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The very learned Hickes, in his Thesaur. Linguar. Septemtrional, deduces from the Gothic the following languages.
Belgic, Frisic, English, and Scotch
With respect to the Scotch, it is probable, in the absence of written records, that in very early times the West Goths from Denmark or Jutland invaded the Eastern side of Scotland, and having conquered the Celtic inhabitants, drove them westward into the highlands, or into Ireland, as the Celtic names of places all over the country, where Celtic or Erse is not spoken or understood, do still abundantly testify. These West Goths retained in their new settlements their ancient appellation, of which they were proud, but which sooner or later was contracted into 'St Goths or Scots. The Scottish dialect indeed is clearly but little removed from the Gothic and Anglosaxon.
Runic or Cimbrian
ADDISCOMBE HOUSE, 24th April, 1817.
The Anglosaxons, who were manifestly a Gothic nation, or of Gothic extraction, first landed in Britain by invitation of the natives in the year 450, and others following afterwards, they in the space of two hundred years firmly established themselves, their name, language, and laws, in their new settlements. The subsequent successes of the Danes could not in any considerable degree have altered the dialect which the Saxons had introduced, as in those early times the Danish and Saxon languages were pretty much alike. The Norman conquest, as it is improperly termed, in the year 1066, effected only a change of dynasty, with the addition of some feudal customs; but the Anglosaxon language and laws still continued in force, as they do in the main to this day, those laws being now known under the denomination of the Common Law of England. It is chiefly to the invention of printing, and the diffusion of knowledge since 1450, and not to invasions and other military achievements, that we are to ascribe the differences that have arisen between the old Saxon and the English. The English language, therefore, ought not to be considered as a heterogeneous jumble, a corrupted jargon, an undisciplined farrago of various languages from north, south, east, and west: but, as in truth it is, the remains of an ancient and highly cultivated language, augmented in modern times by many literary terms, borrowed mostly from the Greek and Latin.
It requires no other panegyric than its own importance and utility to recommend the study of Grammar. Can laws be understood, or promises bind, can history teach, or religion warn, can truth or conviction have any existence, where language admits of various meanings and constructions? The easiest method of learning the principles of Grammar is undoubtedly the best, and the fittest time is the earliest possible. An English Grammar adapted to the several ages, capacities, circumstances, and prospects in life, of youth in general, has long been wanted. The plan of the following treatise is new in several respects, and if the labour and pains bestowed on it shall be found to diminish those of the Teacher, and to accelerate the progress of the Pupil, and to encourage a spirit for reading and enquiry amongst youth in general, the Author will be happy in having contributed in his mite towards the advancement of learning, and the improvement of the rising generation.
A few blank pages at the end of this work have been dedicated to the too much neglected study of ancient chronology, according to the system of the holy Scriptures, which the author has found much delight and satisfaction in tracing out, and which, it is presumed, the young student will find no less pleasure in carefully perusing.
GRAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing correctly, and its rules are deduced from the practice of the most approved speakers and writers in any language.
I. ORTHOGRAPHY explains the names and uses of the several characters that occur in writing, the nature and power of letters, and the formation of syllables and words from simple sounds and letters.
II. ETYMOLOGY arranges the several words of a language into classes, and explains the nature and properties of each class.
1. Etymology, in a more strict sense, enumerates and defines the several parts of speech.
2. Accidence teaches the inflections which belong to the declinable parts of speech.
3. Derivation treats of the formation of derivative from primitive words.
4. Resolution, or Analysis, is the art of readily referring to all the rules of etymology.
III. SYNTAX, or CONSTRUCTION, teaches the arrangement, connection, and dependence of the several parts of a sentence. 1. Concord shows the manner in which the accidents of one word agree with those of another,
2. Government teaches in what manner the accidents of
IV. PROSODY teaches the use of emphases in reading; also the rules of versification.*
Grammar is divided into four parts, Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. Of these, Etymology and Syntax admit of several subdivisions, as above.
TABLE I.] ELEMENTS OF ORTHOGRAPHY. [CHARACTERS.
Capitals.-A B C DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU V W X Y Z
Capitals. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y 2. Small Letters.---a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z.
Old English Characters.
Capitals. A B C D E F G H J K L M N DP DRS GU MM X Y Z. Small Letters.--abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwx 2 z.
POINTS, ACCENTS, MARKS, AND OTHER CHARACTERS,
Points or Stops
66 99 ***
x or .
Arabian Digits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
8 1 2 3 5 3 3 4 4:00 4 ¥ Apothecaries Weight 15 3 3 gr. fs. Geographical Marks ° / " 12 Signs of the Zodiac 8 Planetary Characters OD
A. B.-A. C.--A. D.-A. M.-A. R.-B.-B. A.-B. C.-B. D.-B. V.-C.C.C.-C.C.C.-C.P.S.-C.R.-C.S.-D.-D.C.L.-D.D.-E.-F.A S or A.S.S.F. R.S.-F. R.S. E.-G.R.-I.H.S.-J.D.-J. R.-K.-L.-L. D.-LL.D.-L.S. -M.-M. A.-M. D.-M. P.-MS.-MSS.-N.-N. B.-N. S.-O.-O. S.P.-P.M.-P.S.-Q.-R.S.-S.-S.A.-S.N.-S.S.S.-SS.T.P.-V.-W.-Abp.
Cochl.--Col.-Cong.-Cr.-Cur.-Curt.-Cwt.-Deut.-Do.-Dr.-Dum.Eliz.-Eng.-Ep.-Esq.-Ex.-Exp.-Feb.-Fr.-Gen.-Genmo.— Gent.Ihd.-Honble.—Ja.—Jac.―Jno.-Km.-Knt.-Ld.—Lp.—Ldp.-Lt.—Lieut.Mr. Mrs.-Messrs.-No.-Rt. Hon.-Rt. Wpul.- Rev.-Sr.-St.-Xian.Xmas.—ā.—āāā.—e. g.—gr.—h. s.—id.-i. e.-fb-lib.—m.—n. l.---oz.—p.— p. æ.—q. d.—q. 1.—q. s.—scil.—v.—vid.—viz.—ye.—yn.—ys. &c.
SOUNDS.] ELEMENTS OF ORTHOGRAPHY. [TABLE II.
Sounded Alphabetic properly Sounded variously in Sounds,
Sounded vaed pro-riously in perly in
knight cupboard queen conquer
13 Proper Diphthongs.
16 Improper Diphthongs.
8 Double Consonants. 8 Improp. Triphthongs.
eo people leopard, dungeon
third [sion we answer swerve
as, isle, pas
floor, flood, foot
you, cough, thought, b
cue, quench, antique
iou precious abstemious
ph physic nephew, phthisis
scheme, schism, chagrin
ng ring sh show
Remarks.-1. The English Alphabet contains twenty-six letters, of which seven are vowels, viz. a, e, i, o, u,y,w, and nineteen cousonants, viz. b, c, d,ƒ, g, h, j,k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, z. Also w and y, at the beginning of a word or syllable, are accounted consonants.-2. The consonants are divided into eight mutes, viz. b, c, d, g, k, p, q, t; and eleven semivowels, f, h, j, l, m, n, r, s, v, r, z; to which last add c and g soft, and w and y not used as vowels.-3. The mutes are subdivided into pure mutes, p, t, k, and semimutes b, d, and g hard.-4. The semivowels l, m, n, r are named liquids; and from the mutes b, c, d, g, k, p, q, t, are formed the aspirates o, ch, th, gh, kh, f, quh, th; but the aspirations ch, gh, kh, and quh, which are one and the same, are not familiar to an English ear.-5. The English Alphabet is imperfect, the vowels w and y, and consonants c, q, and a being superfluous, and other simple sounds, both vowels and consonants, having no distinct characters to represent them. A perfect alphabet would contain thirty-two letters, as in the last column of the above table, of which ten letters would be vowels; and the twenty-two others, consonants. In this case the mutes would be p, t, k; the semimutes b, d, and g hard: the liquids l, m, n, r, ng; the aspirates f. v, h. th hard. th soft; and the other semivowels, s, z, w,y,sh,zh.
I. Spelling is the art of reducing words to syllables, and syllables to letters. Reading is the converse of spelling.
II. A Letter is a visible sign of an articulate sound.
1. A Vowel, or Monopthhong, is a letter that makes a full and perfect sound by itself.
2. A Diphthong, or Proper Diphthong, is a sound compounded of the sounds of two vowels.
3. An Improper Diphthong is the meeting of two vowels, whereof only one is sounded.
4. An Improper Triphthong is the meeting of three vowels, of which only one or two are sounded.
5. A Consonant is a letter which either cannot be at all sounded, or can only be imperfectly sounded, without a vowel.
6. Mutes are consonants which cannot be at all sounded without a vowel.
7. Semivowels are consonants which can only be imperfectly sounded without a vowel.
8. Liquids are semivowels which readily coalesce in sound with other consonants.
III. A Syllable is any one complete sound.
1. A Monosyllable is a word of one syllable.
4. A Polysyllable is a word of two or more syllables.
5. The Antepenult is the last syllable but two.
6. The Penult is the last syllable but one.
7. The Termination is the last syllable, or sometimes the last letter, or last two letters of a word.
IV. A Word is an audible and articulate sign of thought.
1. A Primitive Word, Theme, or Root, is that whose Etymology cannot be traced backward in the language to which it belongs.
2. A Derivative Word is that which has a theme or root in the language to which it belongs.
3. A Simple Word, whether primitive or derivative, is that which has but one radical meaning, as me, my.
4. A Compound Word is that which is composed of two or more simple words, as myself, whatsoever.
5. Homotonous words are words which resemble each
other in pronunciation, but differ in signification.