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Errata.

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.قمرنة instead of همزة

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Page 3, line 13 read at instead of in.

4, 2 respectively.
4, 7 which instead of whom.

9 under particular.
4, 14
4, 20 exertion.
4, 21 dele to.
5,

5 dele down.
7, 4 read succession instead of conjunction.
7, 5 each instead of either.
7, 11 subscribed instead of subjoined.
8, 11 foot for food.
8, 12 subscribed for subjoined.
8, 16 homonyms.
8, 19 language.
8,

23 over instead of above.
8, 24 consonants.
9, 10 case.
10, 4 judgment.
11, 9 except.
12, 21 it instead of is.
13, 1 which serve to denote.
13,

7 preceding.
14, 6 exclamation.

3 indiscriminately,
20, 5 superseded.
20, 19 But.

5 adds.

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209

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25

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26, 13 terminations."
26, 24 precedes.
26, 27 higher than.
33, 6 to denote.
34, 14 letter-writing
36, 1 The terms most &c.
36, 16 high person speaking of himself.
38,

11 ghan.
39, 14

you may.
40, 7 verbs.
40, 21 an Accusative.
40,

neutre.
41, 10 form instead of shape.
41, 11 forms instead of shapes.
41, 22 the Perfect prefers.

1 Perfect.
42, 16 recognises instead of acknowledges.
43, 20 idea instead of notion.
45,

with the exception.
46, 6 which will always be.
46, 10

to one.
52, 15 it expresses.
53, 11 found.
53, 24 passive sense, opposed to &c.
55, 7 affixes.
58, 12 that it.
61, 12 king's.
64,

8 intended. 66, 15

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Part I.

Phonology.

ཐོན་མི་སམ་བྷོ་ད

surd.

sonant.

nasal.

1. The Alphabet. The Tibetan Alphabet was adapted from the Lañča (313*5) form of the Indian letters by Tonmi-sam-bho-ta (FFÀY 26/35minister of king Šron-tsangam-po (VKTISHZI") about the year 632 (s. Köpp. II, 56). The Indian letters out of which the single Tibetan characters were formed are given in the following table in their Nāgari shape.

aspir. gutturals. . m arka Fe ka ཀ་ ཞ ག་ གསུམ

ga " ङ na palatals. . . t ca क' छa ཇ་ ཨ )

མཉེ་ ན མ E' ja

37 na dentals. .

5° a ta

གྲྭ་ t@ ད་ 《 dམ ན་ འ མ थ fa

a na labials.

21° w pa sa ba

हा म ma palatal si-} tsa

ő tsa

É dsa bilants. of a wa

འ་ མ

5 द

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za

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į and

خ

It is seen from this table that several signs have been added to express sounds that are unknown in Sapscrit. The sibilants É evidently were differentiated from the palatals. But as in transcribing Sanscrit words the Tibetans substitute their sibilants for the palatals of the original (as T'f" for eta), we must suppose that the sibilisation of those consonants, common at present among the Hindus on the Southern slopes of the Himālaya (who speak tsār for TT, four etc.), was in general use with those Indians from whom the Tib. Alphabet was taken (cf. also the Afghan likewise sprung from

and 2). It is differentiated from , which itself often is pronounced v, as shewn in the sequel; in transcribing Sanscrit, a and a both are given, generally, by only. @ seems to be formed out of 9 q

» to which it is related in sound. I evidently is only the inverted E. corresponds with Sanscrit . R is newly invented; for its functions see the following SS. The letters which are peculiar to Sanscrit are expressed, in transcribing, in the following manner. a) The linguals, simply by inverting the signs of the dentals: thus,

E, F 3, ņ 3, s v. ) The sonant aspirates, by putting 5 under the sonants: thus, གྷ་

घ, 8, ध བྷ་

H.*)

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*) A very clear exposition of the ramification of Indian alphabets by Dr. Haas is to be found in the Publications of the Palaeographical Society Oriental Series IV, pl XLIV.

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S

2. Remarks. 1. Regarding the pronunciation of the single letters, as given above, it is to be born in mind, that surds * 5 = are uttered without the least admixture of an aspiration, viz. as k, t, p are pronounced in the words skate, stale, spear; the aspirates F 9 vf forcibly, rather , ,

z harder than the same in Kate, tale, peer; the sonants a 5 like g, d, b in gate, dale, beer. 2. The same difference of hardness is to be observed in J E' or è, č, ) (č occurs in church; è, the same without aspiration; ) in judge) and in Í $ É or ts, ts, ds. 3. Q is the soft modification of s or the s in leisure (French j in jamais, but more palatal). 4. 5 is the English ng in sing, but occurs in Tibetan often in the commencement of a syllable. 5. 3° ñ is the Hindi æt, or the initial sound in the word new, which

, would be spelled Z îu. 6. In the dialects of Eastern or Chinese-Tibet, however, the soft consonants 75'EÉ, when occurring as initials, are pronounced with an aspiration, similar to the Hindi g, 4, , 7, or indeed so that they often scarcely differ from the common English k, t, p, ch; also Q and are more difficult to distinguish from

9 and vr than in the Western provinces (Exceptions s. $$ 7. 8).

3. Vowels. 1. Since every consonant sign implies, like its Sanscrit prototype, a following a, unless some other vowel sign is attached to it, no particular sign is wanted to denote this vowel, except in some cases specified in the

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