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other very fine cities to be feen there. In one of them, called Alfheim (a), dwell the luminous Genii, but the black Genii live under the earth, and differ from the others ftill more in their actions than in their appearance. The luminous Genii are more fplendid than the Sun; but the black Genii are darker than pitch. In these parts there is a city called Breidablik, which is not inferior to any other in beauty; and another named Glitner, the walls, columns and infide of which are gold, and the roof of filver *. There alfo is to be feen the city Haminborg, or the Celestial Mount, fituated upon the frontiers, at the place where the bridge of the Gods touches heaven. The great city of Valafcialf, which belongs to Odin, is all built of pure filver. There is the royal Throne, called Lidfcialf, or the Terror of the Nations. When the Universal Father is feated upon it, he can view the whole earth. On the utmost limit of heaven, towards the fouth, is the most beautiful city of all it is called Gimle. It is more brilliant and shining than the Sun itself, and will fubfift even after the deftruction of heaven and earth. Men of real goodness and integrity fhall abide there for everlasting ages. The poem VOLUSPA fpeaks thus of it; "I know that

there is a place brighter than the Sun, and intirely "covered with gold, in the city of Gimle: there the "virtuous are to refide; there they fhall live happy "throughout all ages (B)." Then Gangler demands, What will preserve that city when the black flame comes to confume heaven and earth? Har replied, We have been told, that there is towards the fouth, another heaven more elevated than this, called the Clear Blue; and above that a third heaven, ftill more elevated,

* The Edda of Goranfon fays Afgulli, of Gold.


elevated, called the Boundless. In this laft we think the city of Gimle must be seated, but it is at present inhabited only by the luminous Genii.

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(A)" In a city named Alfheim."] Alfheim fignifies in Gothic, the abode of the Genii, that is, of the Fairies of the male fex. We may obferve, that they are of different characters, Good and Bad; for there is no probability, that any one good quality could be afcribed to creatures blacker than pitch. It is needless to obferve, that all the Gothic and' Celtic nations have had thefe Genii. The romances of Chivalry are full of allufions to this imaginary fyftem. The fame opinions prevailed among the Perfians. In many places of High Germany, the people have fill a notion, that thefe Genii come by night, and lay themselves on thofe they find fleeping on their backs; and thus produce that kind of fuffocation which we call the Night Mare. (See Keyfler, Antiq. Sept. p. 500.) In the fame manner they accounted for thofe luxurious and immodeft allufions, fo common in dreams; hence are derived the


fables of Incubufes and Subcubuses; and that general opinion that there were Genii or Sylphs of both fexes, who did not difdain the embraces of mortals. one fingle fiction, fo fruitful as this, they might have run through the whole world of nature, and not have left a fingle phænomenon unaccounted for. To do this there was only occafion for Good and Bad Genii, as we have seen above With regard to the Bad, they were particularly dreaded at the hour of noon; and in fome places they ftill make it a point of duty to keep company at that hour with women in childbed, for fear the Demon of Noon fhould attack them, if left alone. This fuperftition hath prevailed no lefs in France, than elsewhere; though it came from the east. St. Bafil recommends us to pray to God fometime before noon, to avert this danger, The Celtes with the fame view, offered facrifices. One fays pleasantly, the



true Demon of noon is hunger, German, Gentil. fac. Exercit. V

when one has nothing to fatisfy it*. If one looks back upon fo many chimerical terrors, and fo` many painful and abfurd obfervances, from which we are at this day delivered; who but must applaud the progress of literature and the sciences? See, upon this fubject, a differtation of the learned Mr Schultze, in his Exerc. ad

p. 221.


(B) "Live happy throughout "all ages."] We fhall fee this fubject treated in a more extensive manner in another place of the EDDA, for which (to avoid repetitions) I fhall referve many remarks I have to make on this important paffage.

* Vid Keyfler. Antiq. Sept. p. 500.-The fame author gives a very curious paffage from an ancient SCALD, concerning the ELrs. See p. 501, 502.



Of the Gods to be believed in.

ANGLER goes on, and asks, Who are the Gods, whom men ought to acknowledge? Har, anfwers, There are twelve Gods, whom you ought to ferve. Jafner adds, Nor are the Goddeffes lefs facred. Thridi proceeds, The first and most ancient of the Gods is ODIN. He governs all things. And although the Gods are powerful, yet they all ferve him, as children do their father (A). fpoufe FRIGGA forefees the deftinies of men, but she never reveals what is to come,as appears from that conversation in verse which Odin one day held with Loke. "Senfelefs Loke, why wilt thou pry into the fates?


66 Frigga

"Frigga alone knoweth what is to come, but fhe never discloseth it to any perfon." Odin is called the Univerfal Father, because he is the Father of all the Gods. He is alfo called the Father of Battles, because he adopts for his children all those who are flain with their fwords in their hands. He affigns them for their place of refidence, the palaces of Valhall and Vingolf, and bestows upon them the title of Heroes (B). He has a great many other names, as Hanga-Gud, &c. [here forty-fix names are enumerated.]

A great many names indeed! fays Gangler: farely that man must be very learned who knows them all diftinctly, and can tell upon what occafions they were given. Har replies, It requires, no doubt, a tolerable memory, to recollect readily all these names. But I will intimate to you however, in a few words, what principally contributed to confer them upon him it was the great variety of languages (B): for each people being defirous to adore him, and addrefs their vows to him, they have been obliged to tranflate his name each into his own language. Some of his other names have been owing to adventures, which have happened to him in his travels, and which are related in the ancient hiftories. Nor can you ever pafs for a man of learning, if you are not able to give an account of all these wonderful adventures.


(A) "As children do their fa"ther."] I am obliged to return again to Odin. There is nothing in all Pagan antiquity more ex

prefs than this paffage, with regard to the fupremacy of ONE GOD. The name of As, or LORD, is again afcribed to him in this


place. The Gauls, in like manner, called him alfo Es, or with a Latin termination Efus: for feveral manufcript copies of Lucan, who speak of this God, give the word Efus, without the afperate *. I have faid elsewhere, that Suetonius pofitively afferts the fame thing of the Etrufcans. The Ro. man authors have often called him the Mars of the Celtic people; because, as the EDDA clearly fhows here, he was the fame with the God of War. Wherefore, (although the learned Abbé Banier has maintained the contrary) this Efus, whofe name occurs in the monuments of the cathedral of Paris, is, at one and the fame time, the Supreme God, and, to fpeak with the EDDA, the Father of Battles; as P. Pezron had advanced. (See La Mythol. & les Fables expliq. T. II. p. 650, &c. Ed. Quarto.) Monf. Pelloutier, in my opinion, hath proved, beyond all doubt, that the Supreme God of the Celts. Efus, Teut or Odin, was the God of War. (See Hift. des Celtes, T. II. c. 7.) It is to no purpose to object, that the Father of the Gods and Men could not

at the fame time be called the Fa ther of Combats, without manifeft contradiction; for the EDDA establishes this to be the fact too ftrongly to be difputed. Besides, contradictions do not always hinder an opinion from being received. Various modifications and diftinctions are found out to clear up the difficulty. But there was no great need of any here; for the Goths and' Celtes regarded war as a very facred occupation. It furnished, according to them, opportunities for difplaying courage; and of fulfilling the views of providence; which was to place us here as in a field of battle; and only to grant its favours as the peculiar rewards of fortitude and valour.

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(B) "It was the great variety "of languages."] This reafoning upon the names of Odin, may contain fomething of truth in it. The text recounts a great number of thefe names, which I have fuppreffed, out of regard to thofe ears which are not accustomed to Gothic founds. 'Tis certain that almost all the names afcribed to the

* Vid. Kcyfl. Antiq. p. 139, &c. 187.—The paffage referred to in

Lucan, is this:

Et quibus immitis placatur fanguine cafo
Tentates; horrenfque feris altaribus Hrsus.

Pharfal. L. I.


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