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the Teutons and Scandinavians, therefore Aryans. So were consequently the earliest mentioned Armenians. Herodotos is often under-estimated; without him we would know little of many ancient races. As to early Greek writers classifying nations as Aryans or Turanians, I do not know to whom your Parsee friend refers. I should be glad to know what he has to say in his forthcoming work."
AFRICA. The progress of the construction of a railway from the sea at Mombasa and Kilindini to Lake Victoria has been communicated to Parliament.* The distance is upwards of 500 miles. The Lake, although it has not yet been regularly surveyed, is estimated to be 200 miles broad and the same in length, covering at least a coast-line from 800 to 1,000 miles, with numerous bays and inlets. At the end of October, 1898, the rail head had reached the 225th mile, and assuming that the engineers can lay a mile a day, the railway should be at the present time nearly completed. “Mombasa as a harbour is easier of access for sailing vessels entering with the prevailing wind, but the port is to some extent unprotected from heavy seas, and would be exposed to bombardment from outside in case of war.
At Kilindini, on the other hand, there is an excellent harbour, completely land-locked, with a capacious and well-protected anchorage." The object of the railway is to put a stop to the slave trade, and to open up
the country to commerce and civilization. In the despatch from the Foreign Office to the Treasury on December 20, 1890, it is stated that the only mode of action with this object in view was the construction of such a railway, and it would be more effectual and cheaper than maintaining a squadron on the coast, which amounted to £108,000 to £110,000 per annum, which represents the interest on a capital sum of rather more than £3,000,000 at 3 per cent. Hence the subsidy for the railway, as stated by the Commissioner, Sir Guilford Molesworth, “is almost justified by the saving of the annual expenditure on the suppression of slavery, even apart from the development of the trade and civilization of the country.” Sir Guilford, after minute examination of the whole route, its many difficulties and other details as to construction and expense, concludes his elaborate and most interesting report by saying: “Taking the system as a whole, it is characterized by the utmost method and careful consideration of detail. Great credit is due to the chief engineer for the manner he has initiated and developed this organization under circumstances of unparalleled difficulty.”
NIGERIA. To-day (January 1) Nigeria passes from the late Company to the British Government. It takes over a considerable portion of the Company's staff, some of the leading members of the executive and judicial departments, the whole of the Company's troops and officers, the greater portion of the medical staff, as well as the staff connected with the engineering shops and repairing yard at Akasa.
* See Africa, No. 5 (1899), Report hy Sir Guilford Molesworth.
BRITISH GUIANA. By the award of the International Tribunal under the Treaty of Washington to delimit the boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela, the Schomburgk line is followed. England retains all the goldfields worked by the British. The only portions within the above line awarded to Venezuela are the Barima point, the district drained by the Cuyuni, and the Uruan post (formerly English) on the Cuyuni. The boundary having been fixed, the insecurity of title to claims on the goldfields disappears.
CEYLON. Mr. John Ferguson read a paper on “Ceylon in 1899” before the members of the Colonial Institute, in which he stated that special progress has been made in almost every department. Social, sanitary, and material improvement has been made among the native population, a rapid extension of cultivation of the cocoanut and other palms, besides tea, and also mining, all which have greatly advanced the revenue of the country. The great improvement in harbour works, and the erection of a first-class graving-dock, has constituted Colombo one of the best equipped central ports in the East for Asia, Australasia, China, and East and South Africa. Railway extension is also in rapid progress. The surplus revenue has been devoted to the erection of hospitals, schools, and other public works, including irrigation tanks all over the island.
SAMOA. The Convention and Declaration in reference to Samoa between Germany and Great Britain is dated November 14, 1899. It is provided by
Article I. that Great Britain renounces in favour of Germany all her rights over the islands of Upolu and of Savaii, including the right of establishing a coaling station there, and her right of extra-territoriality in these islands. Great Britain similarly renounces in favour of the United States of America all her rights over the island of Tutuila, and the other islands of the Samoan group east of 171° longitude east of Greenwich. Great Britain recognises as falling to Germany the territories to the eastern part of the neutral zone established by the arrangement of 1888 in West Africa. The limits of the portion of the neutral zone falling to Germany are defined in Article V. of the present Convention.
Article II. Germany renounces in favour of Great Britain all her rights over Tonga Islands, including Vavau, and over the Savage Island, including the right of establishing a naval station and coaling station, and the right of extra-territoriality in the said islands. Germany similarly renounces in favour of the United States of America all her rights over the island of Tutuila, and over the other islands of the Samoan Group east of longitude 171° east of Greenwich. She recognises as falling to Great Britain those of the Solomon Islands at present belonging to Germany which are situated to the east and south-east of the island of Bougainville, which latter shall continue to belong to Germany, together with the island of Buka, which forms part of it. The western portion of the neutral zone in West Africa, as defined in Article V. of the present Convention, shall also fall to the share of Great Britain.
Article III. The Consuls of the two Powers at Apia and in the Tonga Islands shall be provisionally recalled. The two Governments will come to an agreement with regard to the arrangements to be made during the interval in the interest of their navigation and of their commerce in Samoa and Tonga.
Article IV. The arrangement at present existing between Germany and Great Britain, and concerning the right of Germany to freely engage labourers in the Solomon Islands belonging to Great Britain, shall be equally extended to those of the Solomon Islands mentioned in Article II., which fall to the share of Great Britain.
Article V. In the neutral zone, the frontier between the German and English territories shall be formed by the river Daka as far as the point of its intersection with the gth degree of north latitude; thence the frontier shall continue to the north, leaving Morozugu to Great Britain, and shall be fixed on the spot by a mixed Commission of the two Powers in such manner that Gambaga and all the territories of Mamprusi shall fall to Great Britain, and that Yendi and all the territories of Chakosi shall fall to Germany.
Article VI. Germany is prepared to take into consideration, as much as possible, the wishes which the Government of Great Britain may express with regard to the development of the reciprocal tariffs in the territories of Togo and of the Gold Coast.
Article VII. Germany renounces her rights of extra-territoriality in Zanzibar, but it is at the same time understood that this renunciation shall not effectively come into force till such time as the rights of extraterritoriality enjoyed there by other nations shall be abolished.
In an explanatory declaration it is stated that it is clearly understood that by Article II. Germany consents that the whole group of the Howe Islands which forms part of the Solomon Islands shall fall to Great Britain. It is also understood that the stipulations of the declaration between the two Governments signed at Berlin on April 10, 1886, respecting edom of commerce in the Western Pacific apply to the islands mentioned in the said Convention; also it is understood that the arrangement at present in force as to the engagement of labourers by Germans in the Solomon Islands permits Germans to engage those labourers on the same conditions as those which are, or which shall be, imposed on British subjects nonresident in those islands.
THE OUSLEY SCHOLARSHIPS. The successful competitors for these scholarships at the School of Modern Oriental Studies of the Imperial Institute for last year were Mr. G. A. Khan, in Arabic ; Mr. R. M. Davis, in Persian ; and Mr. S. K. Ghose, in Sanskrit. The examination for the current year will be held, probably early in July, in University College, London. The subject is “Hindustani.” The examiner is Mr. J. T. Platts. Full information can be obtained by applying to the Secretary, S. M. O. S., Imperial Institute, London, S.W.
REVIEWS AND NOTICES.
GEORGE ALLEN, 156, CHARING Cross ROAD, LONDON, 1899. 1. The Redemption of Egypt, by W. BASIL WORSFOLD, M.A., Barristerat-Law, author of "The Principles of Criticism,” “The Valley of Light,”
” " "South Africa,” etc. The author, having determined to visit Egypt during the winter of 1898-99, not so much for pleasure as to examine and inquire into the progress of the country during specially the English occupation, has produced a standard work in which are exhibited, by pen and pencil, in an exquisite manner, the physical and social characteristics of this ancient region of the world. The letter-press and illustrations are excellent. In executing his task, he has consulted the best authorities, ancient and modern, and has taken full advantage of the information placed at his disposal by the various official authorities in the respective administrative departments established by the English Government. His survey ranges from Alexandria, the Delta (and its staple industry, cotton), Memphis, Cairo, the mosques, the Pyramids, Luxor, Assuân, the Government (political and municipal), law and order, education, railways, finance, and the development of the Sudân.
The author correctly points out that the “European residents in the country-small in numbers, but important both politically and commercially-are subjects neither in their persons nor in their property to the native Government. This circumstance, and the fact that a portion of the national wealth, together with the annual revenue which accrues from it, is actually held in mortgage by Europe, have together created an additional and unusual obstacle to the progress of administrative reform; they also increase the merit of efforts which are destined eventually to triumph, in spite of these unprecedented difficulties.” With respect to the continued presence of England in Egypt, he says: "Those Englishmen who think it right to assume an apologetic air when they refer to our continued occupation are either ignorant of the facts, or misinterpret the principles of international morality upon which such measures are based. Vigilantibus non dormientibus lex subvenit— The law helps those who keep awake, not those who lie asleep'-is a principle which applies with even greater force to the relationships of nations than to those of individuals. When Egypt was in a state of anarchy, France stepped aside ; the rest of Europe never lifted a finger ; the Sultan—the suzerain authority—had neither the will nor the power to restore the Khedive's Government, still less to reform the abuses under which the mass of the people of Egypt laboured. In the name of common-sense, therefore, what principle of public or private morality could be invoked which would require England to resign the reward of her efforts, or even justify her in abandoning the necessary and beneficent task of redeeming Egypt ?" Hence, carrying out this principle, England has a right and a duty to re-occupy the country as long as “internal peace or external security” is threatened. And it is evident by this occupation, and by her engineering skill, her financial administration, and her sense of
justice, she is procuring for Egypt the two great essentials for the successful redemption of the country-in the words of one of her statesmen—"water" (by irrigation works) and "justice” (by instituting proper legal tribunals).
Mr. Worsfold's volume, so beautifully executed in every respect, is valuable not only to the tourist, but to the philanthropist, the archæologist, the statesman, and the general reader,
W. BLACKWOOD AND SONS; EDINBURGH AND LONDON, 1899. 2. In India, by G. W. STEEVENS. It is difficult to describe this book to find fault with it is impossible ; to praise it is like “painting the lily." In a series of well-written chapters, thirty-eight in number, all more or less brief, the author gives a kind of bird's-eye view of "things as they are ” in India under the existing rule. From beginning to end there is not a single dull
page. It reads like a romance woven out of a fertile imagination, which means that the author caught all the poetry of the scenes he witnessed, and had an eye to the picturesque. And yet it is a bonâ fide and matterof-fact description of India " as she is.” The reader is carried forward involuntarily from page to page, and from chapter to chapter, unable to stop till he has reached the last the author has to say. Of some things the reader would like to have been told a little more. For instance, Mr. Steevens has a good deal that is interesting to tell us about Agra, yet not a word has he to say about Futtehpore Sikri, one of the most wonderful of all the remains of the Empire of the Moghuls, in the very neighbourhood of the city of Shah Jehan. It is not easy to understand how a man of Mr. Steevens's genius should have contrived to miss that, the most remarkable of all the remains of Akbar.
The Táj-who ever wearies of that? We have in this volume a most graphic and glowing description of that “Eighth Wonder of the World,” as it has well been called. He gives us very little indeed of the ordinary guide-book information respecting that beautiful edifice; but though we have read many a description of the Táj, we have never met with any description at once so original, so artistic, and withal so true, as that now before us.
Mr. Steevens's book is deserving of a much more lengthy notice than we have space to give to it. It will be found an admirable book to read “ “on the voyage out” as an introduction to the “ Land of Regrets,"—the “ Land of Dreams.” To point out defects in a work so well written and so generally accurate is not a pleasing task. But who could have been Mr. Steevens's informant when he wrote (p. 346) that a C.S. may retire at forty ? of course, "withdraw” from the service whenever he pleases, but he cannot complete his term of twenty-five years at that age. Again, the Hindu's "caste” is not “broken” (p. 54) by “shaking hands" with an English person. No genuine Brahman would like to do so; but even if he did it, he would merely have contracted ceremonial defilement (an entirely different thing), which could be rectified by Ganges-water afterwards. Here and there we find other inaccuracies, as where, on p. 125, he speaks of “Chaputties"; while his own acquaintance with natural history might have