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1799.)

DEATH OF TIPPOO.

153

for some time in the palace, but lay wounded near a gateway on the north side of the fort. He engaged to conduct the general thither ; but upon their arrival the darkness and the hundreds of slain with which the place was filled, rendered the search most difficult. At length one of Tippoo's body attendants, who had been cut down by his side, pointed out the spot where the Sultan fell. Torches were brought, and the body removed from among the heaps of slain. The

eyes
still remained open,

and some degree of heat yet lingered in the stiffened limbs; but the heart and pulse had ceased to beat, and it soon became evident that the spirit had departed, to answer for its deeds of ambition and bloodshed before the dread tribunal of the King of Kings.

The last days of Tippoo were employed, like those of the first monarch of Israel, in vain attempts to ascertain his future destiny. As Saul sought counsel from the diviners, whom in former times he banished and persecuted, the Mysorean Sultan turned in his hour of despair to those very Brahmins, whose shrines he had plundered, and whose idolatry he affected to despise. By their instructions he practised several rites, repugnant alike to reason, and to the doctrines of his Islamite creed. From this dotage of superstition his officers aroused him by the intelligence that the foe was at hand. Hastily girding on his weapons, he rushed to the scene of conflict. The English were taking possession of the ramparts in every direction, and Tippoo found it impossible to rally his flying troops. He killed several of the opponents with his own hand; but the tide of fugitives bore him irresistibly along, and obliged him to make a last stand in the gateway where his corpse was afterwards found. Here he continued fighting, with the most determined courage, until two musket-balls entering his side, and his horse being killed under him, he was borne down to the earth. An English soldier approached him, as he lay on the ground incapable of rising, and attempted

to grasp at his jewelled sword-belt. The dying prince concentrated his fast ebbing strength in one expiring effort, and making a cut at the soldier with his sabre, wounded him slightly near the knee. The man levelled his piece-fired and the stern, haughty Sultan fell back lifeless upon a heap of slain.

The next day the remains of the son of Hyder were borne, with

military honours, to the magnificent mausoleum of Lall Bang, which his father had erected as the sepulchre of his race. The British soldiers presented arms when the funeral cortège passed along; but these solemn rites of the last Sultan of Mysore were rendered more impressive by a violent storm of thunder and lightning that broke forth during the ceremony, and destroyed several natives and Europeans.

Thus perished a prince, who combined with great natural abilities and undaunted courage, cruelty which disgraced, and ambition which finally ruined him. A skilful soldier and astute politician, he had acquired the love of his own subjects and the veneration of his co-religionists. His country was well cultivated, and his people better governed, than the majority of Indian populations: but, like most great men of his country and period, his faith could not be relied upon; and his hatred to the English has scarcely been paralleled in history, since the young Hannibal swore eternal enmity to the Romans upon the altars of Carthage. The blind violence of this animosity

proved eventually his ruin, since it led him to repose confidence in all who shared his repugnance, or offered to co-operate in his schemes of vengeance. The bitterness of his antipathy, tempted him to commit actions which at one time excited abhorrence, at another contempt. His English prisoners were treated with savage brutality-many of them had been inhumanly murdered ; while a series of ridiculous and unworthy caricatures adorned, or rather disfigured, the walls of his capital city. A piece of mechanism found

1799.]

OCCUPATION OF SERINGAPATAM.

155

in his palace, and still preserved in the India House, represents an English soldier lying beneath the fangs of a tiger; while the turning of a handle, protruding from the side of the wild beast, produces a sound designed to imitate the victim's expiring groans.

Major-General Baird continued to hold possession of Seringapatam until the storming party was relieved by the entry of Colonel Wellesley with fresh troops. This prudent measure at once put a stop to the disorders that were being committed by men whose passions had been irritated and excited, in consequence of the scenes of violence and blood through which they had recently passed. Unhappily, a step emanating solely from the considerate humanity of the commander-in-chief created a misunderstanding between himself and Major-General Baird, who seemed to consider the appointment of Colonel Wellesley a personal slight. The momentary ill-feeling thus provoked, however, finally subsided, and General Harris had the gratification of presenting publicly to his brave subordinate a sword of considerable value, found in the chamber of Tippoo Sultan after the assault.

The prompt measures of Colonel Wellesley soon restored order in the town, and calmed the apprehensions of the inhabitants, who showed their confidence in his firm but temperate rule, by a speedy return to their several occupations. Among the unquiet subjects whom he had to deal with, were some tigers belonging to the menagerie of the late Sultan, who, being abandoned during the storm, soon grew ravenous from want of food. In a characteristic note the Great Captain announces his determination to have these animals shot, unless some immediate arrangement is made for their removal.

Intelligence of the fall of Seringapatam was enclosed in a quill, and forwarded to Madras by natives, who placed the unsuspected utensil in the aperture of their

These precautions had been taken, as the country around still swarmed with the partisans and retainers of

ear.

Tippoo, some of whom now returned to their former predatory habits. The regions over which the deceased Sultan formerly held sway were parcelled out among the English, the Nizam, and the Peishwa, the largest share being, however, reserved for a descendant of the old Hindoo family expelled by Hyder, who now took his seat upon the musnud under English protection as Rajah of Mysore.

1800.1

SUBMISSION OF THE PEISHWA.

157

CHAPTER XII.

DHOONDIAL WAUGH-SUBMISSION OF THE PEISHWA-INTERCOURSE

WITH PERSIADETHRONEMENT OF THE NABOB OF THE CARNATIO— DEFEAT OF DHOONDIAH WAUGH-INSURRECTION AT BENARES-CAPTURE OF VIZIER ALI,

1800-1801,

SOME disturbances raised by a freebooter named Dhoondiah Waugh were speedily quelled, and in a few months after the taking of Seringapatam the most perfect tranquillity prevailed throughout the whole country. It soon, however, became evident that fresh hostilities might be anticipated on the part of the Mahrattas. These turbulent tribes had long excited the anxious fears of the governor-general. They joined the English, however, in the war against Tippoo, and a portion of his territories was even set apart for them by way of reward. But Lord Mornington determined that this cession should only take place under certain conditions. The Nizam had consented to receive a British subsidiary force into the heart of his dominions; and to assign over, for its maintenance, the revenues of several specified districts. The governor-general now demanded that the Peishwa of the Mahrattas should make a similar concession; one, indeed, most advantageous for the English, but highly repugnant to the independent spirit of the Mahrattas. They refused to accept the proposed terms, and thereby forfeited their share of the spoil.

Subsequently, however, the Peishwa showed some inclination to negotiate. Pressed, as he was, on all sides by powerful chiefs, who, although nominally submissive,

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