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1843.j

BATTLE OF DUBBA.

393

ment filled the houses in the village of Dubba. To the left of the enemy, one of their corps was stationed in a small wood, or jungle, being supported by a division posted in a ravine going off diagonally from the front towards the rear.

The English horse artillery began the action by making an attack on the enemy's extreme right, while the infantry in masses assailed the first nullah. The combat became most deadly when the brave Lieutenant Coote mounted the bank, and waved from its summit a captured Belooch standard. He fell almost immediately, mortally wounded, as his soldiers with loud shouts rushed

upon the swordsmen beneath, and forced them back to the second nullah. There the strife recommenced, but, after a fearful slaughter, the British burst their way through and attacked the village of Dubba. It was bravely defended by men who set no value on their own lives or those of their opponents, but charges of the English cavalry and horse artillery upon their flanks had now completely thrown the Beloochees into confusion, and silenced their guns. In a short time they were flying in confusion from the field of battle, hotly pursued by the English and native regiments. Among their killed was the brave Hoche, and several other chieftains of reputation.

The next day the English cavalry arrived at Meerpoor, forty miles from the field of battle, and the capital of Shere Mohammed. He deserted it before they reached the gates, and escaped with his family through the desert to Omercote. Thither the British followed him, and finding the town abandoned, took military possession of the streets, the citadel being occupied by the late garrison, who had retreated into it. They soon surrendered, upon condition that their lives should be spared; and the English general, placing a small corps in Omercote, concentrated his whole army at Meerpoor.

Sir Charles Napier being now appointed governor of Scinde, employed himself in conciliating or overawing the various warlike chieftains whose power or influence might prove inimical to the English. The two most to be feared were Shere Mohammed and Ali Mohammed, of Kyrpoor. The former, after wandering about for some time in the desert, and striving to augment his army from every possible source, attacked Colonel Jacob near Shahdadpoor, but at the commencement of the action his troops deserted, and their leader, having no hopes of raising another force, sought refuge among the hill tribes to the north of Shikarpoor, where he was soon after joined by Ali Mohammed. The rest of the Ameers had been removed to Bombay, but neither their absence nor their captivity excited much commiseration or regret among their late subjects. Like the majority of Mohammedan rulers, they were barbarous and tyrannical to those under their sway, faithless in their engagements, and diametrically opposed to the introduction of commerce into their dominions. Passionately fond of the chase, they ruined whole villages to form huntinggrounds, being utterly reckless of the sufferings endured by their subjects when the interests of the latter were opposed to their own selfish gratification. Into the delicate political questions connected with the dethronement or imprisonment of the Ameers, a work of this kind cannot enter ; but it may be questioned whether the most zealous of their English advocates would willingly exchange for such a sway the freedom and equity inseparable from British rule.

1843.]

INVASION OF GWALIOR.

395

CHAPTER XXX..

TROUBLES IN GWALIOR-RECAL OF LORD ELLENBOROUGH-THE SEIKIS

-NANUK-GOVIND-COMMOTIONS AT LAHORE AFTER THE DEATII OF

RUNJEET SINGH-WAR DECLARED-BATTLES OF MOODKEE AND PHEEROOSHUHR - VICTORY AT ALEE WAL-BATTLE OF SOBRAON SURRENDER OF LAHORE-ARRIVAL OF LORD DALHOUSIE-TROUBLES IN MOULTAN-LIEUTENANT EDWARDES-SIEGE OF MOULTAN-CAPTURE OF MOOL-RAJ-BATTLE OF CHILLIANWALLAH-CONCLUSION.

1843–1849.

DURING the year 1843, some disturbances took place among the Mahrattas of Gwalior. A young prince, Tyajee Row Scindia, had recently succeeded to the supreme authority, and being a minor, the regency was conferred upon his mother, who afterwards, with the consent of her principal chiefs, made over that dignity to a noble, named Mama Sahib. Subsequently, this person was driven from Gwalior by the intrigues of the princess, who henceforth bestowed her confidence on statesmen inimical to the English government. The Resident's remonstrances were treated with contempt, factions and conspiracies prevailed in every part of the country, and an assemblage of persons bent upon hostile measures possessed themselves, unopposed, of the principal offices in the state.

During the month of December 1843, Lord Ellenborough, accompanied by Sir Hugh Gough, penetrated into the Gwalior territories from Ama, at the head of one division of the invading force, while a second, under Major-General Grey, advanced from Bundelkund. In the meantime, the Mahrattas despatched an army to meet Sir Hugh Gough, whom they encountered near the town of Maha-rajpoor. The English commenced the attack in column, but suffered considerably from the enemy's artillery. Undismayed, however, by their severe loss, the troops pushed on, and charging the Mahrattas with the bayonet, very soon threw them into confusion. They endeavoured to make a stand in the village of Maha-rajpoor, and obstinately defended every inch of ground, but, at length, the English, attacking it from the rear, obliged the enemy to evacuate their post

. The Mahrattas lost on this occasion all their artillery, while more than 3,000 of their number were either killed or wounded On the same day, Major-General Grey defeated a strong detachment at Punniar, and the Durbar not being able any longer to oppose an enemy who had twice in succession proved so signally victorious, sent envoys to negotiate a peace. The treaty was accordingly arranged, by which the English obtained possession of a fort near the capital, the Mahrattas agreeing also to disband their troops and receive into their country a subsidiary force.

Soon after these events, the Court of Directors thought fit to recal Lord Ellenborough from his post of governorgeneral. His departure was greatly regretted by the army, but the civilians, whom he had been thought to dislike and overlook, beheld that event with indifference, if not with positive satisfaction. Sir Henry Hardinge, already well known by an honourable military career in Spain, received almost immediately the vacant appointment.

The new governor quitted England profoundly impressed with the advantages of a pacific policy, but circumstances soon occurred that obliged him to unsheath the sword. Since the death of Runjeet Singh, the Seikhs had been growing every day more disorganized, in consequence of their domestic feuds and intestine divisions. This singular race, which first came into political existence during the sixteenth century, owed its religious constitution to Nanuk and Govind.

1469.) NANUK,

397 The former was born in the year 1469, near Lahore. His father being only a small tradesman, inhabiting a remote northern village, his education could scarcely have extended beyond the first rudiments of knowledge. Yet he was well versed in the Koran and Shasters, and comprehended thoroughly the Hindoo and Mohammedan systems. At an early age strong religious emotions arose in his mind; he grew dissatisfied with his family creed, and wandered through India, seeking for truth. After a long pilgrimage, he returned home without feeling himself convinced either by the Mohammedan or the Hindoo. From that time he became desirous of effecting a species of compromise between the doctrines of both these systems. He rejected the manifold deities of the Brahmins, believing God to be one and invisible. The supreme Lord, he taught, would reward men according to their works of piety and virtue when the day of reckoning arrived, in which punishment should certainly overtake the sinner. Like the Brahmins, he admitted into his new creed the doctrine of transmigration, by which the soul, passing through different bodies, is thus gradually purified from its transgressions. Disclaiming the power of working miracles, he forbade his disciples to consider him as an inspired teacher, while he looked upon Mohammed and the founders of Brahminism as having been raised up by God to promulgate certain beneficial though diverse portions of divine truth. He inculcated the duty of universal toleration, and discountenanced, though he did not declare sinful, the favourite asceticism of his countrymen.

After the death of Nanuk, his disciple, Unggud, succeeded to the post of Gooroo, or religious instructor. He committed to writing many of the lessons and actions of the deceased, but did little to enlarge the numbers of the sect. One of his successors, Arjoon, first attempted, in 1581, the organization of “ the disciples” (Seikhs). He embodied in a volume, called Grunth, or “the Book,"

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