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vered in the Scriptures; as if the word itself taught nothing but an annihilation of the enemies of God, and no
lasting torment; as if all the threats and menaces of the justice and wrath of God were nothing else but what the scoffing atheist expects, that is, after death never to be again; or if they be, as it were in a moment to lose that being for ever. Because the Scripture speaks of them as of such as shall be destroyed, and perish, and die; therefore they will give that comfort to them here, that though their life in wbich they sin be short, yet the time in which they are to be tormented for their sins shall be shorter far. They tell us where the Scripture mentioneth destruction in hell, it speaks of perdition, but no torment there. In this sense will they understand those words of Christ (so full of terror in the true, so full of comfort to the wicked in their exposition), “Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.” (Matt. x. 28.)* If this place speak, as those men would have it, of perdition only, not of cruciation, then will it follow that God is not able to cruciate and torment a man in hell; for there can be no other reason why it must be spoken of perdition only, excluding cruciation, but because he is able to annihilate, not to cruciate. No, certainly a man may be said to be destroyed, and perish, to be lost and dead, who is rejected, separated, and disjoined from God, the better and the nobler life of man; and that person so denominated may still consist, and be what in his own nature he was before, and live the life which doth consist in the vital union of his soul and body, and so subsisting undergo the wrath of God for ever. Nor shall any language, phrases, or expreso sions, give any comfort to the wicked, or strength to this opinion, if the same Scriptures, which say the wicked shall be destroyed, and perish, and die, say also that they shall be tormented with never-dying pains, as they plainly and frequently do.
“ Depart from me, ye cursed,” shall the Judge eternal say to all the reprobates,“ into everlasting fire;” and lest any should imagine that the fire shall be eternal, but the torments not, it followeth, “and these shall go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into life eternal.” (Matt. xxv. 41. 46.)+ Now, if the fire be everlasting by which God punisheth the reprobates, if the punishment inflicted be also everlasting; then must the reprobates everlastingly subsist to endure that punishment, otherwise there would be a punishment inflicted and none endured, which is a contradiction. Now the life eternal may as
• Locus Matthæi x. 28. perditionem tantum animæ in gehenna, non cruciatum denunciat.' Smalcius contra Meisnerum. • Igni æterno illi Christi hostes, qui quidem sunt diabolus et angeli ejus (vel saltem quorum nomine isti quoque continentur) cum impiis cruciabuntur, et ita dele. buntur.' Crell. Com, in 1 Cor. c. XV.
+ Quibuscunque enim dixerit Dominus, Discedite a me, maledicti, in ignem perpetuum, isti erunt semper damnati: et quibuscunque dixerit, Venite, benedicti Patris mei, hi semper percipiunt regnum, et in eo proficiunt semper. Iren. adv. Heres. 1. iv. c. 47.
well be affirmed to have an end, as the everlasting punishment, because they are both delivered in the same expression.*
Indeed the eternity of that fire prepared for the devil and his angels is a sufficient demonstration of the eternity of such as suffer in it; and the question only can be what that eternity doth signify. For, because some things are called in the Scriptures eternal which have but a limited or determined duration; therefore some may imagine the fire of hell to be in that sense eternal, as lasting to the time appointed by God for the duration of it. But as the fire is termed eternal, so that eternity is described as absolute, excluding all limits, prescinding from all determinations. The end of the burning of fire is by extinguishing, and that which cannot be extinguished can never end: but such is the fire which shall torment the reprobate ; for he," whose fan is in his hand, shall burn
up the chat with unquenchable fire;” (Matt. iii. 12. Luke ii. 17.) and hath taught us before, that “it is better to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire, to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched;” (Matt. xviii. 8. Mark ix. 43. 45.) and hath farther yet explained himself by that unquestionable addition, and undeniable description of the place of torments, “where the worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.” (Mark ix. 44. 46.) And that we may yet be farther assured that this fire shall be never extinguished, we read that “the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever,” (Rev. xiv. 11.)f and that those which are “ cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, shall be tormented, day and night for ever and ever;" (Rev. xx. 10.) which expression of day and night is the same with that which declareth the eternal
Anime, c. 4. Deus itaque judicabit plenius, quia extremius, per sententiam æternam tam supplicii quam refrigerii.' Tertull. de Anima, c. 33. Qui producto ævo isto judicaturus sit suos cultores in vitæ æternæ retributionem ; profanos in ignem æque perpetem et jugem; suscitatis omnibus ab initio defunctis ad utrins. que meriti dispunctionem.' Idem, Apol.
Και απελεύσονται ούτοι εις κόλασιν αιώvlov, oi dè dixclos sis Swrin albroy. Matt. xxv. 46. •Antiquus ille persuasor in membris suis, id est, in mentibus iniquorun, futuras pænas quasi certo fine determinat, ut eorum corruptiones extendat, et eo magis hic peccata non tiniant, qui istic affirmant peccatorum supplicia finienda. Sunt enim nunc etiam, qui idcirco peccatis suis ponere finem negligunt, quia babere quandoque finem futura super se judicia suspicantur. Quibus breviter respondemus, si quandoquo finienda sunt supplicia reproborum, quandoque finienda sunt et gaudia beatorum : per semetipsam enim veritas dicit, Ibunt hi in supplicium æternum, justi autem in vitam æternam. Si igitur boc verum non est quod minatus est, neque est illud ve. rum quod promisit.' S. Gregor. Moral. I. xxxiv. c. 12. • Affirmamus te (anima) manere post vitæ dispunctionem, et exspectare diem judicii, proque meritis, aut cruciatibus destinari, aut refrigerio, utroque sempiterno' Tertull. de Testim.
t.Quid illum thesaurum ignis æterni æstimamus, quum fumariola quædam ejus tales fiammarum ictus suscitent, ut proxi. mæ urbes aut jam nullæ exstent, aut idem sibi de die sperent? Dissiliunt superbissimi montes ignis intrinsecus fætu; et, quod nobis judicii perpetuitatem pro• bat, cum dissiliant, cum devorentur, nunquam tamen finiuntur. Tertull, de Pæ. nutent. c. 12.
+ Εις αιώνα δε αιώνων αυτον αναβαίνειν λέγεται, ίνα μάθωμεν ατελεύτητος είναι την κόλασιν των αμαρτωλών, ώσπερ και την τών δικαίων τρυφήν αιώνιον. Andreas Cesar, ad locum.
happiness in the heavens, where “they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy: where they are before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple.” (Rev. iv. 8. vii. 15.) If then the fire, in which the reprobates are to be tormented, be everlasting; if so absolutely everlasting, that it shall never be quenched; if so certainly never to be quenched, that the smoke thereof shall ascend for ever and ever; if those which are cast into it shall be tormented for ever and ever (all which the Scriptures expressly teach); then shall the wicked never be so consumed as to be annihilated, but shall subsist for ever, and be coeternal to the tormenting flames. And so this language of the Scriptures proves not only an effect eternal, as annihilation may be conceived, but an eternal efficient never ceasing to produce the same effect, which cannot be annihilation, but cruciation only. And therefore the fire, which consumed Sodom and Gomorrha, bears no proportion with the flames of hell; because all men know that fire is extinguished, nor doth the smoke thereof ascend for ever and ever.
Neither doth this only prove the eternity of infernal pains, but clearly refute the only material argument brought against it, which is laid upon this ground, that the wicked after the resurrection shall be punished with death, and that a second death; and so they shall be no more, nor can in any sense be said to live or subsist. For, the enduring of this fire is that very death, and they are therefore said to die the second death, because they endure eternal torments. “He that overcometh shall not be hurt by the second death.” (Rev. ii. 11.) it seems that they which shall die that death shall be hurt by it; whereas if it were annihilation, and so a conclusion of their torments, it would be no way hurtful or injurious, but highly beneficial to them. But the living torments are the second death. For “ death and hell were cast into the lake of fire, that is the second death. Whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire;” (Rev.xx. 14, 15.) this is the second death. The Jews before our Saviour's time believed there was a second death; and though it were not expressed in the oracles themselves which were committed to them, yet in the received exposition of them it was often mentioned, *
The Chaldee paraphrase maketh often mention of it, as Deut. xxxiii. 6. “ Let Reuben live and not die;" he ex
: N77 xnw and lxv. 6. "I will not keep silence, but will recompense into their
יחי-ראובן לחיי עלמא ומותא ,pounded thus Let Iteuben live in the life תנינא לא ימות :
לא אתן לדון ארכא בחייא אלהן ".bosom אשלם להון פורענות חוביהון ואמסור למוהא I will not give ha end תנינא ית גויתהון :
of the world, and not die the second death. So the Targum of Onkelos. The Jeru
יחי ראובן ,salem Targum more expressly בעלמא הדין ולא ימות במיתנא תנינא רבה Let Reuben love מיתין רשעיא לעלמא ראתי :
in this world, and let him not die the second death, which the wicked die in the world to come. So Isa. xxii. 14. “Surely this iniquity shall not be purged from you till ye
in this lije, but will recompense them with vengeance for their sins, and deliver their bodies to the second death. From these and the like places it appeareth, that the Jews believed that the wicked after death should be delivered to a second death; that this death should be in the world to come; that they should by this death be punished for their sins. "And St. John revealed that this punishment shall be by
אם ישתבק חובה הדין לכון עד די תמותון ”,die
and that as the punishment of the wicked in the life to come; and what this punishment shall be, was in these words revealed to St. John: “But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death." (Rev. xxi. 8.) Now, if the part in the lake be the second death, if that part be a perpetual permansion in torment, as before it is proved; then to say that the wicked shall die the second death is not a confutation of their eternal being in misery, but an assertion of it, because it is the same thing with everlasting torments, but delivered in other terms.
And, if the pretence of death will not prove an annihilation, or infer a conclusion of torment, much less will the bare phrases of perdition and destruction; for we may as well conclude that whosoever says he is undone, * intends thereby that he shall be no more. Besides, the eternity of destruction in the language of the Scripture signifies a perpetual perpession, and duration in misery:
For when Christ shall come to take vengeance on them that know not God, and obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, they shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.” (2 Thess. i. 8, 9.) Wherefore I conclude, that the wicked shall rise to everlasting punishment, continuing both in soul and body under the wrath of God and the torments proceeding from it, never to be quitted of them by annihilation; which is our first assertion, against the covert doctrine of the Socinians.t
The second assertion teacheth us, that as the reprobates shall never fail to endure the torments due unto their sins; so the justice of God will never fail to inflict those torments for their sins. They shall never live to pay the uttermost farthing, everlasting burnings: Και θάνατοι δε ωσαύ- nec ita aperte (cavi enim istud quantum τας δύο: ο μεν της σαρκός πρόσκαιρος· ο δε δι' potui) ut quisquam vir pius facile offendi αμαρτημάτων έκτισιν επαγόμενος εν τω μέλ. possit ; adeo ut, quod nominatim attinet λoντι αιώνιος, όςπερ έστιν ή του πυρός γέεννα. ad impiorum mortem, in quo dogmate Andreas Cusar. in Apocal. ud loc.
majus est multo offensionis periculum, ea • "Ολλυμαι, Perii.
potius ex iis colligi possit, quæ ibi dispu
tantur, quam expresse literis consignata + 1 call it covert, because it was at first exstet; adeo ut Lector, qui alioqui senclosely delivered by Socinus, and some tentiam meam adversus Puccium de morof his brethren did profess themselves to talitate primi boninis, quæ toto libro be scandalized at it, though he thought agitatur, quæque ob non paucos quos he had so delivered it that it should sooner habet fautores, parum aut nihil offensionis be believed by his writings than perceived parere potest, probandum censeat, prius by them, as appeareth out of his sixth censeat doctrinam istam sibi jam persuaEpistle to Volkelius, who was offended at sam esse quam suaderi animadvertat.' this doctrine, and seems never to have Against this, Germanus, patriarch of assented to it: Quod ais ea, in disputa- Constantinople, in his defence of Gregory tione mea cum Puccio, tum de Christia- Nyssen, shewed from the words of Christ, norum resurrectione, tum de morte impi- the apostles, prophets, and the fathers, orum passim contineri, quæ a inultis sine ώσπες αιώνιον τήν τών δικαίων ανεκλάλητον magna offensione, tum nostris tum alienis, απόλαυσιν, ούτω και την των αμαρτωλών ατεlegi non possint: scio equidem ista ibi λεύτητόν τε και ανυπόστατον κόλασιν. Photius, contineri, sed, meo judicio, nec passim in Biblioth. Cod. 233.
they shall never come to the days of refreshment who are cast into perpetual burnings. One part of their misery is the horror of despair; and it were not perfect hell if any hope could lodge in it. The favour of God is not to be obtained where there is no means left to obtain it; but in the world to come there is no place for faith, nor virtue in repentance. If there be now such a vast distance between the tormenting flames and Abraham's bosom, that none could pass from one to the other, what impossibility must there be when the final sentence is passed upon all! As certainly as no person once received into the heavenly mansions shall ever be cast into outer darkness; so certainly no one which is once cast into the fire prepared for the devil and his angels shall ever enter into their Master's joy. As the tree falleth, so it lieth: there is no change to be wrought in man within those flames, no purgation of his sins, no sanctification of his nature, no justification of his person, and therefore no salvation of him. Without the mediation of Christ no man shall ever enter into heaven, and when he hath “delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father,” (1 Cor. xv. 24.) then shall the office of the Mediator cease.
So groundless was the opinion of Origen, who conceived that after some number of years the damned should be released from their torments, and made partakers of the joys of heaven, or at least try their fortunes in such regions of the World as he conceived should be reserved for their habitation. For he may as well imagine that Christ shall be born and die again (who being risen, dieth not, Rom. vi. 9.) as that any person being condemned to the flames for contemning of his death, should ever come to live again, and by believing in the death of Christ to be after saved. For certainly their condition is unalterable, their condemnation is irreversible, their torments inevitable, their miseries eternal. As they shall not be taken from their punishment by annihilation of themselves, which is our first; so the punishment shall not be taken off them by any compassion upon them, which is our second assertion.
To conclude this branch of the Article, I conceive these certain and infallible doctrines in Christianity: That the wicked after this life shall be punished for their sins, so that in their punishment there shall be a demonstration of the justice of God revealed against all unrighteousness of men. That to this end they shall be raised again to life, and shall be judged and condemned by Christ, and delivered up under the curse, to be tormented with the devil and his angels. That the punishment which shall be inflicted on them shall be proportionate to their sins, as a recompense of their demerits, so that no man shall suffer more than he hath deserved. That they shall be tormented with a pain of loss, the loss from God, from whose presence they are cast out, the pain from themselves, in a despair of enjoying him, and regret for losing him. That they farther shall be tormented with the pain of sense inflicted