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by its connections will practically make Manchuria a province of Russia." The same authority considers that “the annexation of Hawaii will afford a half-way station between America and China, which will be of the utmost importance both from a commercial and a naval point of view.” That “along with Cuba and the Philippines, it makes the United States a Pacific naval power.” “That if Britain and the United States were cooperating in their policy, and if necessary in their forces, they could dominate the conditions in the Pacific area, and not only develop mutual advantages to both, but also advance the welfare of the immense populations bordering on the Pacific area."
REVIEWS AND NOTICES.
E. J. Brill; LEYDEN. 1. Histoire des Princes du Yün Nan, et leurs relations avec la Chine d'après des documents historiques chinois, traduits pour la première fois, par Emile ROCHER, Consul de France, etc. Roughly speaking, it may be said that the Shans were in occupation of the greater part of Yün Nan for the first thousand years of our era. They had to fight for their existence with the Tibetans and with China ; they carried their arms into Tonquin; had relations with Burma, and even with Magadha in India. M. Rocher does not touch, however, upon the Siamese connection with Yün Nan. It was not until the time of Kublai Khan that this region was definitely annexed by China. It is very likely that some of the documents enumerated by the learned author in his introduction have been “translated for the first time;" and certainly his excellent work, “La Province Chinoise du Yün Nan,” published in 1879, entitles him to rank amongst the earliest and best authorities, more especially as he himself resided for some years in the province before he gave us the results of his earlier experiences, and has visited it twice since. But the matter which he now sums up in another form has been treated of with quite as much detail in the China Review (vol. xix., pp. 67-106, “The Early Laos and China"; vol. xx., pp. 337-346, “The Old Thai Empire ")—at least, so far as the period preceding the Chinese conquest is concerned. A few surprising slips are noticeable ; for instance (p. 68), the confusion of the Chin or Kin dynasty, inaugurated by the ancestors of the Manchus in 1115, with the Ch'ing or Ts'ing dynasty founded by the latter Manchus in 1644 ; the confusion of Peking with Karakoram, etc. But these and others like them are insignificant in number and importance compared with the quality and value of the work as a whole, which is especially interesting at this time, when at least two European Powers are bent on "tapping ” Yün Nan.
E. H. PARKER.
CLARENDON PRESS; OXFORD, 1898. 2. Historical Geography of the British Colonies ; vol. iv., South and East Africa, by C. P. Lucas, of the Colonial Office, London. The volume under review is only one, and the fourth, of a large series of volumes covering the British colonies all over the globe ; it has a special interest at the present moment, as this volume describes the country and the history of the region which is now the scene of the war in South Africa. The volume itself has two parts: I. Historical ; II. Geographical. It was published in 1898, after the Jameson-Raid, and before there was any indication of the great war about to commence. The writer closes his historical narrative with the following prophetic words : “At the time of writing (May, 1896) the clouds begin to lift ; but the last chapter in South African history is not yet ended.” THIRD SERIES. VOL. IX.
The author divides his history into eight chapters : I. The Cape, 14871650; II. The Founding of the Dutch Settlement at the Cape, 1652; III. The Cape Colony in the Eighteenth Century; IV. The Missionary Movement and British Immigration ; V. The Wars with the Kafir, or Xosa, Tribes; VI. The Beginnings of Natal and the Boer Republics; VII. The Growth of the English Cape Colony and Natal ; VIII. The Last Twenty Years, closing with the Jameson Raid.
Those, who have been interested in the history of this colony since 1837, the year of the Great Trek, will admit that the narrative is lucid, impartial, and most attractive. The author has had access to the BlueBooks, and all antecedent literature on the subject. Censure and praise are withheld, but perhaps in no history of a subject Province are there more instances of want of political wisdom, vacillation of purpose, or weakness than is evidenced in the conduct of the English authorities, and greater stupidity, and want of appreciation of the tendencies and influences of the age, in which they lived, than appears in the policy adopted by the Dutch settlers. The book must be read carefully through, chapter by chapter, and any condemnation of the weighty statements of the author would be useless unless this has been done.
The history of the colony is singular. After the discovery of the searoute to India by Vasco de Gama in 1497, the Cape was only a port of call to ships going to and returning from India. It was only in 1869 that the opening of the Suez Canal took place, and that necessity ceased. Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English voyagers had made use of this port. In 1659 the Dutch made their first settlement. In 1806 the colony passed into the power of England, and the Dutch nation had fallen from their high estate into one of the petty kingdoms of Europe. In 1837 the Great Trek took place into unknown regions beyond the river Vaal, but in the course of years the English power extended Northward to the Zambesi, and a Western boundary was fixed to the territory of the two republics, as well as a Southern and Eastern. The Boers were hopelessly cut off from the sea-board except through British or Portuguese territory. The discovery of mines of diamonds and of gold led to an influx of Europeans, chiefly English colonists, and the final and inevitable crash came. All this is detailed in the historical part of this volume.
Part II. is reserved to the geographical description of the region, and each British Province passes under review : I. The Cape Colony; II. Natal; III. Zululand; IV. Basútoland ; V. Bechuánaland, Matabéleland, and Mashónaland. The two republics, as being outside the area of British colonies, are excluded from notice in this part.
There are capital indices of proper names. The work is a very complete one, and can be strongly recommended.
R. N. Cust. 3. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymologically and Philologically arranged, with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, by the late SIR MONIER-WILLIAMS, M.A., K.C.I.E., late Boden Professor of Sanskrit. New edition, greatly enlarged and improved. The first edition of this
unique and celebrated work appeared in 1872; since then the author had devoted, up to the time of his death, much care and attention to its improvement. The proof-sheets were revised and completed before he died on April 11 last. It now consists of 60,000 Sanskrit words, to about 120,000 in the first edition, and by fitting the new matter into the old, according to the same etymological plan; by the verification of meanings old and new; in their justification by the insertion of references to the literature on the subject and to authorities; in the accentuation of nearly every Sanskrit word to which accents are usually applied; in the revision and re-revision of printed proofs, after the lapse of more than a quarter of a century, the present magnificent work is virtually a new Dictionary. It is the most complete and useful one-volume Sanskrit-English Dictionary ever yet produced-a Dictionary which in its gradual progress keeps pace with the advancing knowledge and scholarship of the age. It does the utmost possible credit to the University Press.
CLARENDON PRESS; OXFORD, 1899. 4. Bābar, by STANLEY LANE-POOLE (“Rulers of India Series”). Another excellent book from the pen of this prolific writer. The nephew of that distinguished Arabicist, Edward William Lane, keeps up the traditions of that honoured and trusted name. He has done, perhaps, more than any other living man to make the age and empire of the Mughals live again before us in this century. The present work is worthy of others that have proceeded from the same pen, and it shows that the author has realized to himself in quite an unusual manner the stirring events of the Asia of four centuries ago. All this must necessarily have been the result of profound thought, of careful discrimination, and very extensive research in many tongues. The description of Northern Persia in the days of Bābar, when contrasted with what we know the land now to be, shows vividly how in Persia in the centuries that have intervened between then and now “the mighty have fallen.” One of the leading Muḥammadans of Northern India once asked us, “How are we to account for the Muflisi of Muḥammadans, for that social and political decay into which they are everywhere and in all countries fallen in these times? Christians,” he went on, "once at the feet of the followers of Islám, are nowadays above us; the positions are reversed! How are we to account for it?” The question moved him deeply. The true answer may be found in the biographical narratives of the Mughal potentates. Bābar and Akbar were the saviours of their race and dynasty ; but what shall we say of Humáyun and Aurangzib! Bābar is rather a striking instance of religious backsliding. In early life he consistently refrained from violating the injunctions of the Prophet respecting wine and certain kinds of butcher's meat; but as he grew older he gave way to all manner of excesses in these and other particulars—excessive eating, the immoderate use of hashish, arrack, opium, wine, and spirits. At what period of his life he began thus to deteriorate it is impossible to ascertain, but at the age of
thirty-six (1519) he is described as "a steady toper" (whatever that may be !). “The least thing,” says Mr. Poole, “serves him as an excuse for drinking. He sets eyes on a lovely view, and has a drinking-party! The crops are uncommonly fine-another bout! He makes an early visit to Kabil's tomb-another cup! He has performed the noon-day prayersyet another drinking-party! A tribute-offering arrives—he takes his
bhang ! He has his hair cut-another drinking-bout marks the event ! And so the weary story goes on: it is now “bhang and spirits,” and now “spirits and bhang," until one's very stomach turns at the revolting narrative. But the narrative is taken from the diary of Bābar himself; and, as the writer of this volume remarks, “Bābar does not seem in the least ashamed of his excesses ; on the contrary, he often winds up a tale of unconscionable revelry with the words, “It was a rare party!" or, “ It was a wonderfully amusing and guileless party.” So far from being “ashamed” of these drunken excesses, he seems rather to have gloried in them. There was, moreover, quite a curious mixture of drunkenness and religion in
He never neglected the Farz-duty of Namaz, but habitually engaged in it-even in the midnight (or “supererogatory ") prayers—in a state of senseless intoxication. So senselessly drunk was he that it often happened that he was afterwards quite incredulous when told how he had been behaving himself when “in his cups." After many years of this he comes to see the folly and shamefulness of his conduct. “He remembers with regret the joyous days he spent by the Kābul River, yet he is glad that he has had strength to reform." “Excuse me," he writes, "for wandering into these follies; for God's sake, do not think amiss of me for them !" But it is impossible to enter fully into the dreary story he gives of his excesses ; those who care to do so can read the volume for themselves. This great founder of the Mughal Empire was quite a curious mixture of good and evil. His character, which was full of Oriental infirmities and contradictions, may be summed up briefly—brave, impulsive, but not gifted with much foresight. He was, as the author says,
ever running his head into difficulties; action first, the thinking afterwards "—the type of man to win empires, but not to consolidate them and insure their continuance. He was just of the sort of all great Muḥammadan conquerors; they forge ahead in hard and desperate battles, and if the worst comes to the worst they take shelter in the fatalist's cry, “Nothing happens but by Allah's will.” This is a useful book; it is well written, has a good index and map, and a likeness of Bābar pressing to his breast a copy of the Qur'an.
A. CONSTABLE AND Co.; LONDON, 1899. 5. Prisoners their own Warders, by MAJOR MCNAIR, assisted by W. D. BAYLISs. This work is a record of the Convict Prison at Singapore in the Straits Settlements, established in 1825, discontinued n 1873, together with a cursory history of the convict establishment at Bencoolen, Penang, and Malacca from the year 1797. How to deal with criminals