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THE DOWNFALL OF GORKI.

window of his hotel or from the platform of the trolley car. RUINED BY FLATTERY.

They are little better than the usual generalising impressions

of a tourist with a poor education and no knowledge of the UNDER the somewhat colloquial American phrase

language. What he expected and desired from America we do of “Gorki's Finish” Dr. Filosofov, the well-known not know. Any provincial reporter, however, upon an order to Russian literary and art critic, contributes to a recent write a couple of feuilletons, could have described America and number of Russkaya Mysi (Russian Thought) a

American conditions just as well as Gorki has done. searching criticism of Maxim Gorki's recent work, particularly his somewhat bitter reflections on

COWPER AND HIS FRIENDS. American social and political conditions. Two

HAYLEY's ECSTATIC VISION. things, he says, have ruined Gorki—“His successes In the July number of the Atlantic Monthly Mr. and a naïve, poorly-digested Socialism.” The latest Edward Dowden tells the story of two manuscripts productions of the celebrated Russian author, par- which William Hayley, the biographer of Cowper, ticularly “The Barbarians," "The Enemies," a In

prepared for posthumous publication. One, dated America,” and “My Interviews,” this critic thinks, 1794, describes Hayley's efforts to obtain a pension have done so much to injure his literary fame, have for the poet; the other, dated 1809, is a memorial of s indicated such a decomposition of talent, that it is Hayley's endeavours to serve his friend, and contains difficult to believe his regeneration possible.”

an account of devices employed to restore Cowper's HIS RAPID RISE TO FAME.

dejected spirits. The manuscripts have never Rapidly surveying the career of Gorki, Dr. Filo- appeared in print. sofov points out his remarkable and rapid success.

The starting point of Hayley's "devices" was a Not even Tolstoi and Chekhov received such “slavish

letter from Cowper describing his perfect despair, and and boundless flattery.” Gorki was the hero of a day,

the idea occurred to Hayley that the supernatural might the favourite of the public, in much the same way as

be used as a device to lift Cowper out of his melanan opera singer who in a few years turns the heads of choly. In his reply to Cowper, Hayley described an all his admirers, and then, when he has lost his voice,

ecstatic vision in which he beheld two angelic forms passes from the scene and sinks into oblivion. There kneeling on the steps of the throne of God. These is reason for all this, says the Russian critic:

were the poet's mother and his own mother in He appeared just at the right time. He touched such deep

supplication for the restoration of Cowper's mental chords in human nature that he met with response throughout

serenity. Cowper's mother said to Hayley that the all new Russia," which had just begun to awaken. The poet would receive letters from Members of Parliament, masses believed that his talent was inexhaustible. They flat. Judges, Bishops, the Prime Minister and the King, tered him, tickled his egotism, and almost literally made him their idol. They gave him no chance to concentrate himself, to

thanking him for his devotional poetry. realise the limits of his power and the nature of his talent. The The perusal of the Vision by Cowper is said to drama “On the Bottom” was the summit of Gorki's productive- have had a much better effect than could have been

After the conception of this his downfall began. Since anticipated. The next step was for Hayley and Lady the whole world has read his productions, the whole world now

Hesketh to entreat those who answered to the de. sees how he has fallen, how he himself has reached the bottom of man's triviality and pretentious rhetoric. Gorki sincerely

scriptioa in the Vision to write to Cowper. Letters believed himself to be the ruler of the masses, the sovereign of were received from Wilberforce (a member of Parliatheir thoughts and hearts, independent, subordinate to no ment), Bishop Porteus of London, and Bishop Watson human soul-not realising how he had lost even the shadow of freedom.

of Llandaff. Meanwhile Cowper resumed his work Gorki, says his critic, rarely saw any true criticism

on Homer, and Hayley flattered himself that his of his work at home. He did see "critical hysterics

efforts had not been useless. But while Cowper could and the outbursts of applause of the mob which, by misery lay below, and to make escape from it was

thus for a time keep his mind above his misery, the idolising him, ruined him." Now this mob coolly

impossible. announces that his latest productions have met with unanimous disapproval.

Whether Hayley's visionary devices for Cowper's

restoration were the lost labours of a love that was THE CAUSE OF HIS DOWNFALL.

not wise, the same, says Mr. Dowden, cannot be Gorki's real force lay in picturing the type of the

thought of his unremitting efforts to secure a pension Russian tramp, the bosyak. As soon as he attempted for his friend ; but at the end of two years, when " to sweeten the bitterness of this tramp's lot with the

Lord Spencer's letter announced that the pension had sugar of Socialism it is quite natural that he should

been granted, Cowper was in no condition to be have failed.” As to his productions on American disturbed even by these tidings of good cheer. conditions, “ In America” and “My Interviews,” in these Gorki for the first time concerns himself with COMTE ALBERT DE MUn contributes to the Dublin the world outside his own country, and does it “in a Review a paper written in French on the religious very careless way.” Europe cannot trust, concludes question in France. He concludes a survey of thirtyDr. Filosofov, Gorki's "superficial and banal impres- one pages by saying that the present crisis will end sions":

necessarily, sooner or later, in a new agreement with All Gorki has told us about America he learned from the the Holy See.

ness.

ARE THE PEOPLE RELIGIOUS ?

nation will be as welcome as the discovery of another star to the Rev. CANON BARNETT contributes to the Hibbert

astronomer, or as the finding of a new animal to the naturalist,

or as is the presence of another strong personality in a company Journal a characteristically thoughtful paper on the of friends. The Church of the future cannot be complete withreligion of the people. He takes up the statement out many chapels. The flock of the Good Shepherd includes frequently made that "the people are at heart reli

many folds. gious."

He testifies to the growth of greater He concludes by saying that his own belief is that tolerance and respect for the representatives of reli- the eye opened by higher education is on the way to gion, as also to a widely spread kindness, generosity, find in the present the form of the Christ who will and public spirit.

satisfy the human longing for the Higher than self. WHAT IS RELIGION ? The Canon offers as a definition that “religion is SCHOOL GARDENS FOR CONSUMPTIVE CHILDREN. thought about the Higher than self worked through

How serious a scourge consumption is in France is the emotions into the acts of daily life,” and goes on :

well known, but the country is waking up, and with This definition involves three constituents :-1. There must admirable zeal is trying to discover the best means to be use of thought-the power of mental concentration-so that

combat the evil. the mind may break through the obvious and the conventional. 2. There must be a sense of a not-self which is higher than self

Louis Rivière, in the Correspondant of July 10, --knowledge of a Most High whose presence convicts the self gives an interesting account of the work of Professor of shortcoming and draws it upward. 3. There must be such a Grancher. His aim is before all things, he says, to realisation of this not-self—such a form, be it image, doctrine,

preserve the child. In 1903 he founded the Society book, or life—as will warm the emotions and so make the

for the Protection of Children against Consumption, a Higher than self tell on every act and experience of daily life.

society which seeks out the children of consumptives He asks how far these three constituents are to be

in Paris, and sends them to the country, in peasant found among the people. He grants that the non

families, to be looked after by physicians selected by church-going population are certainly using their powers

the society of thought. This thought is directed towards the Higher

OPEN AIR SCHOOLS. than self. It goes toward goodness. “Universal homage is paid to the character of Christ.” The

But the work of this institution being, naturally, people have the thought that the High and Mighty very limited, M. Grancher has conceived another which inhabits Eternity is good. " But the non

plan. Thanks to a municipal councillor, the City of churchgoing population has no means of realising the Paris has conceded a piece of the Bois de Vincennes, Most High in a form which sustains and inspires its and to it bands of forty to a hundred school children action.” They cannot use the words about the Most are sent every day. More than 1,200 children thus High which the churches and preachers use. They enjoy games in the open air. see “what seem to them stiff services, irrational doc

For children already attacked by the disease, a trine, disorganised and unbusiness-like systems, and prolonged stay in the country, with suitable treatment, the self-assertion of priests and ministers.” In the

is necessary. For these two open air schools are to case of the great mass of the people, the Canon be started, and the children will continue their school declares," their thought of God is not worked through work under the supervision of a doctor. A similar their emotions into their daily lives.” The majority system is at work in Berlin, where Dr. Bendix conof English citizens would in an earthquake behave as ceived the idea of the school in the forest. The brave men, but they have not the faith of the negroes children arrive by tram or walk to the school (a who in the midst of such havoc sang songs of praise.

wooden building) about half-past seven in the morn

ing. Immediately on their arrival they are given a THREE INFALLIBLE SIGNS. The three infallible signs of the presence of reli

plate of warm soup and a piece of bread. After their gion, he goes on to say, are calm courage, joyful

first lessons they have a glass of milk and some bread ;

at midday, a meal of meat, green vegetables, and humility, and a sense of life stronger than death. These signs are not obvious among the people. The

potatoes; and at four milk and bread. At seven they Canon thinks that as the end to which the world is

return to their homes. The Municipality undertakes

to pay the cost of the poor children ; the rest pay moving is not a universal empire under the dominance of the strongest, but a unity in which the strength

according to the means of their parents. The first

school was open from August to October in 1904 and of each nationality will make possible the federation of the world, so the hope of religion is not in the

the results were satisfactory; and in 1905 the success

of the system was still greater. The report for 1906, dominance of any one denomination, but in a unity

when the number of children was to be doubled, is to which each is necessary. There is dawning on the horizon a greater lesson than that of toleration of

not yet published.

The school in the forest is reserved for delicate differences; it is that of respect for differences. He

children predisposed to tuberculosis. For those says:

already attacked by the disease day sanatoriums in As that lesson prevails, each denomination will not cease to

the forest have been established by many German be keen for its own belief ; it will also be keen to pay honour to every honest belief. The neighbourhood of another denomi. cities.

GAMBLING IN DEATH.

SOME STARTLING ALLEGATIONS. ALTHOUGH expressly forbidden by law, speculating in life insurance policies on human lives, says Mr. T. W. Wilkinson in Chambers's Journal, is still carried on wholesale in certain parts of the country, notably Swansea, Belfast, Blackburn, Glasgow, and other towns with a large industrial population. In these towns there are, he asserts, thousands of people holding policies on lives in which they have no insurable interest :

Some working-class people are paying as much as twenty shillings or twenty-five shillings per week in premiums, while there are plungers who “put” hundreds of pounds every year on “good subjects,” of whom, unfortunately, there is no lack in industrial centres. These are mostly shopkeepers in squalid neighbourhoods; and, knowing as they do practically everybody within a radius of a quarter of a mile, they are able to select their lives so that they run absolutely no risk, provided the insurance companies do not repudiate their agreements. Indeed, men of this class have made fortunes out of life offices which have gambled with them knowingly or unawares.

INSURING PAUPERS. Mr. Wilkinson makes some startling statements regarding the methods employed by those who indulge in this despicable form of gambling. Rascally agents who stick at nothing to get business are in many cases to blame :

They badger people to insure anybody they know, preferably somebody with an obscure disease or a “churchyard cough”; they themselves fill up the proposal forms with a callous disregard of truth unmatched by any class except witnesses in the Divorce Court; and, if need be, they find a disreputable, broken-down doctor to make the medical examinations. At their instigation and with their aid, persons disposed to gamble in death begin by insuring their friends and neighbours, and, when these are exhausted, perhaps fall back on old paupers whose shakiness warrants a prognosis favourable to their cupidity. Such denizens of life's backwaters are, indeed, favourite subjects in some towns, most of them being insured, generally without their knowledge, by one or more gamblers.

Paupers in the workhouse are considered fair game. About twenty to forty pounds is frequently paid to gamblers on the death of a pauper, and so prevalent is this speculation in death in some regions that the Boards of Guardians endeavour to compel the gamblers to pay the funeral expenses. A certain big operator, a woman, says Mr. Wilkinson, invariably paid for the funeral of the people she insured.

PROFESSIONAL DUMMIES. The traffickers in policies sometimes aspire to higher things, having thousands of pounds at stake on a few lives. A race of “ professionals” has grown up --that is, men who for sixpence or a shilling will let anybody insure them. Pay this fee and they will sign proposal forms all day long. In real life they are mostly loafers, casual workers, or unskilled labourers. A certain insurance office made some curious discoveries as the result of a special investigation into its business in a northern town :-

A so-called poultry salesman, who was insured for about nine thousand pounds in the aggregate, proved to be a market loafer ;

a pipe manufacturer, on whose life were policies to the amount of three thousand three hundred and eighty pounds, was in fact a vendor of clay-pipez—when not in the workhouse; a coal dealer worth one thousand nine hundred pounds dead was virtually a pauper alive, the only justification for his description being that he had sometimes hawked coals in bags ; and an undertaker and coach proprietor resolved himself into a cab. washer and stable-assistant, though he was insured for four thousand pounds.;

The gamblers have been known to hasten the desired end by plying their victims with drink. In order to obtain a doctor's certificate they lend their tools the necessary clothes, etc., required to play the part of a man in a position to insure his life for a good round sum. If all that Mr. Wilkinson says about this evil is true, it is clear that the law as it at present stands is ineffective. He suggests by way of remedy that the Legislature should at least impose a penalty for every insurance effected contrary to the true intent and meaning of the Act. Speculative insurance of infants is now practically unknown. It should not be impossible to make the gambling in adult lives equally rare.

"GOD IN TERMS OF PURPOSE." As against the idealism of Hegel, served up by Mr. Campbell in his talk of the Divine immanence, Professor A. C. M'Giffert in the Hibbert Journal puts the Kantian interpretation of God in terms of rational purpose. He goes on to say :

Ritschl followed the same line, but gave to the purpose of God a Christian interpretation, seeing in the Kingdom which Kant had represented as God's great aim, not a kingdom of virtue and happiness beyond the grave, but the reign of the spirit of love on earth. One may think as one picases about Ritschl's theology. It is full of defects, and has been made worse rather than better by his followers. But in its interpretation of God in terms of purpose, and in its interpretation of the Divine purpose in terms of Christ's ethical message, it points the way along which Chris. tian thinkers who seek a theology that shall support the modern social gospel will do well to travel.

We need a God of purpose, and a God whose purpose is identical with the supreme Christian purpose, and this God we get in the revelation of Jesus Christ. Studying Him, we discover that His great end was the Kingdom of God, the reign of the spirit of love among men, and that He believed this to be the supreme concern of the God whose will was His meat and drink. And the complete victory which He won over the world in spite of His apparent defeat, won through faith in God and through devotion to His purpose, and the victory which we ourselves win when we follow Him in the like trust and in the like devotion, give us the strongest possible guarantee that there is such a God as Jesus revealed, with such a purpose as He fulfilled. Living in faith in Him and in devotion to His will we are victorious, and bringing others to a like faith and devotion we give them, too, the victory.

The Bishop of Clogher in the same magazine finds the positive and impregnable content of Christian ethics in the idea of the Kingdom of God. “ Christ can identify the good of the individual with that of the community without destroying the independence of the former, because the Kingdom is no mere state or social organism, but a union of human souls in God."

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“THE POOR MAN'S COW."

THE CREED OF A BLIND OPTIMIST. “ HOME COUNTIES PLEADS FOR THE GOAT.

VERILY the blind shall lead them! We have been In the Quarterly Review the case for the goat is taught by many thoughtful philosophers that all our stated very strongly by “ Home Counties." He

ideas come to us from what we see and hear and feel begins by stating that a goat has given half a ton of of the outward world. But, says Mr. Edward Everett milk in a year, that goat's milk is often as rich again Hale, writing in the New York Outlook for July on as cow's milk, and in this country it may practically

Helen Keller's life, here is this young woman who be guaranteed to be free from the bacillus of tuber- cannot see and cannot hear, yet whose idealism is culosis. He quotes this table of percentages :

more ideal than that of nine out of ten of the ten

sense people :-
Lactose
Proteids.

In the eternal controversy between the Word and the fact
Sugar.

she cannot see the written word in the stars, in the ocean, in the

green grass, in the violet or the dandelion. She cannot hear Human 12:59 2:29

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the spoken word in the song of the blue-bird or the cricket or Cow's 12.83 3:55

071 87:17 the peep-frog or the thunder of the surf on the shore. But none Goat's 14'29 4'29

0.76 85.71 the less she does know what is the omnipotence of God, what is

the Infinite range of Hope, and what is Faith in the unseen. In a crêche at Alexandria babies fed direct from She has found out what is the practice of optimism. the goats are plump and rosy, need no medicine, Dr. Hale quotes the following passage from her little rarely cry, just drink and sleep. Accounts from all book on Optimism as best embodying this blind girl's parts of the country show that the children of agri- view of life and its duties :cultural labourers rarely get any milk at all. A cor

If I should try to say anew the creed of the optimist, I should respondent is quoted who says

say something like this : “I believe in God, I believe in man, Seventy-five per cent. of the cottage families in the country I believe in the power of the spirit. I believe it is a sacred duty could keep a goat or two if they would ; and, besides nourish- to encourage ourselves and others; to hold the tongue from any ing the children better, could find both income and interest in unhappy word against God's world, because no man has any so doing ; but they will not.

right to complain of a universe which God made good, and

which thousands of men have striven to keep good. I believe GOAT-KEEPING PROFITABLE,

we should so act that we may draw nearer and more near the He puts the cost of feeding a goat in the country age when no man shall live at his ease while another suffers.” at 8.d. a week, and in the suburbs at is. 9d. He say's :One of the most reasonable balance-sheets we have seen made

THE APARTMENT HOUSE UP-TO-DATE. out by a goat-keeper was the following:

In the July issue of the New York Architectural EXPENSES.

Record Professor Otto Fick, of Copenhagen, describes To yearly loss on a three years old goat, bought for £3 ios., and sold locally in about two years' & s. d.

his invention of a new mode of living. time at Li ios. (reckoning interest).

In Professor Fick's apartment house the kitchen is food, stud fee (Is.), and incidentals

omitted in each flat, since the food is delivered from contribution in respect of labour and housing

the central kitchen of the building by means of electric

dumb-waiters. Under the present system how impracREVENUE.

tical is the preparation of the meals in a house with, Io milk. Say is quarts daily for six months, i quart

for instance, thirty families ! Thirty cooks, with thirty for three months, quart for one month ; or 379

gas-ranges and numberless utensils, are preparing quarts for ten months at 5d.

.47 17 II

numberless dishes, and afterwards come thirty attacks THE TASTE OF GOAT'S MILK.

of dish-washing. The alleged unpleasant taste of goat's milk is due But the economic aspect of Professor Fick's house to adventitious causes :

does not begin with the daily meals. In the first place, From repeated experiments which we have made, we have he would like to change the present hostile relations found that people who taste clean goat's milk for the first time between landlord and tenant, and to accomplish this are unable to distinguish it from cow's milk except by its greater

he suggests that the tenants shall take over part of the richness and sweetness.

mortgage on the property, the mortgage share to be The breeds which furnish the best milk are the

held by the tenant only as long as he occupies a flat Alpine, Toggenburg, and Maltese, and the Anglo

in the house. Under this system it is expected the Nubian in some strains. It is surprising, after all this,

tenants will not consider their apartments temporary to hear that the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries

abodes. They are to feel like partners in the enterrefuses to permit the importation of goats, alleging

prise, and the proprietor is also to receive a greater fear of the introduction of foot-and-mouth disease.

revenue from his property than he does at present. The writer concludes :

In addition to co-operative financing, it is suggested It is interesting to contrast with the attitude of the Board the

there should be co-operative planning and building, action of the United States Department of Agriculture. A professor on its staff lately came to Europe and took back with him

and the control of the house should be in the hands to America no fewer than sixty-eight goats.

of the tenants.

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THE FOOD OF THE POOR.

the working classes know how to buy and to cook, “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you there remains the all-important physiological side of are," wrote Brillat-Savarin. The food of the savage, the question. Food ought to be regulated by the work says Dr. Regnault, who contributes an article on the to be performed and the climate and the season. Food of the Poor to the first July number of La Revue, Workmen performing hard physical labour usually eat is as coarse as his physique, but civilised people, like too much meat and too little vegetable food, and they the savage races, often reject the best food for no drink enormous quantities of alcoholic drinks. Sedenother reason than that they have not been accustomed tary workers also eat too much meat and too little of to it from childhood. We have only to remember fresh vegetables. They should not drink wine, but how difficult it was to get the potato introduced; it plenty of pure water. Women workers eat too many took years to induce the poor to eat horseflesh (in things which are not nutritious, and they are badly France); and to-day the poor will have nothing to do nourished. Sedentary workers alone have a meal with the new vegetable butter, which is described as before starting work. Much persuasion will be required economical, easy to digest, and agreeable to the taste. to correct all these errors of diet, but a great deal can

be done by means of lectures, pamphlets, etc. ; and, THE FIRST SOUP KITCHEN. Much food is wasted, because the poor despise it or

concludes Dr. Regnault, it is the duty of the People's do not know how to utilise it. In 1840 Madame

Universities to teach the working classes what to eat Robert conceived the idea of providing the poor of

and how to buy and cook. Paris with a meal of vegetable soup, a slice of boiled

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE POOR. meat, a piece of bread, and a glass of wine for four In the second July number of La Revue Professor sous. The idea was soon taken up by other philan Alfredo Niceforo gives us an outline of the new thropists, and the free distribution of soup in large science which he has created, namely, the Anthrocities has been continued to the present day. But pology of the Poor. He considers the two classes, these institutions have not learnt much in the mean the poor and the well-to-do, from the physical, physiotime, except that machines and utensils have been in logical, mental, psychological, ethnographical, and troduced, making it possible to utilise many substances other standpoints, and is obliged to admit the hitherto rejected by transforming them into soup which physical and mental inferiority of the poor ; but he can be easily assimilated. There is always the same says many of the drawbacks from which the poor routine as to menu. The cheapest and most nutritive

suffer are the result, and not the cause, of external cereals, such as rice, are not used. Perhaps this is not

conditions and surroundings. Professor Niceforo the fault of the institutions, for prejudice should be has studied the poor rather than poverty and misery taken into account. Innovations are apt to be badly in the abstract. received by such a clientèle as soup kitchens have to

WAS PURITANISM UNLOVELY ? cater for.

In the London Quarterly Review Mr. W. Fiddian HOW SOYER FARED IN IRELAND.

Moulton takes occasion from Dr. Dale's “ History of Dr. Regnault recalls the case of Soyer, the famous Congregationalism" to confess to a disposition to cook, who declared he had discovered a way to fight regard the dominant Puritanism of the Commonwealth the famine in Ireland. He went to Dublin, and pre as an unlovely and disappointing thing. He says :pared a number of vegetable soups which were found In the sphere of religion the result is as disappointing, after perfect. Soon kitchens for the distribution of soup the heroism of the age of suffering, as the miserable travesties of were established, and every day might be witnessed Parliamentary government are after the great years 1625-29 and

the early years of the Long Parliament. Dominant Puritanism processions of starving people to these institutions.

was not true to its own principles ; it was founded upon a noble All went well till Soyer had the unhappy idea to conception of religion, but it failed to conform to it." Cromwell publish a pamphlet explaining his system, and when was one of the first to see the righteousness of religious tolerait was discovered that little or no meat was used in

tion, and his enactment reads like an anticipation of the millen

nium until we find that “this liberty” is not to be "extended the preparation of the soups, the newspapers protested,

to popery nor prelacy," and the whole edifice tumbles down in declaring that such food could have no nutritive value disgrace. and would only cause disease. Englınd, they said, Nevertheless Mr. Moulton allows :-had invented this food to pacify Ireland by thus Upon the standards of conduct the Puritan influence has getting rid of the many turbulent spirits whose exist unquestionably told strongly for good. In the day of his power ence was an unceasing cause of anxiety, and Soyer

the Puritan was narrow and hard. He banned many a harmless had to make his escape from the country to avoid

pleasure and inculcated many a profitless discipline, with the

result that the nation bounded to the opposite extreme of being lynched.

licence when the restraining hand was removed at the DIETETICS AS A UNIVERSITY SUBJECT.

Restoration. But the glory of the Puritan was that he brought

everything to the touchstone of his conscience. Lassalle once observed that the social question is, first of all, a question of the stomach. The super Dr. W. H. FITCHETT is contributing a series of ficial observer concludes that the working man lives articles to the Quiver on “ The Beliefs of Unbelief." well because on pay-day his wife spends most of his In the August number he deals with the first article money on the most expensive foods. But supposing in the Apostles' Creed.

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