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design; and therefore, as soon as he arrived, they falcinated his eyes by their inchantments (B). Immediately appeared to his fight a very lofty palace ; the roof of which, as far as his eyes could reach, was covered with golden shields. The poet Diodolfe thus describes it, “ The Gods had formed the roof of bril“ liant gold, the walls of stone, the foundations of the “ hall were mountains (c).” At the entrance of this palace, Gylfe saw a man playing with seven little swords, which he amused himself with toffing into the air and catching as they fell, one after another. This person asked his name; the disguised monarch told. him, it was Gangler, and that he came from the rocks of Riphil. He asked, in his turn, to whom that palace belonged ? The other told him it belonged to their king, and that he would introduce him to his presence. Gangler entering, saw many stately buildings, and innumerable halls crowded with people; some drinking, others engaged in various sports, others wrestling. Gangler seeing a multitude of things, the meaning of which he could not comprehend, softly pronounced the following verses. “ Carefully exa« mine all the gates, before thou advancest further ; o for thou canst not tell where the foes may be fit“ ting, who are placed in ambush against thee.” He afterwards beheld three thrones, raised one above another, and on each throne sat a man (D). Upon his asking which of these was their king, his guide anfwered, “ He who fits on the lowest throne is the king, his name is HAR, or the lofty one : The second is JAFNHAR, i, e. equal to the lofty one : But he who fits on the highest throne is called THRIDI, or the third (E).” Har perceiving Gangler, defired to know what business had brought him to Asgard : Adding, that he should be welcome to eat and drink without cost, along with the other guests of his court. Gangler said, He defired first to know whether there was any per


son present who was famous for his wisdom and knowledge. Har answered, If thou art the more knowing, I fear thou wilt hardly return safe: But go, stand below, and propose thy questions ; here fits one who will be able to answer thee.


In the edition of the Edda, pu- these contests or trials of skill beblished by Refenius, there is a tween kings and princes, in which Chapter before this: But I have the victory is always assigned to not translated it, because it has him who could give an answer to little or no relation to the rest, and every question, and assign a cause contains nothing remarkable: It (true or false) for every phænois also not found in the MS, at menon. · This was called Science Upsal. That chapter seems to or Wisdom; words originally fyhave been only prefixed by way nonimous in all languages, but at of preamble, by SNORRO STURLE- present so easily distinguished. It Son, the compiler of the Edda. will be neceffary here, to refer the As for Gylfe, Snorro informs us reader to the account of Odin's arin the beginning of his larger rival in the north, given in the forChronicle, that this prince, who mer volume, (chap. II. III. &c.) governed Sweden before the arri. for his more readily understanding val of Odin and his Afiatics, was this and the following chapters. obliged to yield to the supernatural power, which those intruders (A) " He resolved to go to Afemployed against him, and to re- “ gard.”] Odin and his compasign his kingdom up to them. This nions came from Asgard: A gave rise to the supposition that word which signifies the “ abode Gylfe was willing to make trial c of Lords or Gods.” Some words himself of the skill and fagacity of are difficult to be understood, bethese new-comers, by proposing to

cause we cannot discover . any them a variety of captious ques- meaning in them. Here, on the tions. In the history of ancient contrary, the difficulty lies in the Scandinavia, as well as that of all variety or multiplicity of signifithe eastern countries, we often see cations. The word As, 'in the

o ancient

- ancient languages of Europe *,' miong many of our contempora. generally signified Lord or God ries. (This note is only in the first but in the Edda, and other Ice- edit. of the orig.] landic writings, it signifies also Afiatics; and we know not in which (c) “ Diodolfe thus describes of these senfes the name is given “ it.”] Diodolfe, or Thiodolfe, to Odin and his companions. Ec- was a celebrated ancient SCALD, card, in his treatise De Origine who composed a long poem, conGermanorum, pag. 41. pretends that taining tắe history of more than this word was never used in the thirty princes of Norway. We see lalt sense, and that the arrival of in the text Snorro's care to quofe Odin from Asia was a mere fic- almost always his authorities for tion, founded on the resemblance whatever he relates: This will of sounds; or that he certainly appear throughout his work. He came from Vandalia, at present has pursued the saine method in Pomerania. I refer the reader to his great Chronicle, where we find the work itself, for the reasons on every fact confirmed by a frage which this conjecture is founded; ment of some old historical poem. which would deserve the prefer- This shows, at the same time, both ence for its simplicity, if a uniform the great erudition of this historiand ancient tradition did not place an, and the amazing quantity of the original country of the Scan- such kind of verses that subsisted dinavians in the neighbourhood of in his time. In like manner among the Tanais. See Vol, I. c. IV, &c. the Gauls, their ancient poems were

so numerous, that the young peo(E) “ By their inchantments."] ple found sufficient employment for It should be remembered that the several years in committing them author of the Edda was a Chris- to memory. tian : On this account he is unwilling to allow Odin the honour of (D) “ Three thrones having performed real miracles. It

" and on each fat a man.

n.”] In the was believed, indeed, in our au- MS. copy of the Eoda preserved thor's time, that it was impossible. at Upsal, there is a representation to do supernatural things, but that or drawing (very rudely done, as yet there was an art of persuading may be lupposed) of these three others that they saw them done. thrones, and of the three persons The same opinion Itill prevails ae fitting on them. They have


* Fr. Dans toutes les Branches de la langue Celtique.

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frowns on their heads; and Gan- therefore at Afgard, only his vice: gler is drawn in a suppliant pof- gerents, that ruled in his absence, ture before them *.

The names that are given them, • These figures bear so great a perhaps allude to their rank and é resemblance to the Roman Ca- employments. Upon this supposi

tholic pidures of the Trinity, tion, there will be nothing in the " that we are not to wonder if relation but what is natural and • somme have imagined them to be easy. But I must here repeat it, s an allusion to that do&rine; that we must expect to see,

particularly such as suppose it throughout this Mythology, ODIN was already known to Plato, and the conqueror of the north, every some other of the ancient Pa- where confounded with Odin the gaus.' T.

supreme Deity: Whose name was

usurped by the other, at the same (E) “He who sits on the high- time that he came to establish his “ est throne.”] Is it Odin, or some worihip in Scandinavia. JUPITER, one of his court that fills this the king of Crete, and the lovethrone? This it is not easy to de- reign lord of Heaven and Earth ; cide. It appears to me, however, ZOROASTER, the founder of the thať throughout this whole pre- worship of the Magi, and the God amble, the Odin here spoken of is to whom that worship was adonly the prince, the conqueror of dressed; ZAMOLxis, the highthe north, and not Opin the fa- priest of the Thracians, and the futher and ruler of the Gods t- preme God of that people, have Gangler had betaken himself to not been more constantly conOdin's court, while that prince founded, than these two ODIN S. was subduing Sweden. He found

* The reader may find it engraven on a copper-plate in Bartholini Caufæ contemptæ à Danis mortis, &c. pag. 473. 4to. T.

+ The reader will remember the distinction made in pag. 51, 59, 60, &c, of the preceding volunte. T.



Questions of Gangler.


ANGLER thus began his discourse. Who is

the supreme or first of the Gods ? Har answers: We call him here ALFADER, or the universal. father ; but in the ancient Asgard, he hath twelve names (A.) Gangler asks, Who* is this God? What is his power? and what hath he done to difplay his glory (B)? Har replies; He lives for ever ; he governs all his kingdom; and directs the great things as well as the small. Jafnhar adds : He hath formed the heaven, the earth, and the air. Thridi proceeds, He hath done more; he hath made man, and given him a spirit or soul, which shall live, even after the body shall have mouldered away. And then all the just shall dwell with him in a place named Gimle (or Vingolf, the palace of friendship :) But wicked men shall go to HELA, or death, and from thence to Niflheim, or the abode of the wicked, which is below in the ninth world. Gangler then asked, how this God was employed before he made the heaven and the earth ? Har replied, He was then with the Giants (c). But, says Gangler, With what did he begin? or what was the beginning of things ? Hear, replied Har, what is said in the poem of the


* Goranson translates this, Ubi eft bic deus ? HUAR ES SA GUD? Where is this God? Which is doubtless the true meaning. T.

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