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WAS LINCOLN BEAUTIFUL? Lincoln's, and no picture, say his friends, can repreA STUDY OF His PHYSIOGNOMY.

sent the light in them when he was listening or A very interesting article on the Physiognomy of speaking. When the eyes began to sparkle and the Abraham Lincoln is contributed to McClure's Maga mouth to smile, the whole countenance was wreathed zine for August by Mr. Truman H. Bartlett, a sculptor

in animation. When affected by humour, sympathy, who has made a lifelong study of physiognomy and or admiration for some heroic deed, his sad face facial forms, and who has acquired a large collection would become radiant; he seemed like one inspired. of Lincoln portraits. Not only has he given special He had perfect naturalness, a native grace which attention to the physiognomy of Lincoln, but he has never failed to shine through his acts. His awkwardinterested in the subject some of the most eminent ness was the awkwardness of nature, which is akin to French sculptors of the time. From the time that grace. He was awkward with an elegance a king Lincoln was fourteen until he was nominated for the

might envy When enunciating a great thought that he wished to impress on his hearers, he would straighten up to an impressive height. In conjunction with his facial and physical transformations may be placed his great muscular strength and activity, and his anger when aroused by injustice to himself or to a friend.

PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HARMONY. The crucial point, says Mr. Bartlett, is that instead of high intellectual and emotional qualities being encased in an ill-assorted body, an examination of the portraits of Lincoln goes to show that there was an admirable body and a deep harmony between the outer and inner man. To a Frenchman is due the credit of first discerning the true beauty of Lincoln's life mask, but the large, thick, and protruding underlip injures the general harmony and delicacy of the face in the estimation of some observers who connect the fact with Lincoln's absolute indifference to art and to the nicer comforts of physical life.

CONCENTRATED PHYSICAL ACTION. A certain photograph of Lincoln seated struck Mr. Bartlett as the most original, easy, dignified, and impressive representation of a man in a sitting position he has ever seen. The massive head, the way it is poised on the shoulders, the lines of the legs and arms, and the bend of the body, are firm, fine, and easy. No monarch, he says, ever sat with more natural truth and dignity. In that portrait Lincoln made his own statue. His body dominates the clothes. Another portrait in a sitting position is characterised as a wonderful example of concen

trated physical action, of ease and primitive naturalLincoln, from a photograph taken the Sunday before the Gettysburg Speech.

ness. Lincoln's hands are described as large and long,

the first phalanx of the middle finger being nearly "A great portrait-a great ready-made statue or picture. As such it ranks with the best portraits in any art.

half an inch longer than that of an ordinary hand.

The bones are finely shaped, not unusually large, the Presidency the vocabulary of words employed to muscles thin and strongly defined, the joints supple, describe him includes almost every word in the and the finger-nails of good form and ordinary length. English language whose meaning is opposed to anything admirable, elegant, beautiful, or refined. His

In the Empire Revieu Baron Würtzburg writes on clothes and his unconventional manners and move the supposed warlike proclivities of Germany. He ments have also received a similarly unflattering welcomes the change of British attitude consequent on description. Almost the only person who has written

recent municipal and journalistic visits. He declares on Lincoln in the opposite sense is J. G. Nicolay, his there is no more peace-loving nation than the private secretary.

Germans, and endeavours to show how a system of AN ELEGANT AWKWARDNESS.

universal service has made Germans effective and No eyes can ever have been so often described as zealous soldiers as well as peace-loving citizens.

[graphic]

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LINCOLN'S LAST DAY.

President's box armed with a Colt's revolver, his SOME NEW FACTS.

alcohol courage might have evaporated. Parker In the September Harper the story of Lincoln's knew he had failed in duty, yet only a few hours Last Day is now told by Mr. William H. Crook, one before Lincoln had said he could trust all his guards. of Lincoln's personal bodyguard. Mr. Crook was

INFLUENCED BY DREAMS. closely associated with President Lincoln during the

The President often spoke of the possibility of last three months of his life, but the chief interest of assassination, but, with the exception of the last time, his article is centred in the new facts which are now never treated it seriously. On the morning of the told for the first time of Lincoln's last day.

14th, at a Cabinet meeting, he spoke of the iecurrence THE VISIT TO RICHMOND.

the night before of a dream which, he said, had On April 4th, not many days before his assassination, always forerun something of moment in his life. In

the dream, a ship under full sail bore down upon him. Lincoln, who was at City Point, in Virginia, was induced

At the time he spoke of it he was anticipating some to go to Richmond, which had just been evacuated by

He was anxious for his the Confederates. He knew it was foolhardy, but good fortune to befall him.

term of office to be over, and he was eager for rest Admiral Porter persuaded him to go. When he and

and peace.

As the day wore on the strong prehis party walked through the streets, the crowd was so

science of coming change darkened into an impressilent that a yell of defiance would have been welcome,

sion of coming evil. He had what some men call but, says Mr. Crook, it is to the everlasting glory of the South that Lincoln was permitted to come and go

fatalism, others devotion to duty, and others religious in peace. Many people have spoken of this expedition

faith. Therefore he went to the place to which he

would rather not have gone. almost as if it were a pleasure trip, but, insists Mr. Crook, it was a matter of executive duty, and a very

Mr. David Homer Bates concludes in the Septem

ber number the series of articles on Lincoln's Last trying and saddening one.

Days which he has been contributing to the Century A PRESENTIMENT OF EVIL.

Magazine. He corroborates what Mr. Crook says Lincoln reached Washington again on the 9th, a about the President and his dreams. on the 11th he made his last speech. On the afternoon of the 14th Mr. Crook found him

GOETHE'S CONFESSION OF FAITH. depressed than he had ever seen him. Lincoln said, “Crook, do you know, I believe there are men who

WRITING on Goethe's Confession of Faith in the want to take my life. And I have no doubt they will

Open Court for August, Dr. Paul Carus protests do it. I have perfect confidence in those who are

against the traditional interpretations of Faust's reply around me; in every one of you men. But if it is to

to Margaret as Goethe's confession of faith. be done, it is impossible to prevent it.” A little later

Goethe, says Dr. Carus, loved to represent his own in the day Mr. Crook thought all trace of the depres

views in contrasts, taking up first one standpoint and sion had vanished. Lincoln was going to the theatre

meeting it by its contrary, so as to avoid a one-sided in the evening. He did not want to go, he said, and

partisan conception. If he ever wrote a confession he would not go had it not been advertised that he

of his faith, Dr. Carus thinks it should be sought in would be there. He wished Mr. Crook “Good-bye,”

“Prometheus," though this poem, written in a mood and not the usual “Good night.”

of storm and stress, can only be considered one-sided

and incomplete. It should be contrasted with some THE NEGLIGENCE OF THE BODYGUARD.

other poem such as Ganymede” or “ The Divine,” What happened at the theatre seems too well known in which the contrast amounts almost to a contrato need repetition, yet Mr. Crook speaks of circum- diction. Prometheus is the rebel who defies Zeus, stances connected with the assassination which have whereas the other poems exhibit piety, reverence, and never been made public before. He says he has love of the divine. often wondered why the negligence of John Parker, The poet, concludes Dr. Carus, was convinced that the guard who accompanied the President to the both standpoints were justifiable. Man must sometheatre, has never been divulged and inquired into. times rebel against the conditions that would dwarf Had Parker done his duty, Mr. Crook believes the him and hinder the growth of his individuality ; he President might not have been murdered. It was must be a fighter even against the gods, and in his the custom of the guard to remain in the little passage struggle he must prove strong and unyielding, and yet way outside the box, but Parker went to a seat in the such a disposition should not be a permanent trait first gallery to see the play. It was through the of his character, The humanity of man teaches him passage-way that Booth entered the President's box. to be tender and pliable, to be full of concession and Booth was in and out of the theatre five times before compromise. He must be courageous and warlike he finally shot the President, and he had found it and at the same time kind-hearted and a peacemaker. necessary to stimulate himself with whiskey. It was He must be animated with the spirit of independence the suddenness of the attack which made it so success- and yet be possessed of reverence and regard for order. ful. Had Booth found a man at the door of the He must be a doubter and yet have faith.

5. Aluminium plates, cups, spoons, knives, forks, etc. 6. Eiderdown quilt for two.

7. Two large sheets of American cloth, into which to pack the impedimenta, and which can also be utilised when hooked together for a ground sheet.

As the writer says, the man wedded to his comfortable bed with a spring mattress, his regular meals, and all the daily comforts of a well-to-do man, will hardly take to cycle-camping. The delights of it will be a sealed book to him ; he would understand them no better were they explained. But many will understand them, and agree with Mr. Mecredy that "a cycle camp is a new Utopia, where every man works for the common good, where social position is counted as nought, and a man is judged from the standpoint of natural uprightness and courtesy."

66

THE DELIGHTS OF CYCLE-CAMPING.

How To SPEND A HEALTHY HOLIDAY. Writing on "The Open-air Life, its Effect on Health and Happiness," in C. B. Fry's Magazine, Mr. R. J. Mecredy reminds us once more of the benefits of really fresh air, and the increasing need for it, if health is to be preserved under modern conditions. Over twenty years ago he found out how pleasant camping may be, and organised many delightful excursions, with bell-tents, which were either pitched in one spot, or sent from place to place by rail during the holiday. At first, however, influenced by the old fallacy as to night air being unwholesome, he closed the tent door at night, and thus did not derive the full benefit of camping.

CYCLE-CAMPING. Later on, he tells us, he adopted cycle-campingbicycling from place to place, carrying miniature tents on the bicycles. By degrees he found that he was all the better for the tent door being partly open at night. Also he discovered—what every survey party discovers —that while actually camping out colds are not caught, even though exposure may be great ; but that, once under a roof again, colds are generally, if not always, caught. Even sleeping in damp garments did not cause colds (the writer does not say that this usually does tell in another way later on)--a fact which he attributes to the whole night as well as the whole day being spent by the campers in the fresh air, and their consequently being never exposed to microbes. Of course, as he admits, "a laced-up tent is almost as bad as a room.” Dr. MacCabe is quoted as saying that from all the history of war it is clear that “ never get colds once they go away from houses, and never get sick until they foul their own surroundings; or in a word-back to land and the fresh air if you would be really well.”

men

CARAVANNING: THE NEW SOCIETY PASTIME,

Women, it seems, according to Mrs. Tooley, who writes in the Woman at Home, like caravanning even more than men. It is especially recommended to unfortunate people so distinguished as to become objects of curiosity wherever they go. A very wellknown lady novelist is at present on the road,” in gipsy costume, with two caravans. Gipsy costume, at any rate for women, seems part of the pastime; and as, with its long gold earrings and bright colour, it is very becoming, it will no doubt contribute much to the popularity of caravanning. Honeymooning couples have also been trying caravanning, but this is not recommended, except to the bride capable of more in the way of housekeeping than gathering sticks to boil the kettle. Mrs. Tooley thinks this new craze or taste is due to the interest aroused in gipsy-life by Aylwin." Mr. Watts-Dunton himself, however, though the first authority on gipsy caravan life, is not himself as yet a caravannist. Lady Arthur Grosvenor caravans about the country as Syeira Lee, licensed hawker, Cheshire, No. 69." She has an ordinary gipsy van, well fitted up, with baskets hung for sale outside, and the kettle, pots, and pans slung beneath, birds in gilded cages, and lurcher hounds. The noble lord, her husband, trots behind in another

PRACTICAL DETAILS. The benefits of fresh air have been so often inculcated that there is no need to repeat them here, well as they are stated. I merely quote some of Mr. Mecredy's practical details. For a fixed camp, he says, a small marquee is the most suitable; his own, ten feet by nine feet, having cost, complete, £5. Where tents have to be carried, as in cycle-camping proper, weight is naturally of vital importance, and must be reduced as much as possible. His own usual outfit for two cycle-campers weighs less than twelve pounds-slightly under six pounds for each tourist. A Wigwam tent of Japanese silk, instead of a lawn one, would bring down the weight by another pound. This outfit consists of the following articles :

1. A Wigwam tent (made and designed by Mr. T. H. Holding, of 7, Maddox Street, Regent Street, W.); height five feet, length six feet six inches, breadth five feet four inches.

2. Poles for same.
3. Aluminium pegs.

4. A Sirram methylated spirit stove. A Baby Primus is in many respects better, but weighs more.

She is, it seems, not above selling her brooms and baskets to the cottage folk, and doing everything consistently with the part she fills. She covers, as a rule, only about fifteen miles a day. Thus a remarkably slow method of travel-caravanning-seems trying to rival a remarkably speedy one --motoring Mrs. Austen Chamberlain also tried caravanning some years ago in the Lake District with a lady friend and the gipsy owner of the caravan. Mr. Fred Whitehead, the artist, and his wife (in gipsy dress) have caravanned about for fourteen years now, from July to November, especially in the West Country. They never camp on public heaths or commons, preferring to pay for the right to camp on private ground. Very often they are made free of some beautiful park.

caravan.

THE RELIEF OF LUCKNOW. authorities contradict each other. Highlander, Sikh, and IrishTHE FIRST THROUGH THE BREACH.

man, each is named as first through. Malleson gives one name,

Hope Grant another, Forbes-Mitchell a third, and Lord Roberts In the September number of the Cornhill Maga- · a fourth. In my “Tale of the Great Mutiny” I recited all zine Dr. W. H. Fitchett concludes his series of papers,

these conflicting authorities, and asked, “Who shall decide

when there is such a conflict of testimony between the very "Among the Mutiny Cities of India."

actors in the great scene ?” But it is now possible to settle this THE KEY TO THE RESIDENCY.

question. My account brought me a letter from Lieutenant

General Traill Burroughs, whose claim to be the first man The present paper deals with Lucknow. The story through is justified by the fact that he was recommended for the of Lucknow, says Dr. Fitchett, is a tangle of sieges, Victoria Cross for that very feat. of reliefs, and of re-sieges, a drama in many acts, and the true key to it is the Alumbagh, three miles from the Residency. Hither came Havelock on Septem

“ MEMORY FOOD.” ber 24th, 1857, with his tiny column, and in ten The August number of Charities is devoted almost minutes he drove out 12,000 Sepoys. Next morning entirely to articles dealing with play in its relation Havelock's men were falling-in outside the walls of to the general well-being of the community. There the Alumbagh for the march to the Residency. They is a full report of the first Convention of the reached it, but were themselves besieged. To the American Playground Association, held in Chicago in Alumbagh again, on November 16th, came Campbell June, from which it is expected an aggressive for the relief of Lucknow and Havelock. He did his movement will spring up for preaching the gospel work with Scottish thoroughness. The best way to of play before the public bodies of America. Almost study the ground which forms the stage of the tangled every aspect of the question is dealt with by various drama of Lucknow is, writes Dr. Fitchett, to start writers. Among others Miss Jane Addams of Hull from the Alumbagh and follow, first, the line of House writes on the influence of public recreation on Havelock's relief; then, starting again from the social morality. She points out that whereas the Alumbagh, to take the course of Campbell's advance chief business of the countryman is to conquer his about eight weeks later.

environment, the dweller in the city has to subordinate THE TINY BREACH.

himself to it. The entire process is a reversal of his The Alumbagh is described as a walled enclosure

country experience. Some sort of occupation which

will recall to him the wider and fuller free life of the of level ground six acres in extent. The brick wall is ten feet high, and is of considerable thickness. In

country is essential to the well-being of the town

dweller. the centre of the enclosure is a two-story house, a

The theâtre is almost the only place which serves. ruin, but from its flat roof Havelock, Outram, and

him with “memory food ” :Campbell looked northward towards the Residency with the gaze of gallant soldiers about to leap on their

The cheap drama brings cause and effect, will power and

action, once more into relation and gives the discouraged spec. foe.

tator the thrilling conviction that he may yet be master of his But to the relief of Lucknow. Havelock and fate and not a mere subordinate in the huge industrial system Outram strengthened the garrison of the Residency,

which he does not understand. In so far as the illusion of the

drama succeeds in putting a man back into ancestral and primibut brought to it no final relief. This was accom

tive emotions, it has a close relation to the function performed plished by Sir Colin Campbell, and the visitor can by play, but it is of course less valuable because the sense of still stand on the spot whence the British guns pounded participation is largely one of illusion, and while the effect upon the tough brick walls of the Secundrabagh, another

the imagination is genuine, it does not provide the same comwalled enclosure with a house in the centre. A tablet

bination of mental and physical recreation which well considered

public games would afford. The theatre serves memory marks the spot where the walls were breached on food” to the actual mental and emotional life, but does not November 16th, 1857. The tiny breach through appeal to the

The tiny breach through appeal to the “muscle memory” by strenuous action nor yet by which the stormers forced their way has been built up rhythmic motion as games might do. But the theatre in its on the outside, but on the inner side of the wall the

ability to bring men together into a common mood and to unite

them through a mutual interest in elemental experiences has outline shows a rent so small that one wonders how

many suggestions for those forms of public recreation which are men ever forced their way through it.

founded on reminiscence.

There is no doubt that while men almost universally enjoy a THE LEAP ON SECUNDRABAGH.

renewal of the primitive processes of food-getting, as the wideThough the story of the leap on Secundrabagh is spread pleasure in fishing and hunting can testify, they are also familiar, Dr. Fitchett may be permitted to describe it

able in constructing their games upon the reminiscent basis to

draw upon a varied and inexhaustible store of other human in his own words :

experiences. In point of fact, we have a multitude of games The “ Two Thirds," as they were called-the 53rd and the founded upon religious festivals, upon the manæuvres of war, 93rd—and a Sikh regiment were lying down waiting for the and of the chase, upon harvesting grain and treading the grapes, order to rush the breach. Whether any such order was given upon love.making, upon trial by combat, upon the processes of is a matter of uncertainty. The men were on the strain, Camp- primitive industry. It would not be impossible to revive and bell himself trying to steady them. Some gesture, or shout, set develop these historic games into a tremendous power for the them loose, and in a moment the three regiments were racing very sort of recreation and refreshment which a man living in an towards that little ragged hole in the wall. Who reached the industrial city most needs, and of the sort which nothing else breach first and leaped through it is a detail over which all the could afford him.

THE DISTRESSFUL WEST INDIES.

valued at a million pounds, were shipped to the THERE is a comprehensive survey of the condition United States from Port Antonio. The building of of the West Indian Islands, by Mr. Louis R. Free the Panama Canal has proved a godsend to the man, in the American Review of Reviews. He is island by employing thousands of Jamaicans, almost unable to give a very reassuring account of any of the whole of whose earnings go back to the island. the islands, though here and there he points out a Of the other islands Cuba is suffering from a great brighter spot in the almost universal gloomy outlook. drought. Hayti remains undeveloped on account of The British West Indian islands staked everything on its political troubles, and Porto Rico is slowly sugar, failed to forecast the future aright, and now winning its way to prosperity through hardship. that the cane sugar industry has reached a point when

A TRIBUTE TO BRITISH RULE. it can be carried on at a profit only by following the most modern methods of cultivation and manufacture,

Surveying the whole of the islands, Mr. Freeman they are lacking both in the capital and spirit of says that it is among the smallest of them that the progressiveness necessary to bring themselves up to higher civilisation, the stabler government, the better date. There is just one thing, Mr. Freeman says,

records of criminality and more elevated standards of that would put the British West Indies on their feet public morals are to be found :again. If West Indian goods could enter America

This is principally because most of them are British and have free of duty there would be good times in the islands

had the benefit of the wise and just colonial policy of that

empire for a number of centuries. The roads in the least of for many decades to come.

these islands are far-and-away better than the average of those LIVING ON HOPE.

in New York or the New England States, and security of life Trinidad is the largest, richest and most prosperous and property incomparably greater than in the most peaceful of the Lesser Antilles, and its inhabitants have recently districts of Hayti, Cuba, or the Dominican Republic. taken to calling themselves “The Yankees of the

Few realise, he says, how large a proportion of the West Indies." "They have abandoned sugar-raising, population of the British West Indian islands is and taken to growing cacao.

Trinidad is now fourth

coloured. In the Southern States of America the in the world's producers of that valuable bean. A

proportion runs from 40 to 60 per cent., but in cacao plantation only requires one man to the ten

Jamaica the people are 98 per cent coloured, and employed, area for area, on a sugar plantation. Hence

in all of the Lesser Antilles they run from 91 to 96 there is a lack of steady employment in the island.

per cent.

Porto Rico has but 38 per cent coloured Barbados is living largely on hope, but the fact that and Cuba 33. He mentions a curious fact concernthe island has anything at all to export is a remark

ing the French island of Martinique. It has the able circumstance :

largest proportion of unmarried among its population That island is but fourteen miles one way by twenty-one the of any place in the world. Of its nearly 200,000 other, and within this narrow limit swarms a population of

people practically 80 per cent. are single. nearly 200,000. Every nook that is not producing food is packed with people. They do not have the term “building. lot” in Barbados ; instead they say “house-spot.” “Spot"

Will Crooks: A Personal Impression. expresses it exactly. An average “ spot” is “sixteen six In the Home Messenger for September appears an teen," which leaves space for a “twelve by twelve frame article by the Rev. C. Silvester Horne on “ Will house and room around the sides for the women to catch the

Crooks as I know him.” Will Crooks, the writer water from the eaves and do their washing. Even the wood

says, that is burned-mostly charcoal-comes 500 miles by boat from

is emphatically a man of the century, a product of the new Demerara. PROSPEROUS DOMINIQUE.

democracy. When some men speak to us, we are interested in

their opinions, their principles and theories, but in the case of Dominique alone of the Windward Islands is an Will Crooks we are interested in him. The man in this instance exception to the general tale of distress :

is even greater than his message. He has been educated in a

hard school, but there is no trace of hardness or bitterness in This fertile and remarkably beautiful island, partly because

the product. Somehow, his personal appearance is significant, of the natural richness of its soil, and partly through the well if only for the possibilities which it conceals. I remember directed efforts of an unusually ably managed experiment hearing him describe himself to a lot of boys and girls. “Look station, has been able to keep up a very creditable export in the

" he said—“short and podgy" ; and then went on to

tell them in how many seconds he had once run the quarter-mile. face of discouraging markets. Sugar has done better than in the other islands, and the cacao plantations are giving excellent

He is always surprising you. “He drops in a returns considering how near Dominique is situated to the casual way racy sayings that are the very concentrated northern limit of that tender tree. A large acreage has also quintessence of wisdom and humanity." Of all been set out to limes, the juice of which is to be used in the leaders of men he has met Mr. Horne considers him manufacture of citric acid, and this, with Sea-Island cotton, is the most human. On the whole, he thinks that a looked to for good returns in the near future.

nation is not in a very bad way when its Labour Jamaica is slowly recovering from the results of the leaders are men of the stamp of Will Crooks, more recent earthquake. Mr. Freeman mentions the fact especially when it is the labourers who have chosen that last year eighteen million bunches of bananas, them.

at me,

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