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could be between the two fexes, that, at the fame time, this Frigga and these two different forts of was the Earth. This doctrine is wood.

of very great antiquity, and hath

been in general received by all the (B) « Where dwell the Gods Gothic and Celtic nations. Their : « and their families."). ASGÅRD philosophers taught, that the sais literally the Court of the Godsi preme God, Teut, or Wodan, was Some manuscripts add, thai Aso the active principle, the soul of the GARD is Troy; but this can be no world, which uniting itself with other than the marginal note of matter, had thereby put it into a some copyist, crept by mistake in- condition to produce the Intellito the text. The Gods, being con- gencies, or Inferior Gods, and tinually threatened with attacks by Ven, and all other creatures. This the Giants, built in the middle a is what the poets express figuralarge inclosure, named Midgard, tively, when they say that Odin efor the Middle-Ahode, one of the poused Frigga, or Frea, that is, the Atrongest of citadels. This is the LADY, by way of eminence. One Olympus of Homer; as the Giants cannot doubt, after having read are his Titans. I shall once for all this paffage of the Edda, but it observe, that the Gothic and' was this fame Goddess, to whom Celtic nations, as well as the the Germans, according to Taci. Greeks, derived all these fables tus, consecrated one of the Danish from the inexhaustible source of islands, worshipping her under the castern traditions. But the people game of Herthus, or the Earth : of the north preserved them near. (the English word Earth, as well ly the fame as they received theni, as the German Erde, being evifor above two thousand years; dently the fame with that, to whereas the same fables found in which Tacitus has only given a Greece so favourable a soil, that in Latin termination.) As to the a short time they multiplied a hun- worship that was paid her, sec it dred fold.

described by Pelloutier in his Hif.

des Celtes, Vol. II. c. 8. (c) « The Earth is his daugh- Though it was by the concur« ter and wife, &c.”] This fable rence of the Supreme God and proves that the ancient Scalds un- Matter, that this Universe wasi derstood by the name Frigga, the produced ; yet the ancient philos spouse of the Supreme God; and • sophers of the north *' allowed a


Fr. Les Celtes.

great difference between these two which was confecrated to Jupiter, principles : the Supreme God was or the Master of the Thunder, eternal, whereas Matter was his was assigned to Tbor; and is callwork, and of course had a begin- ed at this day Thorsdag, THURS ning : all this, in the language of DAX, or the day of Thor. (See the ancients, was expressed by this Vol. I. pag. 81.) To conclude, phrase; “ Earth is the daughter Adam of Bremen, an author of " and wife of the Universal fa- the eleventh century, and a millither.”

onary in those countries, insinuates Lastly, from this mystical mar- that this was the idea which the siage, was born the God Thor. Scandinavians had formed of him. Afa-Tbor means the LORD Thor. " Thor cum fceptro Jovem exprimere He was the first-born of the Su- " videtur, &c." Hift. Ecclef. c. preme God, and the greatest and 223. There is not the least doubt, most powerful of all the inferior but it was the Jupiter of the Gauls divinities, or intelligences that who had, according to Cæfar, were born from the union of thc “ the empire of things celestial;" two principles. One cannot doubtas also the Taran, whom Lucan but it was he, who had the charge represents as having been adored of launching the thunder. In the by the same people, Pharsal. l. I. languages of the north, the name V. 444. Taran, fignifies “ Thungiven to this God is still that of " der," in the Welsh language at the Thunder. When they adopt- this day. cd the Roman Calendar, that day



Of the Giant Nor.


THE Giant Nor was the first who inhabited the

country of Jotunheim (A), or Giants-Land.' He had a daughter, named Night; who is of a dark "complexion, as are all her family. She was at first married to a man called Naglefara, and had by him a fon, named Auder. Then she efponsed Onar; and the daughter of this marriage was the Earth. At last she was wedded to Daglingar, who is of the family of the Gods. Between them' they produced Day, a child beautiful and shining, as are all his father's family (D)

Then the Universal Father took Night and Day, and placed them in heaven; and gave them two horfes and two cars, that they might travel successively, one after the other, round the world. Night goes first, upon her horse, named Rimfaxe, (or Frostymane), who, every morning when he begins his course, bedews the earth with the foam that drops from his bit ; this is the Dew. The horse made use of by Day, is named Skinfaxa. (or Shining-mane); and by his radiant mane, he illuminates the air and the earth (c). Then Gangler asked, How the Day regulates the course of the Sun and the Moon. Har answers, There was formerly a man, named Mundilfara, who had two children so beautiful and wellshaped, that he called the male Mane, or the Moon; and the female Sunna, or the SUN (D). She married a man called Glener. But the Gods, angry at their


presumption in taking upon them such sublime names, carried them up to heaven, and obliged the daughter to guide the car of the Sun, which the Gods, to illua minate the earth, had composed of the fires that iflued from Mufpel beim, or the flaming world. At the same time, the Gods placed under each horse two skins filled with air, to cool and refresh them; and hence, according to the most ancient accounts, comes the Freshness of the morning. As for Mane, he was set to regulate the course of the Moon, and its different quarters. One day he carried off two children, named Bil and Hiuke, as they were returning from a fountain, carrying between them a pitcher suspended on a stick. These two children always accompany the Moon, as one may observe easily even from the earth. But, interrupted Gangler, The Sun runs very swiftly, as if she were afraid some one should overtake her. So she well may, replied Har; for there are very near her two Wolves, ready to devour her. One of them closely pursues the Sun, who is afraid of him, because he shall one day swallow her up. The other as eagerly follows the Moon, and will make him one day or other undergo the same fate. Gangler faid, Whence come these Wolves? Har replied, There was at the east of MIDGARD a Giantess, who dwelt in the forest of Farnvid, (or IRON-WOOD), all the trees of which are of iron. The Giantesses of that place derive their names from her. This old sorceress is the mother of many Giants, who are all of them shaped like savage beafts.

From her also sprung these two Wolves. One in particular of that race is said to be the most formidable of all; he is called Managarmer ; a monfter that fattens himself with the substances of men who draw near to their end. Sometimes he swallows up the Moon, and stains the heaven and the ait with blood (E). Then the Sun is also darkened, as it is faid in these verses of VOLUSPA : “ Near the rifing of Vol. II. D



" the Sun, dwelleth the old witch of the forest of

Jarnvid. There she brings forth the sons he hath “

by Fenris. One of these is become the most pow66 erful of all. He feeds himself with the lives of " those who approach to their end. Cloathed with “ the spoils of the other Giants, he will one day stain " with blood the army of the Gods: the following “ Summer the fight of the Sun fhill be extinguished. « Noxious winds shall blow from all quarters.

Do not you comprehend this saying?”


(A) “ The country of the Gi- ced to the necessity of explaining

ants, &c."] There are great what was obscure, by what was contests among the learned about still more obscure. That was a this country of Jotunheim, or of the method very well suited, and enGiants; which so constantly occurs tirely analogous to the turn of the in all the ancient Chronicles of the human mind, whose curiosity is north. I needed only have given very voracious, but yet is easily a sketch of their principal conjece satisfied, and often as well with tures, to have produced a note of words as ideas. - Night being great erudition ; which would cer- thus the mother of Day, they tainly have tired my readers, but thought themselves obliged, in could have taught them nothing their computation of time, to prethey wanted to know.

fer the name of the Mother to

that of the Son. · Besides, as they (B) “ All his father's family."] reckoned by months purely lunar, One

may remark, that according it was natural for them to comto this allegoric genealogy, it is pute the civil day fron fun-set, Night that brings forth the Day, and from the time when the Moon All the Celtic, as well as Gothic' appears above the horizon. It will nations, were of this persuasion. not be amiss here briefly to take The ancient reasoners, more often notice of the universality of this cven than the modern, were redu- custom : it was observed by the



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