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GEO G R A PHY,

POPULAR AND SCIENTIFIC,

OR

A PHYSICAL, POLITICAL, AND STATISTICAL ACCOUNT

OF THE

WORLD AND ITS VARIOUS DIVISIONS.

BY JAMES BELL,

AUTHOR OF CRITICAL RESEARCHES IN GEOGRAPHY, EDITOR OF ROLLIN'S ANCIENT HISTORY,

&c. &c.

ILLUSTRATED BY A COMPLEID SIRIIS OF MAPS, AND

OTHER ENGRAVINGS.

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GLASGOW:
A. FULLARTON AND CO., 34, HUTCHESON STREET ;

AND 6, ROXBURGH PLACE, EDINBURGH:
W. CURRY, JUN., & CO., DUBLIN: SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL

AND ORR AND SMITH, LONDON.

MDCCCXXXVI.

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CONTENTS OF VOLUME FOURTH.

ASIA.

CHAP. IV. THE KINGDOM OF KASAN-Government of

Kasan-Government of Wiatka, 65-Govern. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. - Names - Boundaries, ment of Perm-Government of Simbirsk, 66

1-Extent and Superficies-Great Central Pla Government of Pesan, 67. teau, 2-Mountains and Basins of Northern CHAP. V. KINGDOM OF ASTRAKHAN-Government of Asia- Mountains and Basins of Eastern Asia, 5 Astrakhan-Government of Saratof, 67-Pro-Mountains and Basins of Southern Asia, 6

vince of Caucasus-Province of Orenburg, 68. Mountains and Basins of Western Asia-The Al.CHAP. VI. THE KINGDOM OF SIBERIA-Government of tai Mountains, 8-Volcanoes-Synoptic Table of Tobolsk-Circle and Town of Tobolsk, 69 Mountains, 9-Steppes, 10—Seas-The Arctic District of Ischim-Circle of Kurgan-Tartar Ocean, 11-The Pacific Ocean-The Indian Inhabitants, 70-Government of ToinskOcean, 13-The Mediterranean—The Euxine Town of Tomsk-Circle of Biisk and Chinese - Inland Seas and Lakes-The Aral-The Cas Frontier, 71-Province of Irkoutsk-Goverypian, 14_Rivers, 17-Climate, 19-Produc. ment of Irkoutsk--Vershpi-Udinsk and Seleng. tions-Animal Kingdom, 20-Vegetable King insk, 72-Nertchinsk-Kiakhta District of dom-Mineral Kingdom, 21- Population, 22

Okhotsk, 73–Country of the TschuktschesTribes according to Colour-Tribes according Country of the Koriaks-Peninsula of Kamto Blumenbach's Classification, 23-General tschatka, 74—Islands in the Eastern Sea, 75. Summary - Languages --Religions, 26-State CHAP. VII. THE CAUCASIAN DISTRICTS, 76-1. Proof Civilization, 27—Progressive Geography, 28 vince of Georgia-Boundaries-Name-History, - Alexander's Discoveries-Egyptian and Sy. 80-Divisions-Physical Features-Climate rian Discoveries, 29—Knowledge of the Greeks Productions, 83-Inhabitants-Trade and Com. and Romans, 30-Knowledge of the Middle merce-Circle of Teflis, 8LII, The Province Ages-Vasco de Gama and Columbus, 31 of Imeritia-Boundaries-- Physical Features and Modern Discoveries, 32–Travellers in the In. Productions-Inhabitants-Guriel - Mingrelia, terior-Natural Divisions, 33.

85-The Suanes-III. The Country of the Ab.

assians-Boundaries, Physical Features -In. ASIATIC RUSSIA.

habitants, 80 - IV. Circassia - Boundaries

Physical Features Productions-Inhabitants. Boundaries, 36-Superficial Extent-Caucasian 87-Lesghians-Ossetinians - V. Province of

System, 37–Name-Historical Notice, 38— Daghistan-Boundaries, 88-Physical Features Basins-Western Caucasus-Central Cauca. -Climate and Productions- Population and sus, 39- Eastern Caucasus-Geology and Territorial Divisions.-VI. Province of Shir. Scenery, 40_Productions-Caucasian Tribes, wan-Boundaries-Physical Features, 89-In41-Uralian Mountains, 42—The Little Altai habitants-District of Baku-Khanate of Shir. The Baikalian Mountains - The Daourian wan-Khanate of Scheki-The state of Dschar Chains-Mountains of Kamtschatka-M. Hum. -The Khanate Carabagh, 90-Talischin-VII. boldt's Observations, 43-Steppes, 44 Rivers The Province of Aran, 91-Authorities, 92, The Kara- The Obi, 454 The Yenisei-The Lena-The Omoloi, Kolyma, &c.-Rivers of

ASIATIC TURKEY. the Southern Ocean, 46-Rivers of the Black Sea-Lakes-The Baikal, 47-Lakes of Wes. Boundaries-Extent, 93-Divisions, 91. tern Siberia-Salt Lakes, 48.

L. ASIA MINOR-Name-Boundaries and Extent, CHAP. IL CLIMATE-PRODUCTIONS-MANUFACTURES, 91- Political Divisions, 95,

AND COMMERCE -Climate-Diseases, 49_Pro. CHAP. I. PHYSICAL FEATURES-Face of the Country ductions - Animal Kingdom, 50— Vegetable -Rivers—The Halys, 99-The Iris-The Fatsa, Kingdom, 51-Mineral Kingdom-Mines &c. 100- Mountains, Plains, and Valleys, 10!Manufactures, 52-Commerce, 53—Compara Olympus, 10–Taurus, 105-Antitaurus, 106tive Table-Monies, 57.

Scydisses-The Argi. Degh, 107–Lakes, 109. CHAP. III. POPULATION AND TRIBES—Tribes and CAP. II. CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS--Climate

Nations-Ist, The Slavonian Tribes--2d, Cau. Mineral Productions, 109--Vegetable Produccasian Tribes-3d, Tatarian Tribes, 58-4th, tions, 110_Soil, &c. 112-Zoology, 113-Com. Mongols-5th, Mandshurs,59-6th, Fins, 60–7th, merce and Manufactures, 114. Samoides-The Yakouts, 61-8th, The Kor CHAP. III. POPULATION AND TRIBES, 115. iaks-9th, The Kamtschadaliany-General CHAP. IV. CITIES AND TOPOGRAPHY_TrebisondSummary-Foreigners, 61.

Amasia, 116-Tocat-Sivas, &c. 117-Scutari,

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