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December, 1899 (New York);-The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (continuing "Hebraica"), vol. xvi., No. 1, October, 1899 (the University of Chicago Press, and Luzac and Co., London);Current Literature, vol. xxvi., No. 6, December, 1899 (New York);—The Living Age (Boston, U.S.A.);-Revue Tunisienne, organe de l'Institut de Carthage, October, 1899 (Tunis);—The Monist, October, 1899 (The Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, U.S.A., and Kegan Paul and Co., London);-The Harvest Field (London: Foreign Missions Club);Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute, No. 1, Session 1899-1900 (Northumberland Avenue, London);-The Madras Review, vol. v., No. 19, November, 1899 (Madras).

For want of space we regret we are obliged to postpone reviews of the following important works till our next issue: Sacred Books of the Buddhists, translated by various Oriental scholars, and edited by F. Max Müller, vol. ii. (Oxford University Press);-Prisoners their own Warders, by Major J. F. A. McNair (Archibald Constable and Co., Westminster); -In Western India: Recollections of my early Missionary Life, by the Rev. J. Murray Mitchell, LL.D. (David Douglas, Edinburgh);-Builders of Great Britain Series: Rajah Brooke, by Sir Spenser St. John, G.C. M.G. (T. Fisher Unwin, London);—In Moorish Captivity: An Account of the "Tourmaline" Expedition to Sus 1897-98, by Henry M. Grey (Edward Arnold, London);— The History of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the History of the Likeness of Christ, vols. iv. and v. of Luzac's Semitic Text and Translation Series, by E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. (Luzac and Co., London);-The Story of the Australian Bushrangers, by George E. Boxall (Swan Sonnenschein and Co., Limited, London);-The Romance of Australian Exploring, by G. Firth Scott (Sampson Low, Marston and Co., London) ;-Historical Geography of the British Colonies: Vol. IV., South and East Africa, by C. P. Lucas, B.A. (The Clarendon Press, Oxford);-America in Hawaii, by Edmund James Carpenter (Sampson Low, Marston and Co., Limited, London);-Picturesque Kashmir, by Dr. Arthur Neve, illustrated by Geoffrey W. Millais (Sands and Co., London);-The Practical Study of Languages, by Henry Sweet, LL.D. (J. M. Dent and Co., London) ;— Rulers of India: Bābar, by Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A. (Oxford Clarendon Press); Il Ce-Kiang studio geografico-economico, by Dr. Mario Carli (E. C. Forzani, Rome, and Luzac and Co., London);-The Bride's Mirror or Mir-ātu l-Arūs of Maulavi Nazir-Ahmad, edited (by permission of the author) in the Roman character, with a vocabulary and notes by G. E. Ward, M.A. (Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press Warehouse, Amen Corner, 1899, London); -The Origin and Growth of Village Communities in India, by B. H. Baden-Powell, M.A., C.I.E. (Swan Sonnenschein and Co., London, 1899); Judaism and Islam, by Abraham Geiger (Simpkins, Marshall and Co., London ;- The Moorish Empire: a Historical Epitome by Budgett Meakin (Swan, Sonnenschein and Co., London).


INDIA: GENERAL.-The latest reports up to the middle of December show that the season continues practically rainless. The short north-east monsoon has seriously affected Madras, Mysore and Haiderabad. The agricultural area most seriously affected comprises 100,000 square miles in British territory, with a population of about 15,000,000 and 250,000 square miles of native territory, with a like population. Those in parts of the northern division of the Bombay Presidency, Rajputana, the Central Provinces, and the Panjab are the worse sufferers. There were (December 10) on the relief works: Bombay, 315,000; Panjab, 81,000; Central Provinces, 812,000; Berar, 106,000; Ajmir, 101,000; Rajputana, 122,000; Central India, 41,000; Bombay States, 339,000; Baroda, 288,000; total, 2,205,000. The Government has agreed to make loans to assist the Native States.

There have been full average rice crops throughout Burma and Bengal. Both provinces are prosperous, and can supply the distressed area. The autumn harvest in North-Western Provinces is two-thirds of the average.

The Darjeeling district was visited at the end of last September by a succession of earthquake shocks, following on a tremendous rainfall, occasioning extensive landslips. Great damage was done to tea plantations. The loss of life was over 400, including some European children, in addition to many drowned in the plains.

The Hon. Sir H. Stafford Northcote, Bart., M.P., has been appointed Governor of Bombay in succession to Lord Sandhurst, whose tenure of office expires next month.

The Government has approved of Mr. Tatás' scheme for an India University of Research as recently promulgated by the Simla Conference. The resolutions of the Conference, with which the Government's conclusions are in complete accord, will be published at once.

His Excellency Lord Curzon has made a tour, which included Delhi, where he met with a cordial reception. He appreciated the good management of local affairs there, especially the adequate sanitation, the water supply, and the development of trade and industry. He visited the plague hospitals and famine works in the Central Provinces, from whence he went to Bhopal, Gwalior, Agra, Cawnpore, Lucknow, Benares, etc., and back to Calcutta.

INDIA: FRONTIER.—An arrangement has been concluded with the Adam Khel Afridis, whereby a road will be constructed through the Kohat Pass from Peshawar to Kohat.

Owing to fears of a rising under the Mulla Powindah, the 4th Sikhs, a squadron of the 5th Panjab Cavalry, and No. 6 Mountain Battery moved from Dera Ismail Khan to Tank under the command of Colonel Pollock.

All the regular troops have now been withdrawn from the Khaibar Pass, in accordance with the arrangements under which the Pass will be guarded by the Khaibar Rifles.

INDIA: NATIVE STATES.-The Maharaja of Kuch Behar having volunteered for field service in South Africa, his services were accepted, and he was placed on the personal staff of Sir Redvers Buller.

During the recent disastrous floods at Baghalpur, in the Bengal Presidency, 25 square miles of country were inundated, 20 villages swept away, 250 lives lost, 8,700 houses destroyed, and 5,700 cattle drowned.

The continued mismanagement of the Holkar State has resulted in the appointment of Major Jennings as Special Political Agent, under the Agent to the Governor-General. The introduction of some very necessary reforms will be appreciated by H.H. the Maharaja, and will enable the State to take its proper place in the estimation both of his own people and of the Supreme Government.

The Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab at Lahore invested H.H. the Raja of Jhind, who has attained his majority, with ruling powers.

BURMA. The programme of the third delimitation of the BurmoChinese frontier has been completed. Mr. Stirling has been appointed Assistant-Commissioner, Mr. Litton, British Consul at Szu-mao, Chinese adviser, and Brigadier Liu again represents China.

BALUCHISTAN.-In consequence of a scarcity, especially in the Zhob Valley, relief works are about to be opened.

Colonel Wyllie, the Agent of the Governor-General, has visited Nushki, and was received with marked cordiality by all the leading chiefs of the district.

Reports from Kabul prove that the Amir of AFGHANISTAN is in very good health, and is actively discharging the duties of government.


PERSIA. There was a fanatical outbreak against Christians last September in the town of Kazvin, who are composed principally of Armenians and Russian traders, some of whom were assaulted and their houses looted. On representations being made to the Shah, the latter threatened to send troops to administer punishment, whereupon the Governor of Kazvin arrested about 300 persons, and punished them in different ways.

It is announced that the Russian engineer Šakhansky is organizing a party to survey a route for a Russian railway through Persia to the Persian Gulf.

A destructive fire occurred in November at Resht, the capital of Ghilan, when all the bazaars and sixteen caravanserais were totally consumed.

TURKEY IN ASIA.-Twenty villages were razed to the ground, and many lives lost, by the earthquake which occurred in the vilayet of Aidin in September last. An IRADÉ ordains the division of Yemen into four vilayets.

The Patriarch of Jerusalem has protested against the election of Malateos as Patriarch of Antioch, and alleges that if the Porte recognised the election serious troubles would arise.

The Government has resolved to grant the concession for the Baghdad railway to the Deutsche Bank, and the Sultan by an Iradé has authorized the Anatolian Railway Company to construct a line from Konieh to Basra via Baghdad.

RUSSIA IN ASIA.-The Russian Government has decided to establish new schools at Geok-tépé, Chikishlar, Ashkābād, Merv, Charjui, Kizil Arvat, and other places in the Transcaspian provinces, with the view of more thoroughly reconciling the natives to the Russian Government.

Railway traffic between Stretensk and Chita, in the Trans-Baikal territory, was opened last month, and with the opening of navigation on the Shilka and Amur rivers, St. Petersburg will be in direct steam communication with Vladivostok.

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.—A Spanish Commission, which started in October last to endeavour to negotiate the release of Spanish prisoners at Tarlac, returned without having accomplished its purpose.

The rainy season is retarding the prosecution of the campaign by the Americans. General Otis has under his command a force of about 65,000 men, which will eventually be able to subdue the insurgents.

The American Philippine Commission has submitted its preliminary report, which sets forth that no course is possible for the United States but to maintain its sovereignty over the islands, and force the insurgents to submit to American authority.

Tarlac, the headquarters of the Filippino Government, was captured on November 12.

SAMOAN ISLANDS.-The treaty for the partition of these islands between the United States, Germany, and Great Britain, was signed at Washington on December 2. See our Notes in this number.

CHINA. Sir Claude Macdonald has returned from England to his duties in Peking fully recovered in health.

Arrangements have been completed with the Russo-Chinese Bank for a loan of 1,200,000 taels for the construction of the Lung-chau to Nanning-fu railway.

China has accepted the Kwan-chau-wan boundaries demanded by the French Admiral.

It is stated that Li Hung Chang has been appointed by Imperial decree Minister of Commerce.

There has been a serious native anti-Christian rising at Tsi-nan-fu.

JAPAN.-The Emperor and Empress last October gave a grand banquet to commemorate the coming into operation of the revised treaties. The Emperor said he was convinced that reciprocal advantages would accrue to all parties, and he also expressed his appreciation of the sentiment of justice and friendly conciliation shown by the foreign Powers.


EGYPT. The past year's rise of the Nile was the worst ever recorded. Every precaution had been taken to minimize the loss to the country and The area of land that remained unirrigated was over 200,000 The Government has placed at the disposal of the Sirdar £10,000 for the purpose of cutting the great sudd of floating vegetation, which by blocking about 200 miles of the White Nile causes the river to lose itself in swamps, thus curtailing Egypt's water-supply.


There has been no case of plague at Alexandria since October 1 last. The Powers have agreed that in future a majority of the members of the Caisse can grant sums to the Government from the Reserve Fund, except for extraordinary war credits or the cost of expeditions.

SUDAN. On hearing that the Khalifa was advancing down the White Nile in November, Lord Kitchener left Cairo for Khartum. A column composed of 3,700 men, commanded by Colonel Sir Francis Wingate, after a decisive battle with Ahmed Fedil, the Khalifa's lieutenant, attacked and defeated the Khalifa at Om Debrikat, seven miles from El Gedid, capturing his camp. The Khalifa, his two brothers, and several Emirs were killed in action, and the remainder made prisoners, with the exception of Osman Digna, who escaped. The total number of prisoners amounted to 9,000. The casualties on our side were few in number.

EAST AFRICA, SOMALILAND. The local mullah threatening Berbera having declared himself to be the Mahdi, and having created some disturbance, the Home Government requested the Indian Government to send some infantry and cavalry to Berbera from Aden, which has been done.

West Africa.—A punitive expedition against the Fula tribes on the Binue River has been completely successful. The troops were commanded by Captain Crawley. Eight towns were destroyed, the enemy losing heavily. The casualties on our side were few.

SOUTH AFRICA: NATAL.-Owing to the strained relations between the South African Republic and the Home Government, British and Colonial troops began, early in October, to take up positions in the Newcastle, Dundee, and Glencoe districts, and other points in proximity to the Transvaal frontier, where the Boers had been concentrating their forces. On October 9 the Transvaal Government presented to the British agent at Pretoria a note amounting to an ultimatum. The note declared that "Her Majesty's unlawful intervention in the internal affairs of the Republic has caused an intolerable condition of things to arise," and demanded that all points of mutual difference should be regulated by arbitration; that the troops on the frontier, and all reinforcements which had arrived in South Africa since June 1, 1899, should be immediately withdrawn, and failing a satisfactory answer, the Republican Government would regard the action of the British Government as a formal declaration of war. On October 12 the Colony of Natal was invaded in three columns, by Botha's Pass, Laing's Nek, and Mott's Nek respectively, and Newcastle was occupied by them on that day, a large force of Free State Boers occupying the passes of the Drakensberg. The Boer plan of action was apparently to rush Pietermaritzburg and Durban, but they were checked by the forces under the command of General Symons at Glencoe, and General Sir G. White at Ladysmith. Battles were fought at Glencoe (where General Symons was mortally wounded), at Elands Laagte, and Ladysmith. At the latter place Sir G. White is besieged by a large force under the command of General Joubert. General Sir Redvers Buller, in chief command in South Africa, is now advancing in force to relieve Ladysmith viâ Colenso, where the enemy is holding a strong position.

On the West, at Mafeking, a small force under the command of Colonel Baden-Powell is besieged by the Transvaal Boers, as is also Kimberley, which is defended by Colonel Kekewich. A force under Lord Methuen, in advancing to the relief of Kimberley, has fought battles, at Belmont,

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