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bim, in wishing, that the Oaths of Freedom were al tered, from what they are at present; and so constituted, as not to reduce Men to the sad Necesity of destroying their Commerce, or preserving it by a conTINUAL* Profanation of the sacred Name of God.
UPON the Whole, though interfering with tensporal Things immoderately is derogatory to the Clerical CharaEter; yet as Commerce multiplies the Relations of Men, and creates a Variety of Moral Obligations, it will not be thought unbecoming that Order, who are to serve to the Glory of God, and the Edification of Men, to remove Temptations, and propose temporal Rewards to Virtue; especially, if these Schemes of national Reformation
ral * Part of a Freeman's Oath, in the City of London, is, “ Ye “ shall know no Foreigner to buy or sell any Merchandise with
any other Foreigner within this City, or Franchise thereof, “ but ye shall warn the Chamberlain thereof, or some Minif“ ter of the Chamber. Ye shall take no Apprentice, th “ Child of any Alien."
Part of a Freeman's Oath, in the City of Bristol, is as follows “ You shall not know any Foreigner, or Stranger, to buy and “ fell with another Foreigner, within the Precincts of this “ City, but you shall give Knowledge thereof unto the Cham- .
berlain, or his Deputy, without Delay. You shall not “ take any Apprentice,- except he be born under the King's “ Obeysance.
This national Antipathy against Foreigners, was the Stock on which the Burgesses and Freemen
grafted their narrow exclusive Schemes of Commerce, and Plans of Monopoly. For the Tenor of the Oaths of Freedom is much the same in other Towns and Cities, as in London and Brifol. And, in the Language of these incorporated Places, the Word Foreigner denotes not only an Alien, or one born out of the King's Obez. Jance, but every Englishman, not free of their Corporation. And even Lodgers, În-tenants, House-keepers, Free-holders, Book-keepers, Clerks, Agents, Factors, Mariners, Merchants, &c. though residing in fuch Places, are not allowed, by their Bye-Laws, to buy and sell, of and to each other, if they are not free themselves. And all the Freemen are obliged, by the express Terms of their Oath, to give Information of such Sales and Contracts, as soon as they come to their knowledge. And yet, But I forbear: The Reader will supply the rest, would
should be attended with an Increase of Commerce, and national Honour, with the Security of Liberty, and its known Attendants, Learning, and true Religion. At least, if the Author may be proved to have erred, he will gladly retire from these Studies ; which he has bitherto followed upon Motives of this kind only.
WITH regard to the Naturalization of foreign Protestants, if any such Bill should bereafter be laid before the Houses of Parliament, he is inclined to wiß, with the greatest Deference to the Opinion of better Judges, that two Restrictions might be inserted in it, more to obviate the imaginary Danger, which prejudiced People apprehend from pafing of it, than any real ill Consequences froin either Source.
FIRST, That naturalized Foreigners should gain no Parish Settlement; that they should neither become a Burtben to the Natives of this Country, nor have any Tax levied on them to maintain our Poor. This is equitable on both sides, and may be necessary to prevent popular Clamours; Though the Author can venture to assert (which he would not presume to do without good Authority) that the Foreigners, who have settled in this Kingdom for seventy Years past, have paid, at least, a Pound STERLING towards the Support of the English Poor, for every Penny that has been levied upon the English to maintain poor Foreigners. And if those Gentlemeii, who opposed the Introduction of foreign Protestants, under the Apprekenfion that it would encrease the Poor-Tax (a Burthen too great already) would but give themselves the Trouble to make Enquiries in London, Bristol, Southampton, Canterbury, or any other Place, where any Number of Foreigners have resided, they would entertain very different Notions of this Affair; and find Cause to trust no longer to general Invectives, popular Cries, and national Prejudices; by which the best disposed People are often misled, and sometimes induced to join in Measures, not only destructive to the Good of their Country, but fubver five of the Dietates of Humanity, and the clearest Precepts of the Gospel.
AGAIN, That no Foreigner should be capable of a Place of Trust or Power by a general Naturalization. The Wisdom of the Legislature might, by an express Ait, qualify a particular Person of extraordinary Merit: And an open Admission of all naturalized Persons, would be made a Topick for popular, though groundless Declamation.
ONE more Observation is bumbly offered on this Subjekt, viz. That however prudent and expedient it may be, to admit foreign Protestants to be naturalized Subjects, yet unless there were the highest Probability of bringing the point to bear, to attempt it and fail, would confirm the common People in their Prejudices; and strengthen the Credit of those, who, thro Disaffection, or a private Interest, incompatiable with the publick Good, bave opposed this Measure. This will impower them to spread strange Reports, to impose on the Credulity of the lower Sort of People, and to infuse into them Suspicions of the pernicious Views of those Men, who proposed this destructive
ProjeEt ;--which, co-inciding with the national Prejudice againff Foreigners, would be greedily received. And when, by the Bill's not paling, these Rumours are not confuted by Experience, how shall we convince a Mob, who aɛt by Palion, not by Refletion; who are to be gained by finister and mean Arts, and therefore are not generally influenced by tbe wisef, or belt of Men.
With a Preface, setting forth the avowed Docs trine, and constant Practice of the Church of Rome, concerning the Persecution of
YOntaining important Queries relating to the
Improvement and Extension of Commerce! - Materials for Employing the Poor, and the Causes of the Want of Employment : The Encrease of Inhabitants, the Riches of a Country; the Landed and National Interest:-Taxes of all kinds, particularly the Poor Tax:_The Birth-right and Privileges of Englisomen, ‘and the real Intereft of Tradesmen:- The most efficacious, as well as the gentlest Methods for the Reformation of a People's Morals: -A Regard to the Constitutions both in Church and State:- The Duties of Humanity, and the Principles of the Christian Religion. To which will be added, by way of Appendix, A calm Address to all Parties in Religion, concerning Disaffection towards the present Government; first Published during the late Rebellion, and now to be republished with material Additions.
Historical Remarks on the Disposition
and Behaviour of the Natives of this Isand towards Foreigners ; OG cafioned by the Rejection of the late Naturalization Bill.
T is observable, that every Na
tion hath some peculiar Biass, of I
a virtuous and a vicious Tendency, which constitutes the distinguishing Characteristic of
that People: And even New Comers acquire, in a short Time the same Dispositions and Manners. The present French and Spaniards seem to inherit' both the good and bad Qualities of the ancient Inhabitants of Gaul and Spain. And the modern English,