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tions, by the light delivered in the Gospel, we shall deliver the latitude of this Article in these two propositions. First, The resurrection of the dead belongeth not to the just alone, but to the unjust also. Secondly, The resurrection of the dead belongeth not only to some of the just, but to all the just; not to some of the unjust only, but to all the unjust, even unto all the dead.
For the first, It is most evident not only out of the New, but also out of the Old Testament: the words of Daniel prove it sufficiently; for of those “many which shall awake, some shall rise to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.” But it is most certain that the just shall never rise to “shame and everlasting contempt;" therefore it is most evident that some shall awake and rise beside the just. The Jews themselves did understand and believe thus much, as appeareth by St. Paul's apology to Felix: “But this I confess unto thee, that I have hope towards God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead both of the just and unjust.” (Acts xxiv. 15.) The just shall rise to receive their reward, the unjust to receive their punishment; the first unto a resurrection called, in reference unto them, “ the resurrection of life ;" the second unto a resurrection named, in relation unto them, the “resurrection of damnation.” (John v. 29.)* For as there is a resurrection of the just, so there must also be a resurrection of the unjust : that as Christ said unto the charitable person, “ Thou shalt be blessed, for thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just;” (Luke xiv. 14.) so it may be said to the wicked and uncharitable, Thou shalt be accursed, for thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the unjust.' For there shall be a resurrection that there may be a judgment, and at the judgment there shall appear sheep on the right hand of the Son of man, and goats on the left : therefore they both shall rise; those, that they may receive that blessing, “ Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world ;” (Matt. xxv. 34.) these, that they may receive that sentence, “Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.” (Ibid. 41.) At that resurrection then, which we believe, there shall rise both just and unjust.
Secondly, As no kind of men, so no person, shall be excluded : whosoever dieth is numbered with the just or unjust. Adam the first of men shall rise, and all which come from him. “For as in Adam all died, so in Christ shall all be made alive.” (1 Cor. xv. 22.) Christ is the Lord of the dead, and so hath a sight by that dominion to raise them all to life: it is called the resurrection of the dead indefinitely, and comprehendeth them universally. “By man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead,”(Ibid. 21.) and so the resurrection ade'Ανάστασις ζωής and 'Ανάστασις κρίσεως. The first is called ανάστασις δικαίων,
and therefore the second may as well be called ávcs tagıç åðinwy.
quately answereth unto death. Christ shall destroy death, but if any one should be left still dead, death were not destroyed. The words of our Saviour are express and full, "The hour is coming, in the which all that are in their graves shall hear his voice and shall come forth, they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation." (John v. 28, 29.) In the description of the judgment which followeth upon the resurrection, "when the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of his glory, before him shall be gathered all nations." (Matt. xxv. 32.) "We shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ," (Rom. xiv. 10.) and if so, the dead must all arise, for they are all fallen. "We must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad;" (2 Cor. v. 10.) and before we all appear, the dead must rise that they may appear. This is the latitude of the resurrection; the resurrection of the dead is the resurrection of all the dead, or of all mankind.*
Now this resurrection, as an object of our faith, is yet to come; and we are obliged to believe the futurition of it. There were heretics in the apostles' days who acknowledged a resurrection, but yet destroyed this Article, by denying the relation of it to the time, as "Hymeneus and Philetus, who erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is past already, and so overthrow the faith of some." (2 Tim. ii. 17, 18.)† To believe it already past, is to deny it; because it cannot be believed past, but by such an interpretation as must destroy it. As they which interpret this resurrection of the likeness of Christ's resurrection: that as he died and rose again, so we should die unto sin and live again unto righteousness, attributing all to the renovation of the mind, must deny the resurrection of the body. Now, as we know the doctrine of the resurrection was first
Irenæus in his Rule of Faith: 'Emi
τὸ ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι τὰ πάντα, καὶ ἀναστῆσαι πᾶσαν σάρκα πάσης ἀνθρωπότητος. Adv. Hares. 1. i. c. 10. §. 1. And Theophilus calls it: τὴν καθολικὴν ἀνάστασιν ἁπάντων ἀνθρώπων. Ad Autol.1. 1. p. 78.
↑ Nonnulli enim attendentes verba quæ assidue dicit apostolus, Quia et mortui sumus cum Christo, et resurreximus cum co; nec intelligentes quatenus dicantur, arbitrati sunt jam factam esse resurrectionem, nec ullam ulterius in fine tempo
esse sperandam. Ex quibus est, inquit, Hymenæus et Philetus, qui circa veritatem aberraverunt, dicentes resurrec
ram, sed quotidie fieri in generatione filiorum.' Hares. 59. Thus Tertullian relates of some heretics in his time, who made the resurrection wholly allegorical, and yet pretended to believe a resurrection in the flesh, but understood it in this life at the baptismal renovation, and so past when they professed to believe:
Exinde ergo, resurrectionem fide consequutos cum Domino esse, cum eum in baptismate induerint. Hoc denique ingenio etiam in colloquiis sæpe nostros decipere consueverunt; quasi et ipsi resurrectionem carnis admittant.
tionem jam factam esse. Idem apostolus eos arguens detestatur, qui tamen dicit nos resurrexisse cum Christo.' S. August. Epist. 119. al. 55. ad Januarium, §. 4. This was the heresy of the Seleuciani or Hermiani, as the same St. Augustin testifies: Resurrectionem non putant futu
inquiunt, qui non in hac carne resurrexerit; ne statim illos percutiant, si resurrectionem statim abnuerint. Tacite autem secundum conscientiam suam hoc sentiunt, Væ, qui non, dum in carne est, cognoverit arcana hæretica; hoc enim est apud illos resurrectio.' Tertull, de Resurrect. Carnis, c. 19.
delivered to be believed as to come ; so we are assured that it is not yet come since the doctrine of it was first delivered, and is to be believed as to come to the end of the world ; because, as Martha called it,” it is the “resurrection at the last day.” (John xi. 24.) Job who knew that his Redeemer lived, did not expect that he should stand upon the earth till “the latter day;" Christ hath no otherwise declared “his Father's will," than that “of all which he hath given him, he should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day.” (John vi. 39.) The corn is sown and laid in the ground, and “the harvest is the end of the world.” (Matt. xiii. 39.) We must not expect to rise from the dead till “ the last trump." (1 Cor. xv. 52.) “ The Lord himself shall descend
” from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trump of God,” (1 Thess. iv. 16.) before "all that are in the graves shall hear his voice.” (John v. 28.) God shall “judge the world,” (Acts xvii. 31.) and therefore shall raise the world; but he will not raise them to that judgment till the end of the world.
Thus having demonstrated that the will of God hath been revealed that there should be a resurrection; that the resurrection which was revealed is the resurrection of the body; that the bodies which are to be raised are the same which are already dead or shall hereafter die ; that this resurrection is not past, but that we which live shall hereafter attain unto it: I conceive I have declared all that is necessary by way of explication and confirmation of the truth of this Article.
The value of this truth, the necessity of this doctrine, will appear; first, in the illustration of the glory of God, by the most lively demonstration of his wisdom, power, justice, and mercy. God first created all things for himself, and the resurrection is as it were a new creation. The wisdom and power of God are manifested in this acknowledgment, inasmuch as without infinite knowledge he could not have an exact and distinct comprehension of all the particles and individual dusts of all the bodies of all men; and without an infinite power he could not conjoin, cement, conglutinate, and incorporate them again into the same flesh. The mercy and justice of God are declared by the same profession; the mercy, in promising life after that death which we had so justly deserved; the justice, in performing that promise unto all true believers, and in punishing the disobedient with everlasting flames. see this (saith the prophet), your hearts shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like an herb; and the hand of the Lord shall be known towards his servants, and his indignation towards his enemies.” (Isa. Ixvi. 14.)
Secondly, It is necessary to profess the belief of the resurrection of the body, that we may thereby acknowledge the great and powerful work of our redemption, confessing that death could not be conquered but by death, and that we could never
" When ye
have obtained another life, had not the Saviour of the world “abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel.” (2 Tim. i. 10.) If Christ were not the life, the dead could never live; if he were not the resurrection, they could never rise. Were it not for him that“ liveth, and was dead, and is alive for evermore,” had not he“ the keys of hell and of death,” (Rev. i. 18.) we could never break through the bars of death, or pass the gates of hell. But he hath undertaken to vanquish our enemies, and our “ last enemy to be destroyed is death :” (1 Cor. xv. 26.) that the prophecy (Hos. xiii. 14.) may be fulfilled, " Death is swallowed up in victory," and we may cry out with the apostle, “ Thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.” (1 Cor. xv. 51. 57.)
Thirdly, The belief of this Article is necessary to strengthen us against the fear of our own death, and immoderate sorrow for the death of others. The sentence of death, passed upon us for our sins, cannot but affright and amaze us, except we look upon the suspension, relaxation, or revocation of it in the resurrection; but when we are assured of a life after death, and such a life as no death shall follow it, we may lay down our fears arising from corrupted nature, upon the comforts proceeding from our faith. The departure of our friends might overwhelm us with grief, if they were lost for ever; but the apostle will “not have us ignorant concerning those which are asleep, that we sorrow not even as others which have no hope." (1 Thess. iv. 13.)
Fourthly, The belief of the resurrection hath a necessary reflection upon this life by way of preparation for the next, as deterring from sin, as encouraging to holiness, as comforting in afflictions. How can any man commit a deliberate sin while he thinks that he must rise and stand before the judgment-seat, and give an account, and suffer for ever the punishment due unto it? What pleasure can entice him, what inclination can betray him, for a momentary satisfaction, to incur an eternal rejection? How can we defile that body which shall never be raised to glory hereafter, except it here become the temple of the Holy Ghost? St. Paul, who hath delivered the doctrine, hath taught us by his own example what work is expected to be wrought upon our souls by it. “I have hope (saith he) towards God, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. And herein do I exercise myself to have always a conscience void of offence toward God and toward men." (Acts xxiv. 15, 16.) This is the proper work of a true belief, and a full persuasion of a resurrection; and he which is really possessed with this hope, cannot choose but purify himself; “always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as he knoweth that his labour is not in vain in the Lord.” (1 Cor. xv. 58.) This encourageth all drooping spirits ; this sustaineth all fainting hearts; this sweeteneth ali
present miseries; this lighteneth all heavy burdens; this encourageth in all dangers : this supporteth in all calamities.
Having thus discovered the truth of this Article, we may easily perceive what every man is obliged to believe, and understood to profess, when he confesseth a belief of the resurrection of the body; for thereby he is conceived to declare thus much; I am fully persuaded of this as of a most necessary and infallible truth, that as it is appointed for all men once to die, so it is also determined that all men shall rise from death, that the souls separated from our bodies are in the hand of God and live, that the bodies dissolved into dust, or scattered into ashes, shall be recollected in themselves, and reunited to their souls, that the same flesh which lived before shall be revived, that the same numerical bodies which did fall shall rise, that this resuscitation shall be universal, no man excepted, no flesh left in the grave, that all the just shall be raised to a resurrection of life, and all the unjust to a resurrection of damnation; that this shall be performed at the last day when the trump shall sound : and thus I believe The RESURRECTION OF THE BODY.
And the Life Everlasting. This last Article, though not to be found in all,* yet was expressed in many ancient Creeds :t in some by way of addition,
Not in all ; for divers ended with col. 323. So St. Chrysostom: Metà gàs that of the resurrection, as appeareth by την απαγγελίας των μυστικών ρημάτων εκείνων Ruffinus, who not only expounded the και φοβερών, και τους φρικτούς κανόνας των εν Aquileian Creed, but collated it with the του ουρανού κατενεχθέντων δογμάτων, και τούGreek and Roman, and yet makes no το προς το τέλει προστίθεμεν, όταν μέλλωμεν mention of this Article, but concludes βαπτίζειν, κελεύοντες λέγειν ότι πιστεύω εις with that of the resurrection. Sed et νεκρών ανάστασιν και επί τη σίστει ταύτη ultimus iste sermo qui resurrectionem car- βαπτιζόμεθα· μετά γάρ το ομολογήσαι τούτο nis pronunciat, summam totius perfectio- μετά των άλλων, τότε καθιέμεθα εις την nis succincta brevitate concludit.' Expos. πηγήν των ιερών ναμάτων εκείνων. Ηom. 40. in Symb. Ø. 40. And whereas he shews in 1 Cor. So Maximus Taurinensis, after the custom of the Aquileian Church to those words carnis resurrectionem, adds : make a cross upon their forehead at the hic religionis nostræ finis, hæc summa naming of hujus carnis, he tells us else- credendi est.' In Erpos. Symb. And Vewhere in his Apology against St. Jerome, nantius Fortunatus after the same words: that it was to conclude the Creed : Quo 'summa perfectionis concluditur.' l. xi. scilicet frontem, ut mos est, in fine Sym- art. 1. And in the MS. set forth by the boli sigpaculo contingentes, et ore carnis Bishop of Armagh, σαρκός ανάστασιν, and hujus, videlicet quam contingimus, resur- carnis resurrectionem are the last words. rectionem fatentes, omnem venenatæ ad- + As Petrus Chrysologus expressly : versum nos linguæ calumniandi aditum • Credimus vitam æternam; quia post repræstruemus.' l. i.col. 354.
In the same
surrectionem nec bonorum finis est nec manner St. Jerome his contemporary : malorum. Signate vos.' Serm. 60. And • In Symbolo fidei et spei nostræ, quod ab again : ‘Bene addidit, vitam æternam, ut apostolis traditum non scribitur in charta se resurrecturum crederet, qui resurget et atramento, sed in tabulis cordis carna- per ipsum, qui cum Deo Patre et Spiritu libus, post confessionem Trinitatis et uni- S. vivit et regnat.' Serm. 62. So Etherius tatem Ecclesiæ, omne Christiani dogma- Uxamensis, and Eusebius Gallicanus. tis sacramentum carnis resurrectione con- So we find Serm. de Temp. 131. et De cluditur:' Epist. 61. al. 38. ad Pammach. Symb. ad Catech. I. i. Ģ. 16. • Quomodo