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5. John Skip, Bishop of Hereford. 6. Thomas Thirlby, Bishop of Westmin
7. Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of Rochester, and afterwards of London. He was esteemed the ablest man of all that advanced the Reformation, for piety, learning, and solidity of judgment. He died a martyr in Queen Mary's reign, being burnt at Oxford, October 16, 1555.
8. Dr. William May, Dean of St. Paul's, London, and afterwards also Master of Queen's College in Cambridge.
9. Dr. John Taylor, Dean, afterwards Bishop, of Lincoln. He was deprived in the beginning of Queen Mary's reign, and died soon after.
10. Dr. Simon Heynes, Dean of Exeter. 11. Dr. John Redmayne, Master of Trinity College in Cambridge, and Prebendary of Westminster.
12. Dr. Richard Cox, Dean of Christ. Church in Oxford, Almoner and Privy Counsellor to King Edward VI. He was deprived of all his preferments in Queen Mary's reign, and fled to Frankfort; from whence returning in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, he was consecrated Bishop of Ely.
13. Mr. Thomas Robertson, Archdeacon of Leicester.
The commissioners met in May, 1548. Having agreed to change nothing for the sake of change, but merely to endeavour, as far as circumstances would admit, to bring every thing back to the standard of the purer ages of the Gospel, by abolishing the erroneous doctrines, and in particular the unnecessary ceremonies, which Popery had introduced, they proceeded to examine the Breviaries, Missals, and Rituals, together with the books of other offices at that time in use. These they compared with ancient Liturgies, and the writings of the fathers. Whatever they found consonant to the doctrine of Scripture, and the worship of early christian churches, they generally retained, and frequently improved. But they rejected the numerous corruptions, and
superstitious innovations that had been gradually brought in during the latter ages.
The compilers, it is generally said, began with the morning Prayer. I do not know that any one, either of our ritualists, or commentators on the Liturgy, has described the office of Mattins, or Morning Prayer, as this service was performed in the Church of England prior to the reformation. A general and summary account of it may therefore gratify curiosity, where easy access cannot be had to the books in which it is ordained. Such an account will illustrate the principles upon which the leaders of our reformation proceeded: and a comparison of ancient mattins, with the mattins in Edward's first book, will prove, that the object of the compilers of our Liturgy, was, according to their own account, "neither to please those who were so addicted to their old customs, that they thought it a great matter of conscience to depart from a piece of the least of their ceremonies," nor, "on the other hand, those who would innovate all things, and liked, nothing that was not new." They attempted "not so much to satisfy either of these parties, as to please God, and profit them both."
Mattins, at this time, began with the Lord's Prayer, Hail Mary, and the Creed, which were said with a low voice, or privately, by the priest and people, all kneeling. Then, all standing up, the four versicles, which in our office follow the Lord's Prayer, are said with a loud voice by the priest and people alternately. When the priest pronounces the first versicle, “O Lord, open thou my lips," he is directed by the rubric, with his thumb to sign his mouth with the sign of the cross; and at the third versicle, " O God, make speed to save me," he is, with his right hand, to cross himself from his forehead to his breast in one direction, and in a transverse line from the left shoulder to the right. After the versicles, follow Gloria Patri, and in general, Allelujah. Between Allelujah, and the invitatory psalm, or Venite exultemus, comes the Invitatory, which varies according to the season, or day. After Venite, follows a metrical hymn. cal hymn. Then psalms are recited, and les
rist, and the prayer of "oblation" that was used to follow it; the omitting of the rubric, that ordered "water" to be mixed with wine, with several other less material variations. The "habits" also, that were prescribed by the former book, were ordered by this to be laid aside; and, lastly, a rubric was added at the end of the Communion office to explain the reason of "kneeling," at the Sacrament. The book thus revised and altered was again confirmed in Parliament in the year 1551. It is frequently called the second Book of Edward the Sixth, or the Book of the fifth year of Edward the Sixth; and is very near the same with that which we now use. But both this, and the former Act made in 1548, were repealed in the first year of Queen Mary, as not being agreeable to the Romish superstition, which she was resolved
us read. In this part of the service there is considerable variety on different days.
Thus was our excellent Liturgy compiled by martyrs and confessors, together with divers other learned bishops and divines; and being revised and appic ved by the archbishops, bishops, and clergy of both the provinces of Canterbury and York, was then confirmed by the King and the three Estates in Parliament, in the year 1548, who gave it this just encomium, namely, "which at this time BY THE AID OF THE HOLY GHOST with uniform agreement is of them concluded, set forth, &c." This Common Prayer Book is frequently called the first Book of Edward the Sixth; or the Book of the second year of Edward the Sixth.
But about the end of the year 1550, or the beginning of 1551, some exceptions were taken at some things in this book, which were thought to savour too much of superstition. To remove these objections therefore, Archbishop Cranmer proposed to review it: and to this end called in the assistance of Martin Bucer, and Peter Martyr, two foreigners, whom he had invited over from the troubles in Germany: who, not understanding the English tongue, had Latin versions prepared for them: one Allesse, a Scotch divine, translating it on purpose for the use of Bucer; and Martyr being furnished with the version of Sir John Cheke, who had also formerly translated it into Latin. The following were the most considerable additions and alterations that were then made; some of which must be allowed to be good: namely, the addition of the Sentences, Exhortation, Confession, and Absolution, at the beginning of the morning and evening services, which in the first Common Prayer Book began with the Lord's Prayer. The other changes were the removing of some rites and ceremonies retained in the former book; such as the use of "oil in baptism;" the "unction of the sick;" "prayers for souls departed," both in the Communion office and in that for the Burial of the Dead; the leaving out of the "invocation of the Holy Glost" in the consecration of the eucha
When we consider the purity and excellence of this Liturgy, and its favourable reception, we are naturally led, to reflect upon the satisfaction and pleasure, with which its venerable authors must have contemplated the successful issue of their labours; and to indulge a secret wish that they had been permitted to enjoy upon earth a protracted sense of so sublime a gratifica tion.-But scarce was this salutary work completed, when the premature death of Edward made way for the elevation of Mary to the thorne, and the re-establishment of po pery in this kingdom.
Though we must lament the fate of such men, as Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, and execrate the memory of Mary for bringing to the stake, prelates, to whom the reformation is so essentially indebted, yet we have reason to rejoice, that her reign was not of sufficient duration to destroy the fruits of their pious industry, and to restore the superstition, and tyranny of the church of Rome, which were now so justly dreaded' and abhorred.
But upon the accession of Queen Elizabeth, the Act of repeal was reversed; and, in order to the restoring of the English service, several learned divines were appointed
to take another review of King Edward's Liturgies, and to frame from them both a book for the use of the Church of England. The names of those who, Mr. Cambden says, were employed, are these that follow: Dr. Matthew Parker, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury.
Dr. Richard Cox, afterwards Bishop of before. The two sentences added in the delivery of the Sacrament were these, "the body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee;" or "the blood of our Lord
Dr. James Pilkington, afterwards Bishop Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee; preof Durham.
serve thy body and soul to everlasting life :" which were taken out of King Edward's first book, and were the whole forms then used: whereas in the second book of that King, these sentences were left out, and in the room of them were used, "take, eat," or "drink" this, with what follows; but now in Queen Elizabeth's book both these forms were united.
Sir Thomas Smith.
Mr. David Whitehead.
Mr. Edmund Grindall, afterwards Bishop of London, and then Archbishop of Canterbury.
To these, Mr. Strype says, were added Dr. Edwin Sandys, afterwards Bishop of Worcester, and Mr. Edward Guest, a very learned man, who was afterwards Archdeacon of Canterbury, Almoner to the Queen, and Bishop of Rochester, and afterwards of Salisbury. And this last person, Mr. Strype thinks, had the main care of the whole business; being as he supposes, recommended by Parker to supply his absence. It was debated at first, which of the two books of King Edward should be received; and Secretary Cecil sent several queries to Guest, concerning the reception of some particulars in the first book; as prayers for the dead, the prayer of consecration, the delivery of the sacrament into the mouth of the communicant, &c. But however, the second book of King Edward was pitched upon as the book to be proposed to the Parliament to be established, who accordingly passed and commanded it to be used, "with one alteration or addition of certain lessons to be used on every Sunday in the year, and the form of the Litany altered and corrected, and two sentences added in the delivery of the sacrament to the communicants, and rone other, or otherwise."
The alteration in the Litany here mentioned was the leaving out of a rough expression, namely, " From the tyranny of the
bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enor mities," which was a part of the last depre cation in both the books of King Edward · and the adding of those words to the first petition for the Queen, "strengthen in the true worshipping of thee, in righteousness and holiness of life," which were not in
Though, besides these here mentioned, there are some other variations in this book from the second of King Edward: namely, the first rubric, concerning the situation of the chancel and the proper place of reading divine service, was altered; the habits enjoined by the first book of King Edward, and forbid by the second, were now restored. At the end of the Litany was added a prayer for the Queen, and another for the Clergy. And lastly, the rubric that was added at the end of the Communion office, in the second book of King Edward VI, against the notion of our Lord's "real" and "essential " presence in the holy Sacrament, was left out of this. For it being the Queen's design to unite the nation in one faith, it was recommended to the divines to see that there should be no definition made against the aforesaid notion, but that it should remain as a speculative opinion, in which every one was left to the freedom of his own mind.
And in this state the Liturgy continued without any farther alterations, till the first year of King James I; when the Puritans, who were now a numerous body, having petitioned for a reform of what they termed abuses, the King appointed a conference to
be held at Hampton Court, between a select | number of bishops and divines of the Established Church on one side, and the principal leaders among the Dissenters on the other, before himself as president, to hear what could be alleged for their non-conformity, and to judge whether an accommodation between the parties would be practicable. The demands of the Puritans were far too unreasonable to be granted, and very soon set aside the hope of agreement :--but their objections may have contributed to produce some of the following improvements, which were soon after made in the Liturgy. In the Morning and Evening Prayers a collect, and in the Litany a particular intercession, were appointed for the royal family: the forms of thanksgiving upon several occasions were then added: the questions and answers concerning the Sacraments were subjoined to the Catechism, which before that time ended with the answer to the question immediately following the Lord's prayer: and the administration of private baptism was by the rubric expressly confined to a o a lawful "minister," to prevent midwives or laymen from presuming to baptize. These and some other small additions and improvements were made by the authority of King James I, and universally adopted, although they were not ratified by Parliament. The following is a list of the bishops and other divines of the Church, appointed on this occasion:
Dr. John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Dr. Richard Bancroft, Bishop of London.
Dr. Thomas Dove, Bishop of Peterborough.
Dr. Anthony Rudd, Bishop of St. David's.
Dr. James Mountague, Dean of the Chapel.
Dr. Thomas Ravis, Dean of Christ Church.
Dr. John Bridges, Dean of Sarum. Dr. Lancelot Andrews, Dean of West minster.
Dr. John Overall, Dean of St. Paul's.
Dr. Richard Field, after Dean of Glou
There was little done in the English Common Prayer Book in King Charles the First's time but it may be noticed in passing, that in the Scotch Common Prayer Book there were several improvements made, some of which were taken into the last review, and more might have been so, but that the nation was not disposed to recei ceive them, the distempers of the late times. having prejudiced many against it. Some of the most remarkable alterations in this book are: the word "priest" in the rubrics is changed into "presbyter;" the Epistles and Gospels are set down according to the New Translation, as are also the Hymns and Psalms; "Glory be to thee, O Lord," is ordered to be said before the Gospel, and "Thanks be to thee, O Lord," after it.
We come now to a memorable period in the history of our Liturgy, when the descendants and disciples of the Puritans, who had been so clamorous for a reform of cere
Dr. Tobie Matthews, Bishop of Dur- monies, and what they termed abuses, in the
Dr. Thomas Bilson, Bishop of Winches
beginning of James' reign, were but too successful in their schemes of innovation. It is generally known that, by their artful machi.
Dr. Gervase Babbinton, Bishop of Wor- nations, they contrived to inflame the nation
into rebellion, to overturn the government both in church and state, and to erect upon its ruins a Babel of their own. Their triumph
Dr. Anthony Watson, Bishop of Chi- however, like that of their infatuated bre
Dr. Henry Robinson, Bishop of Carlisle.
thren, the builders of confusion on the plain of Shinar, was happily not of long duration
So little reason had the nation at large to be satisfied with that novel form of government, to which it was subjected by the regicides, that upon the decease of the ProtecFor, the presbyterians themselves were willg to accede to the re-establishment of the ancient monarchy.
When the restoration of Charles II. began to be concerted, he published at Breda a declaration concerning liberty of conscience in matters of religion. This was done with a view to soften the animosities that existed between the contending parties, and more especially to conciliate the presbyterians. The committee of nobles and commons appointed afterwards to wait upon the king at the Hague, was accompanied by eight or ten of the most eminent divines of the presbyterian communion. In a private conference with Charlés, "they declared themselves no enemies to a moderate episcopacy." The king in return "assured them, that he had no intention to impose hard conditions, or embarrass their consciences: that he would refer the settling of the matters they mentioned to the two Houses of Parliament, who were the best judges of what indulgence or toleration was necessary for the repose of the kingdom."
At a subsequent private audience they represented to Charles, that "as the Common Prayer had been discontinued in England for several years, it might be impolitic for his majesty to revive the use of it in his own chapel immediately on his return. The people, they pretended, would be less shocked if some part of it only were used with other prayers." The king, with some degree of resentment, observed, that by the liberty he granted them, they were not authorised to infringe upon his. He hoped, he said, "to find the Liturgy regularly received in many places, and, that in his own chapel, he would suffer no other form of worship." The ministers, though disappointed by the king's firmness, proceeded to importune, "that his majesty's chaplains might discontinue the surplice, because the sight of the habit would give offence to the
people." The king said, "the surplice had always been reckoned a decent habit; that though for the present he might be obliged to connive at disorder, he would never abet irregularity by his own practice, nor discountenance the ancient and laudable cus toms of the church, in which he had been educated."
At the return of the king, the church re vived with the monarchy: but its revival was not effected without some struggle and opposition. For more than fourteen years had the hierarchy been broken down, and the Liturgy laid aside. A very different form of ecclesiastical government, and of public worship, now prevailed. Various other circumstances concurred to form a prospect extremely favourable to the presbyterians. The nine bishops, however, that survived the usurpation, were speedily reinstated, six others were soon after consecrated, and in a short time all the sees were filled.
On the 25th of October, 1660, came forth the king's Declaration respecting ecclesiastical affairs, in which a promise was made, that the Liturgy should be reviewed by an equal number of divines of both persuasions. And on the 25th of March following, 42 commissioners, that is, 21 episcopalians, and 21 presbyterians, including the assistants on both sides, were constituted by letters patent. The commissioners were enjoined "to meet at the Master's lodging in the Savoy, and to take into consideration the several directions, rules, forms of prayer, and things in the Common Prayer contained, to review the same, comparing them with the most ancient Liturgies to advise upon the exceptions and objections that might be made, and if occasion should require, to make such reasonable corrections and amendments as they might judge useful and expedient for giving satisfaction to tender consciences and restoring unity; but avoiding all unnecessary abbreviations of the forms and Liturgy, so long received in the Church of England."
The names of the commissioners are as follows: