulfil the conditions laid down in the treaty of Not a Family Affair.

Algeciras, now finds it difficult if not impossible to do The cor.tracting parties to the Anglo-Jap alliance do not seem to have taken the children into account.

The Sultan, Abdul Aziz, has quitted Fez and

arrived at Rabat, on the western coast, while his brother, gravity. Some middle course between unrestricted Mulai Hafid, in the south is still engaged immigration and a restriction of the influx of yellow consolidating his power. For the present there is a lull. labour will have to be found. English and Japanese Whether it is the precursor of a real pacification or statesmen will do well to walk warily in this matter, merely the prelude to a new storm none can tell. and should beware of placing us in the dilemma of Meanwhile the bill against Morocco is running up, having to choose between casting in our lot with our and as there is only a bankrupt treasury out of which colonies or with our ally. To that alternative there to pay it, and as Germany vetoes a liquidation of the could be only one possible answer.

debt by any territorial concession, the end of the Newfoundland is a fertile source of entanglement seems hardly to be within sight. Newfoundland trouble and anxiety to the British

The cause of compulsory arbitraand the Cape. Foreign Office.

For years the

Socialist Sanction tion in international affairs bas question of the French shore was


gained a notable convert. The a serious difficulty in the way of the establishment of Arbitration.

International Socialist Congress at good relations with France. Happily that question Stuttgart condemned militarism and all its works in a has been finally settled and consigned to the oblivion resolution calling for an active anti-militarist campaign of the past. Its place, however, has been taken by in all countries. It refrained, however, from laying another fishery dispute, this time over the correct down in advance any rigid line of action. This interpretation of a

the United omission was supplied by M. Jaurès on his return States. Sir Edward Grey has concluded with the from the Congress in a remarkable speech delivered American Government a temporary modus vivendi in Paris at the beginning of the month. The Conto regulate the position pending the settlement of ference at the Hague had approved, he said, the the question by the Hague Tribunal. This arrange- principle of obligatory arbitration. It was the will of ment has been vehemently denounced by Sir Robert the workers that arbitration should be a reality and Bond, the Prime Minister of Newfoundland, whose not merely a pious aspiration; and he advocated a suggestion it was to refer the whole question to the clear and simple method of giving force and effect to Hague for final settlement. Sir Robert evidently the recommendations of the delegates assembled at


treaty with

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