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Before Dan. vii. has the vision of the four beasts, signifying the four universal empires, and God. * Christ

Ancient of Days," judging the 4th and delivering over all power and sovereignty te ti 555,

people of the saints of the Most High." 588. Dan. v. 1, 10. Belshazzar making, during the siege, a great feast to 1,000 nobles, seris for and the

Isa. xiii. vessels of the house of the Lord, which Nebuchadnezzar had brought from Jensen,

Hab. ii. glory of his idols, and dishonour of the true God. In the midst of the restiry, s beds Jer. xxv, 12. writing on the wall of the palace in which the king, his wives, oncabines, et 1. li. drinking. At the queen's (queen-mother's ?), suggestion, Daniel, the forcer chef

wise men (Dan. ii. 48), is sent for, and reads and interprets the writing: Mene, i ; Tekel, i.e. weighed: Upharsin, i.e. and they are dividing ! (with a play on the En Ferro and is proclaimed the 3rd in the kingdom. The same night Belsbazar is ski, Exga

taken by Cyrus; the empire passing, as foretold, to the Persians and Medes 653 Dan, viii. 1. In Belshazzar's 3rd year (probably soon after Babylon's capture),

Danzlat Sausis Gas, (or 638).

the Persian capital, has the vision of the ram and he goat, the former part 5 2 Gabriel of the destruc ion of the Persian empire by Alexander the Great dir cessors, and the latter usually interpreted of Antiochus Epiphanes, the future Gabi!

Syria, the persecutor of the restored Jews and their religion. See B.C. 120–16. 538. Dan. v. 31. Darius the Mede, aged about 62,"took the kingdom." The most probabe wa

that Cyrus, while completing his conquests, made Astyages, the king of Yada seperti

him, civil governor of the Persor Median empire, with full regal power.
vi. 6. The Perso-Median nobles, as if offended at their supersession by a Chaldzer: Je,

to ruin Daniel through his piety, finding his management of affairs inimene. Tik?
move the king to decree, that for 30 days no petition be made to god or ra, bet
only, on pain of death by the lions. Daniel, by his customary prayers, places has
power of his enemies, but is miraculously delivered from the lions, Darius dectes the

his subjects shall acknowledge the God of Daniel.

Towards the end of the Ist year of Darius the Mede, reckoned from the fall thegar
Jer. xxix. 10. lonish empire, begins the 70th year of the Captivity, by Jeremiah's probat XE

Daniel now "understood by the books" (Varioru), i.e. by the writings of the
(esp. Jeremiah, cf. Ezra i. 1; in Isa. xl.--.xvi. the exiles are encouraged to conta
deliverance : Cyrus, pursuing his conquests, is to enter Babylon and release the denim
1-11; xli. 1-3 ; xliii. 14-20; xliv. 24--xlv. 4, 13, &c.]. --To Daniel, pr. rin teze
the promised restoration of all Israel and Jerusalem, Gabriel announces God's caso

to that effect, and the prophecy of the 70 weeks. 536. Ezra i. 2 Cyrus' lst (imperial) year (king of Persiang 29 years) begins with Darins et The

2 years of Darius being included in the 9 years assigned to Cyrus in the Hati: Pergian (ep. Is. xlix 22, Cyrus now issues his wonderful edict (ep. Isa. xliv. 98 with Ezra vi s faz term Empire. 23; lx. 10; Ex of the Temple at Jerusalem, probably under Daniel's influence Dan. i 1. mare xii. 35, 36.) permits all God's people to return, taking their property with them, and any obci

well-affected neighbours for themselves or the Temple. Ezra i. 7-11. Cyrus also restored to Zerubbabel (Shesh bazzar), successor to Jehoiachis tech she

tiel, as the recognised lineal head of the House of David, the 3,409 (2.499, teri res34 ii. 7; vi. 3, 4. Temple, & granted cedars from Lebanon and money for the building, presetihinta 155. i. 5.

The first caravan" of the children of the (Persian) province," he. Julles, inlet 1 Chr. ix.S. rently members of the dispersed 9 tribes (esp. Manasseh and Ephraim), wakati

Ezra ii. 08. whom Cyrus made Tirshatha or governor of Judæa. Unlike Sarnaria, the SEES 2 Chr. xxxvi. 21. mained unoccupied (“enjoyed her Sabbaths "), as Jeremiah hadi foret d. Jos. Ant. Jud. Josephus, "remained in Babylon, being unwilling to relinquish their property

xi. 1. Jer. xxix. 1–7), and formed part of "the Dispersion" (cp. Jam. i.1). Only ab a: 5,023 Ezra ii. 64. they now began to be called, returned to Jerusalem on this first occasiot (riz E.

and 7,337 servants), with 736 horses, 245 mules, 455 camels, and 679 ssses Ps lunt, ENeh. vii. cvii. Perhaps refer to this journey. Ezra's and Nehemiah's genealogical st?

29,810 and 31,089 respectively, the total of each being 42,360; the Jews supply the occa:

from the 9 tribes who had not preserved their genealogies (Ezra ii. 70; vi. 17. 636. Ezra iii. 1-7. After their arrival in the desolated cities of their forefathers, the returned enles **

at Jerusalem in the 7th month. Jeshua the High Priest, and Zerabad

the altar and its service, keep the Feast of Tabernacles, and prepare building maka $35. iii. 8-13. In the 2nd year (2nd month) after the return, they appoint Levites to simta'

ing of the House of God, whose foundation was laid amid the resta red ruusuiser

David, and shouts of joy drowned in the wailing of those who recalled Solen a's Top 634. Dan. 1.-xii. In the third year of Cyrus, Daniel sees his great vision beside the R. Hidden

the former part of the revelation possibly relating to the struggles of the future Gris C. of Exypt and Syria (the Ptolennies and Seleucids) for the possession of Judas, bet

closed up and sealed to the time of the end." Ezra iv. 5. The mixed and idolatrous people of Samaria (2 Kings xvii. 41), their claim to be

Temple's restoration being rejected, hinder the work-on the spot, by intris

during the reign of Cyrus, and later openly-until the 2nd year of Danus (such Fim 523. Ezra iv. 6. On the succession of Ahasuerus ., they venture upon a written sccusationem 622.

7. noticed), and again in the reign of Artaxerxes I, whose prohibition of the city's resten

used to stop that of the Temple. The lukewarm and dejected Jews sequi sex, bar sem

punished by drought, dearth, &c. (cp. Hag. i. 1-11; ii. 14—18; Zech. viii. 9-15. 520. Hag. i. In Darius' | 2n 1 year, Zerubbabel and Jeshua renew the work-mused by tb- und Ec

and youthful Zechariah (ii, 4), who rebuke the people's neglect, but encourage thee...! ii. and persevere. Hagyai prophesies that this larger but less sumptuous temple de

Solomon's in 'glory' (ie, by the presence and ministry of God manifest in the

designates Zerubbabel it as a *sigriet' on God's hand, i.e. the object of God's love salt" Zech. i.-vi. Zechariah promises-besides the Temple's completion by Zerubbabel (eb. ir.

establishment of its priesthood and services under Jeshua (ch. ii.), the resturas 519.

salem, its re-peopling and that of Judah with exiles (urged to return, chil 6-12

subjection of the Jews' adversaries, and such prosperity as shall attract Gentile proses Ezra v. 6. Tatnai's & interference causes Darius to discover and re-enact Cyrus' dicta 518. Zech. vii. viii. In Darius' 4th year--midway in the Temple's re-building-deputies, (AV. at the

of God', rather) from Bethel, enquire if the 4 annual days of mourning for Jesus calamities--Jerusalem's blockade (10th month), capture (4th), Temple's destro Geduliah's murder (7th)-should still be observed. In reply, Zechariah exposes the ski

one man

1 Cambyses, Cyrus' son and successor, -1 Gomates the Magian, who for 7 months personated the decmed Smert Deres byges younger brother; see 'The Bible and the Montements, II. (c).-D. Hystaspis, Cyrus' son-in-law, but we Smerdis. : The post-captivity heir of the Davidic priinises (cp. Jer. xxii. 24). Both lines of the Messtal's descendin babel ; see Mat, 1. 12, Luko 3. 27. Satrap of the province beyond the river, i.e. W. of Eupbrates



irreligion of the Jewish fasting, but gives the enconraging promises-conditional on repente Christ.

ance and obedience to Moses' Law-of Jerusalem's re-peopling, and a restored prosperity

which shall make these fasts feasts, and shall be recognised by Gentiles as God's work. 515. Ezra vi. 15.

In Darius' 6th year, 70 years after its destruction, the Temple is finished (21 years after its commencement). The dedication-service includes sin-offerings for all 12 tribes. The

Temple services and ministry are re-established, the 24 priestly courses being reconstituted cp. ii. 36-39.

out of the 4 that had returned from captivity. The passover follows.

60 Years interral in Judæan history; Episode of Esther in that of the Dispersion. (483). Esther i. Ahasuerus, in Greek XERXES, in the year of his great assembly previous to his Invasion

of Greece, divorces Q. Vashti, and in the year after the invasion's failure (1 yrs. later) marries

Hadassah, in Persian Esther, the cousin and adopted daughter of Mordecai a Benjamite. 510 iii.

In Ahasuerus’ 12th year, Haman, the capricious king's favourite, resolves to avenge Morde

cai's omission of the customary obeisance, on Mordecai's nation. To find the lucky day and cp. Pro. xvi. 33. month, he casts Pur, i.e, the lot-whereby the Jews have 11 months' wurning. Esther iii. 8. Haman obtains a royal edict that on the 13th of Adar (12th mth.) all Jews in the 127 proiv.-vi.

vinces be massacred. Through a wonderful chain of events, Mordecai is promoted and Haman

viii. hanged. Esther interceding for herself and her people, the king authorises his numerous 509

ix. Jewish subjects to defend themselves. The feast of Lots, Purim (see Calendar) com(172). viii. 17. memorates this deliverance. The Jews prosper under Mordecai; proselytes join them.

Meanwhile, in Judæa, Zerubbabel's descendants and David's house sink into obscurity, and the Jews receive Persian governors (cp. Neh, v. 15) subject to the Satrap of the province.

Many religious and moral abuses creep in. The Temple remains imperfectly furnished. 457. Ezra vii. In Artaxerxes' (Longimanus) 7th year, Ezra, a priest (great-grandson of Hilkiah, high-priest

in Josin h's reign), and ready scribe" of the Law of the God of heaven' (U8. 6, 10,21), eager to reform the Jews, obtains a commission of enquiry with authority to appoint judges and pepålties, and to teach Moses' Law and enforce it on the people of the province. The Jews are again authorised to return. The king and Babylonian Jews send offerings of money and vessels to the Temple ; its ministers are exempted from royal taxes. Ezra bears orders also on provincial governors to supply up to a fixed amount what he found wanting for the Temple.

About 1500 families join Ezra at Ahava, by Euphrates' affluent of that name: some of highpriestly and Davidic descent, but no Levites. Ezru fetches 38 Levites and 220 Nethinim from Casiphia. After fusting and prayer for God's special protection, the caravan without an

escort crosses the robber-haunted Syrian waste, and in 14 weeks reaches Jerusalem. ix., s. Finding even the higher ranks of the holy seed' demoralized by marriages with idolaters,

Ezra after public prayer, with the support of 'princes and elders,' summons the people to JeX. 9. rusalem within 3 days, on pain of forfeiture and excomniunication. The assembly, urged by 456,


Ezra, orders formal enguiry; the heathen wives are put away with their children in 3 mths. Zech, ix.-xiv. Zechariah foretells Judah's sins and restoration, and Messiah's coming (B.C. 487, Usher).

Neh. i. Nehemiah, cupbearer of Artaxerxes, confesses to him that reports of Jerusalem's defence45

ii. (4+4).

less and ruined state (ch. iv. 2, 10 ; vii. 4) cause his sadness (see Prayers in Scripture). He obtains leave of absence, and is appointed governor (Tirshatha), with permişsion to fortify the city, and grants of timber. Nehemiah surveys the city walls secretly, because of the

Jews' adversaries, and then declares his commission to the assembled Jews, They divide iii.

the work into 42 parts, duly superintended. iv.

Sanballat, governor of Samaria, and Tobiah 'the slave', (governor?) of Ammon, derido Nehemiah's attempt, and accuse him of meditating rebellion. The walls being bulf built, they conspire with Geshem, an Arab chief, and the Philistines of Ashdod, to stop the work by force; the local Jews report the conspiracy, and urge the builders to cease temporarily (v. 12, marg.). Nehemiah organises the defence, so that the enemy durst not appear.

The poorer Jews, obliged by a past dearth' (cp. Hag. i. 11; ii. 17) to sell their land and even children to pay the king's tribute and their creditors' interest, are destitute. The nobles, pressed by Nehemiah (who pleads his example in redeeming Jews sold to the beatlien,

&c.), restore their debtors' lands, all interest (1-100th per month), and forgive their debts. vi.

Sanballat's party, hearing that the work approaches completion, to entrap Nehemiah invite him to a conference. He excuses himself 6 times, though his loyalty is openly questioned. They bribe Shemaiah to prophexy his assassination, & to urge him to commit sacrilege (Num. xviii. 7) by taking refuge in the Sanctuary; by letters, prophets (esp. Noadiah a prophetess),

and through confederates in Jerusalem, Tobiah's connections, they try to alarm lim; but cp. Dan, ix. 25. through Nehemiah's steadfastness, the works are completed in 52 days, Neh. vii,

The city gates being fixed and the fortified palace (Neh. ii. &; vii. 2, Heb. Birah, the Acra, tower' or Baris of the Maccabees) adjoining the Temple rebuilt, the walls are given into the Levites' charge. Nehemiah entrusts Jerusalem to his brother Hanani, and to Hananiah, the governor of the fortress, and registers the people (Zerubbabel's register follows to‘cities'

in v. 73). The people return to their inheritances (between Bethel and Beersboba). viii.-x. Ezra, as if on a 2nd visit, reads and the Levites expound the Law (Fee Scribes, Lauyers)

at the Feasts of Trunipets and Tabernacles. At a solemn fart, after Ezra's prayer, a cove

nant is signed ; the Jews swear to abstain from heathen marriages, Sabbath trading, usury: cp. 1 Mac.ii. 40. to observe the Sabbatical year and its release of debts, and to pay firstfruits and tithes.

The Jews now first adopt a yearly poll tax to maintain the Temple services ( shekel, see Neh. xi. Tribute under Money) and a wood offering. The rulers settle in Jerusalem; volunteers,

and a tithe of the Jews chosen by lot, re-people it (op. ch. vii. 4). xii. 27. The Levites and singers from the country join in dedicating the wall with 2 processions (attended by Nehemiah & Ezra respectively, cp. ch. viii. 9), & sacrifices.

The Law is read, the 'mixed multitude' expelled, and the allowances of priests, Levites and singers, and so (433.)

the continuance of the Temple service, secured. Nehemiah returns (for about a year). xiii. 6. Revisiting Jerusalem. Nehemiah reforms the renewed al uses. He cleanses the Temple, (132)

ejecting Tobiah the Ammonite and Jews' enemy (Neb. iv. 3) from a chamber in it given him by Eliashib the high priest, restores the services, enforces the allowances of the Temple ministers (dispersed through want), the observance of the Sabbath, and the law against heathen marriages, not sparing the high-priest's grandsar, Sanballat's son-in-law. Neheminh, according to 2 Mac. ii. 13, collected some of the Scriptures; but tradition ascribes the Canon of the old Testament to Ezra and the Great Synagogue - a council of 120

(including Haggai and Zechariah) formed to restore the Jews' religion on the Return. 397 Mal. i.-iv. Malachi, the last 0. T. prophet-probably in the 2nd backsliding if Neh, xlii. (compare

the sins there reformed with Mal. 11. 11; ii. 8--10)-unveils the Jews' self-righteousness, urging them to repent and reform. The priestnood's ignorance and corruption had hastened the people's declension. The Jews, comparing their adversity with the ungodly's prosperity, question God's justice. Malachi declares the

drought, dearth, &c. to be God's chastisements, removable by repentance-which he also urges as a necessary preparation for the sudden adMat. xi. 14; cp. vent of the expected Mereinh, who will come as a discerner of hearts, Purifier and Judge ;

Luke i, 17. preceded by a 'messenger' (ch. iii. 1), even 'Elijah the prophet' (iv.5), i.e. John the Baptist.

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HISTORICAL EPITOME.PART II. BETWEEN THE TESTAMENTS, Or the Jews under the Persians, MACEDONIANS, and Romans, with an abstract af I and 2 Yused

THE. History of the restored Jews,

from Nehemiah's

second commissira to the fait Prsian Dan. 8.1-26. Medo-Persian Empire before the Macedonian (the two-horned man before the houding Empire.

goat) is almost a blank; the interval, which would be a century, being bridked only by aid Xeh.12. 10, 11, 22. high priests, ELIASHIB, JOIADA, JONATHAX or JOHANAX, and JADDIA; V, 24 oet oo

hold, (1) Jaddua be the high priest, who according to Josep tus met Alexander the Green
(2) the Darius of v. 22 be the last, DARIUS CODOMAXXUS, defeated by Alexander. Acety
the goodwill of their Persian suzerains continued, and Josephus claims for the ti
reputation of model vassals.- The Jews themselves were distinctly, protestits true the

new state of things of the Gospel Period: (a) The house of David had lost its related
1 Chr. 3. 17-20. eminence under Zerubbabel, and was sinking into obecurity; (b) the study of the Let
Luke 3. 23-32. phets, collected and revised by Ezra, &c., and the supplanting of the ancient Hebrev,

language' (see Prologue 2 to Ecclesiasticus), by the curreni Babylonian dialect and at a (Aramaic or Chaldee), had called into existence copyists, teachers, and interpress Isce Sects, Scrites), the germs of the Rabbinical schools and religious sects; ici be innen the high priests and Levites, increased thus, and by the decay of Davids houe, wat

at once enlarged and corrupted by accession of temporal power. The single higur star a Jos. Ant. 11.7.1. the period, viz. the murder of his brother Joshua by the high priest JOSATUNG J3221

suspicion of aiming at the high priesthood by Persian influence, indicates that Jocs
practically ruled by the high priest, and foreshadows the jealousies and cries of the preds
families, which took the place of similar quarrels in royal families elsewhere,
gradually undermined the fabric of Jewish independence, erected by t.e Yara Ty
religious revival, characteristic of the post-Captivity period (see Sects, Cout. **
the Book of Tobit, written about this time, which shews the great reverence in wollte
Law was already held. Indeed, the nation, prompted by Ezra the Scribe, the ca
the Jewish Commonwealth, and influenced especially by the 2 Busof (mmy

written by him with this object, re-formed itselt into a hierarchy on the basis of the 6
cp. John 11. 48. Temple). The Davidic monarchy being abolished, and prophecy suspended, the Larskega
Acts 6. 13. to be a distinctive pledge of nationality, and a sure guide to truth'. Thus mou.detins

1 character gradually assumed the austere exclusiveness, social and religious, due to a man

herence to the letter of the Mosaic covenant, which characterises it in Gospel ap: Apiter Jos. Ant. JARDUA.H.P.; (his bro. Manasseh founds the Samaritan Temple B.C. JoniLES. 333.

Jos. Ant. 11.8.3. ALEXANDER THE GREAT, defeating Darius Codomannus at Issu, founds his rudence 332.

Alexander, advancing against Jerusalem after the conquest ot Phænicis api Page 1 Mace

and Gaza), (the details of Josephus' story are much doubtedl, meets at With donian

high priest heading in his robes a procession of Jews in white, recornises him as a person Empire.

a vision had promised him the conquest of Persia, and after sacrificing in the Temple and sesi Daniel's prophecies relating to himself, granted the Jews everywhere all their endeari and exemption from taxes in the Sabbatical year. At Alexander's invitation. Sume Jerses in his army and accompany him to Persia : others settle with tull citizenship ice Alexandria (320); Samaria, refused like privileges, rebels and is destroyed. The survivost Assyrian colonists &c. (see Samaritans in Jercish Sects), were allowed to settleb Stret der, Alexander repeopled Samaria with Syro-Alacedonians (Bee B.C. 10). Palestine cus

Alexander's death; his conquests spread the Greek language and civilization. 823.

Alexander's generals, (the Diapochi or Successors, the four homme from the begot brain The Dan. 8. 8-22. horn, divide his empire : the Greek Oriental kingdoms of the North and Searches

Dan. 9. (PTOLEMIES) and upper Asia, ie. Syria and Babylonia (SELECCIDS, B.C. 319) PEL dochi. Dan. ll.

Palestine part of Syria : but the 2 kingdoms dispute its possession at intereais derinler

ONIAS II., H. P. During the wars of the Diadochi, PTOLENY 1. (SOTER) 2 0 Lust 320. Jos. Ant. 12. 1. 1.' Jerusalem on a sabbath, which the Jews scrupled to break even by self-defence, and es

Jewish captives to the citizens of Alexandria. After its re-capture and loss by Satis, das

tinally annexed to Egypt 18 years later, when, B.C. 301, the battle of Iwas ended thex ns 301.

The Jews of Judæa prove as submissive to the first 5 Ptolemics es to the Ferran Dp Greco

and grow in numbers and wealth-developing commerce, partly transferredo beste Egypt

fall of Tyre (332). &c.; the Dispersion extends over the heathen world-large chies bains cp. Acts 2. 10. fostered by the Ptolemies in Africa (esp. Alexandria and Cyrexe, cp. E.C. Sil king

Simox I. son of Onias, called THE JUST, high priest. His description by Just dom.

whose commemorative list of famous men closes with Simon, is the ideal er the pac. 2001. Ecclus. 50. majesty of a high priest' (Milman). He repaired the Temple, and fortitied is trd Jertec [S10 ?)

a sign of much independence. According to tradition, he completed the collection the bus
of Seripture (CANON or 0. T.) begun by Ezra, and was the channel whereby the ers Ksa
tradition (to which the Pharisees later save such prominence) reached Anugos Sac
first writer of the Mishna (the text of the Talmud, the treasury of Rabbinical learniagioni
master of the reputed founder of the Sadducees. (See Jeuih Sects). Coloajes & Jr LT

planted by the Seleucidæ in Syria (Antioch) and Asia Minor (Ephesus) and in Greece (t Jos. Ant. 12. 3. &c.), and are subjected to the attraction of the Greek language and civilization. I

in Palestine, new or restored cities along the lines of communication between E Ti4 are esp. along the sea-board (14), receive Greek names, e.g. Azotus (Ashdod), Gozara as lemais (the Phoenician Accho, now Acre)--and in the valleys of Esdraelon and the leaders Scythopolis (Bethshan), Pella, Paneas (Dan, now Banias).

ELEAZAR, bro. of Simon I., H.P. The African Jews (esp. of Alexandria And year, 291.

Jos. Ant. 12. 4. 1. are so nuinerous that the Book of the Law, perhaps the Pentateuch calç, is the na 284? Jos. Ant. 12. 2. Greek by learned Jews of Alexandria : traditionally by 0 or 12 transistor tu the

library of PTOLEMY II. (PuLADELIHUS), and hence called the SEITE ALIST E LIX
The rest of the 0. T. canon was similarly translated, probably at various time during the ses
century or two, and was the Standard Bible in the Gospel and Apostolic Azt.
ONIAS II., son of Simon I., H. P., dares with

hold the tribute, and so jeopardizes the code 250. Jos. Ant. 12. 4. 1. derstanding with Egypt, which Joseph his nephew restores by his tact, and by a

farmers of the taxes of Judaa. Joseph is appointed receiver-general to the kiba H I I.
(EVERGETES) for Cæle-Syria, Phænicia, Judæa and Samaria ; and the civil post tha se
ted, parallel to that of the high priest, leads to internal dissension. About this time 5
izing or innorating party arises in Judæa, advocating the abandopment of the gove

observance of Moses Law for Hellenic (Greek) liberty of thought and manners. 219.

ANTIOCHUS III. (the GREAT, B.C. 223), the Graco-Syrian kingdom being at ite climat rake 217. Jos. Ant. 12.3.3. war on Egypt to recover Palestine, &c. (B.c. 301.) PTOLENY IV. (PriorATOR dies

at Raphia near Gaza, and visits Jerusalem. For some repulse on ba anteria the ha

Holies, Ptolemy persecutes the Jews in Alexandria on his return, and alienskes Jodas 203.

The minority of PTOLEMY V. (EPIPHANES), Philopator's son, tempts Antiochus to cuecert 2014.

Philip V. of Macedon the partition of the Ptolemaic kingdom i Antiochus capcura lain

B.C. 203 : Scopas recovery it for Ptolemy B.C. 199. Next year (OXIAS III., H.P. for his 1.98.

8ce 2 Mec. 4.31)-Antiochus defeats Scopas and the Egyptians at Pancas, and an deze Cze Greco

Pha nicia, and Palestine. The Jews, alienated further by suffering in the ret, end keur Syrian 197.

Antiochus concessions, Join Syria finally. Antiochus secures the long-dispated paties Jos. Ant. 12.3.4. treaty with Rome, B.c. 188. He forms colonies of Mesopotamian Jews in Long and Fine dom,

Religious rivalry is now added to political (250) by the growth of the Hellenizin pary a ("the ungodly' of 1 & 2 Maccabees), which now openly opposes the ls's Champlaas, e mar






Antiochus is conquered by the Romans at Magnesia, and subjected to an immense tribute (2,000 187.

talents, 2 Mac.8.10), which impoverishes the kingdoin. SELECCUS IV. (PHILOPATOR), his son and 2 Mac. 3. 4. successor, informed by Simon, governor of the Temple, who had quarrelled with the godly Onias

about some disorder in Jerusalem, sends Heliodorus to demand the surrender of the money deposited in the Temple treasury for safe keeping, which included a fund for widows and orphuns,

but Heliodorus is miraculously expelled, and owes his life to the high priest's prayers. 173. 2 Mac. 4. 7. On Seleucus death, his son Demetrius being a hostage at Rome, his brother ANTIOCHUS IV. (176.) Mac. 1. 10. (EPIPHANES, i.e. the brilliant, or Epimanes, i.e. the mudman), usurps the throne. On his

J s. dni. 19.4.11. accession, he is called upon to arbitrate between the Jewish factions, -Onias III. being at
Jos. Ant. 12.5. I. Antioch to seek the king's aid in preserving the public peace, broken with bloodshed by Si-

mon's faction which Apollonius governor of the province supported. With a contempt for the
Jewish religion and manners, due to his education when a hostage at Rome, and,tempted by his

needs to sell his patronage (cp. 2 Mac, 11. 3), he deposes Onias II1.. detains him at Antioch, and 2 Mac. 4. 10. sells the high priesthood to his brother Joshua, the head of the Greek party, with leave to intro1 Mac, l. 13. duce the Greek civilization, and exchange the name Jews' for Antiochians. Joshua takes the

Greek name Jason, and builds a gymnasium to educate the Jewish youth in Greek exercises; his

party obliterate their marks of circumcision, &c., thus discouraging and perverting even the 174. 2 Mac. 4. 18, 19. priests. Jason sends an offering to the festival (games) of Hercules (the Pha'nician Melkarth or 179.

23. Moloch) at Tyre. JIENELAUS, u Benjamite of the party, brother of simon [107](of Jason, Josephus), 171.

27. and a savage tyrant (v.25), outbids Jason, and is made high priest. Jason takes refuge with

the Jews ancestral toe, the Ammonites. To bribe the Syrian viceroy, Menelaus robs the 170.

39. Temple ; Onius III. protesting, Menelaus procures his execution, and later thut of the Jews

who denounced him to the king, for like abuses through his deputy in Jerusalem. Jos. Ant. 12. 5. 2. Antiochus Epiphanes, teinpled by the minority of PTOLEMY V I. (PuLOMETOR), invades Egypt

1 Mac. 1. 16. (4 times), until stopped by Lænas the Roman ambassador. On the report of Antiochus 2 Mac. 5. 5—10. death, during his 2nd invasion, Jason captures Jerusalem, massacres his opponents, and

blockades Menelaus in the citadel; but finally, an unsuccessful outcast, escapes through

11. Egypt to Sparta, and dies there. Antiochus, interpreting this outbreak as a revolt, returns, 1 Mac. 1. 20-28. massacres thousands of Jews in cold blood, sparing neither sex nor age, and sells as many 2 Mac. 6. 11-23. into slavery. Guided by Menelaus, he enters the Temple, carries off its precious vessels,

fittings and furniture, and the money deposited in its treasury for safe keeping. He leaves

Philip, a "barbarous Phrygian, as governor, Menelaus remaining high priest. 168. 1 Mac. 1. 29-10. Apollonius, his chief tribute-collector. sent by Antiochus with an arıny to massacre the sur2 Mac. 5. 24-27. viving adults and sell the women and young men, treacherously seizes Jerusalem on the

Sabbuth, sacks and burns it, breaking down Nehemiah's wall. Apollonius fortities and garrisons Jos. Ant. 12. 5. 4.' (cp. 1 Mac. 6. 18) the city of David', i.e. the Akra or Acropolis (A. V. tower, stronghold, fortress,

on the height of Zion which commanded the Temple, as the Temple con manded the city, see B.C.

141). He lays the Temple waste. 1 Mac. 1. 41. Antiochus orders all his subjects to adopt the Graco-Syrian religion and customs exclusively, Perse 2 Mạc. 6. 1. on pain of death. He sends a commission to abolish Judaism and establish paganism by pol | Cation Dan. 11. 86, 39. luting the Temples at Samaria and Jerusalem, and dedicating them respectively to Jupiter I by Ant. Dan. 12. Ju, 11. Xevius and J. Olympius. He pollutes the altar with swine's flesh and unclean offerings, and Epi

the Temple with toul rites of the Syrian Ashtoreth, forces the Jews to eat of the idolatrous phanes. Dan.

9. 27.

sacrifices monthly on the king's birthday, to take part in the festivals of Bacchus, eat swine's

flesh, and to abandon circumcision, Sabbath-keeping, all public worship, and the outward semJos. Ant. 12. 3. 4. blance of Jews. He burns whatever copies of the Law were found.or detaced them with idolatrous

pictures, and executed their owners (1 ac. 3. 48). Many Jews yield; the faithful are tortured, 167.

1 Mac. 1.62. mocked, scourged, saun asunder (e.g. the mother and her 7 sons. 2 Mac. 7. 1, 4, 7, &c.), tempted, 2 Nạc. 6. 1.

yet not accepting deliverance (1.4. Eleazar, a chief scribe, 2 Mac. 7. 24) in hope of a joyful resurHeb. 11.35-38. rection (us. 9, 36), and wander destitute and oflicted, clothed in sheepskins and goat skins (2 Mac.

5. 27), in deserts, mountains and caves. From this time of the mingling', the zealots for the ming:

Law are called the Pious, Heb. Chasidim (see Jewish Sects), in Greek, dxsidæans. ling. Jos. Ant. 13. 3. OXIAS, son and heir of Onias III., having retired into Egypt during the usurpations of

Jason and Menelaus and the mingling [107), is permitted by Ptolemy Philometor and Cleopatra his wife to build a temple at Heliopolis (Un). Among the numerous Exyptian Jews, Onias would

revive the pure worship of God paganised by Jason Menelaus and the Hellenizing party at home. 1 Mac. 2. 1. The king's officers, on circuit to enforce public conformity to idolatry (I Mac. 1.5), arrive at Jos. Ant. 12. 6.1. Modin, the town of Mattathias, a priest of the first of the Auronic courses (Joiarib, cp. 1 Chr. 24.

7), and so of the noblest blood, having a great-grandfather Chashion, whence Mattathias'

family was called ASHOX XAX. Mattathias, a prominent ruler, refuses to set the example, and, Jos.Ant. 12. 6. 2. like Phineas of old, kills a consenting Jew, A pelled the officer, and destroys the idolatrous altar. The

Abandoning everything, mattathias and his 5 sons--(1) Johanan Caddis, (2) Ston Thassi, (3) Iueca

JUDAS MACCABÆUS (prob. from Heb. word=llammer), (4) Eleazar Avaran, (5) JONATHAN Apphus bran Re.

--take refuge in the desert mountains, and the faithful and their families gather round them. bellion.

1,000 refugees having preferred death to breaking the Sabbath, Mattathias, &c. decide to defend

themselves on the Sabbath hereafter ; gradually gaining strength, they attack their persecutors, 166. 1 Mac. 2. 49. destroy the idolatrous altars, and, restoring the Law, enforce circumcision.- Mattathias recom

Jos. Ant. 12. 6.3. mends his son Simon as counsellor. Judas as general (cp. ch. 3. 3-9), and dies.
1 Mục. 3. 1-26. Judas, with about 6,041) Assidaans secretly gathered from all parts, seizes gradually the

2 Mac. 8. 1-7. commanding posts (chiefly by night surprises), and destroys the ungodly out of Judæa. lle de-
Jos. ant. 12.7. 1. feuts (1) Apollonius governor of Samaria. (2) Seron the governor of Cæle-Syria, at Bethhoron.

1 Mac. 8. 27. Antiochus, enraged, secures a great army by a year's pay in advance : but crippled by loss of Jos. Ant. 12.7.2. revenue (owing to Judas' successes, the alienation of subjects elsewhere by his interference with

national customs, and his own lavish magnificence) decides on an expedition to collect revenue in his dominions E. of Euphrates (Persia). He makes Lyrius viceroy W. of Euphrates and guardian of his youthful son Antiochus, leaving with him half his army and his war elephants,

und orders to extirpate the Jews and allot Judea to strangers. 1 Mac. 3. 38. Ptolemæus, Nicanor, and Gorgias, sent by Lysias with 47.000 men by way of the sea coast, are 1 diac. 4. 1-27. accompanied by 1,000 slave merchants, Nicanor having engaged to pay the Roman tribute 2 Mac 8. 8. (190) by the sale of the captives at 30 for a talent. After public prayer (1 Mac. 3. 46-63)

and an harangue (2 Mac. 6. 12-20) at Mizpeh, Judas encumps opposite the Syriang at Em

maus, and warned of Gorgias' attempt to surprise him, attacks and ruuts the Syrian army with 16.

3,00 imperfectly armed followers, in Gorgias' absence. Seeing their tents burning, Gorgias' 1 Jac. 4. 28. detachment flees. Next year, Lysias with 65,000 men invades Judæa by way of Idumaa, the

South See B.C. 14+]: Judas with 10,000 defeats him at Bethsura, the key of ihe luumaan frontier.

35. While Lysias gathers a fresh army at Antioch, Judas blockades the Syrian garrison in Jeru2 Mac. 10. 1-6. ralem, until he had duly puritied, repaired and refurnished the Temple, now a ruin in which

shrubs grew as in a forest' or on a mountain side. On the anniversary of its profanation cp. John 10. 22. 3 years before, and annually, the Feast of the DEDICATION of the new altar is kept 8 days. 1 Mac. 4. 60, Judas also fortified and garrisoned the Temple-mount against Acra the Syrian tower

(108), and Betheura against the Idumæans, whore unceasing hustility (cp. Ps. 187.7) and that

of the Ammonites (under Timotheus) he checked by forts and by succesul invasions. 164. 1 Mac. 5.

The neighbouring nations. jealous of the revival of Jewish power, attack the Jews resident > Mac. 12. 1-45. among them. A. Joppa, 2,000 Jews are treacherously drowned: bui Judas foils a like plot at

Jamnia by destroying its harbour and fleet. Defeating Timotheus, he makes the Arabian
(Idumean) nomads tributary, and defeats Gorgias at Jamnia.
A general rising against

the Jews being concerted in Gilead and Galilee, Judas, Jonathan, and Simon rescue and remove them into Judæa. Judas overruns the Negeb or South' of Judah (now part of Idumea, so named because occupied during the captivity by the Edomites driven W. by the Nalathæans, who, settling in Mount Seir, founded the kingdom of Arabia

" The



Petra, i.e. of Petra, a centre of caravan trade from the l'ergian Gulf and Red Ses): he dieses 164.

tles liebron, the capital, and its fortre:ees-and overruns Philistis, abolishinc idolatry. 1 Mac. 6. 1. Antiochus Epiphanes, foiled in Persia (166), and hearing of Judas successes and consetet 2 Mac. 9. military strength and wealth, hastens homevards to make Jerusalem. the Jere barn Jos. Ant. 12.3.1. but stricken with a loathsome disease (eaten of worms, cp. Ac. 12. 33), recommises it as such

for his treatment of the Jews and the Temple, for which he would tan make repartis

making his foster-brother Philip viceroy and guardian of his son, he dies on the journey ar Tu 100 1 Mac. 6. 18. Lysias proclaims ANTIOCHUS V. (EUTATOR) aged 9, and as recent, and governor of Orie-Sys

2 Mac. 13. 1. and Ph rnicia, invades Judra with 120.000 men (incl. Greek mercenaries) and elephscos bens Jue, dni. 12. 9.3. ing wooden towers, to relieve the Syrian garrison at Jerusalem, hard-pressed by Judas (1)

&c. During the siege of Berhura (165) Eleazar the Meccabee kills the largest elephant, urna

it the king's, and is crushed by it. The Jews retreat, Beth-ura capitulates, and Lyssbe ES

the Temple. Supplies fail the Maccabees, owing to the Sabbatical year, but Lydas bend 2 Mac. 13. 3.-8. Philip's return to Antioch induces Antiochus to make peace with Judas, and crant tot Jevg

their ancient liberties. Antiochus detortifies the Temple. The Romans (meairm this pace Jos. Ant. 12.9. 7. Antiochus executing Menelaus, makes Alours H. P. (not of the hizh-priestly lines. J 162. 1 Mac, 7. l. DEMETRIES 1.(SOTEB), heir of seleucus IV. escapes from Rome (173] conquers, aod execute is

2 Mac. 14. 1, 3. tiochus Eupator and Lysias. The 'ungodly' party, headed by the H.P. Alcimus, who had quized Jos. Ant. 12.10.1. Jerusalem with certain renegade Jews, denounces Judas Maccabane to Demetrius Bastidos

governor E. of Euphrates, is sent to re-instal Alcimus, and put down Judas. The Arenu, tas ing Alcimus as a son of Aaron', first make peace: Alcimus alienates them by faith easy exca inx his chief opponents. Ba chides kills many others; but, after his departur, Adam

tyranny strengthens Judas, whom Alcimus, taking refuge at Antioch, again denounces Denetias 161. i Mac. 7. 27. sends an army under Nicanor. Failing to entrap Judas, Nicanor attacks him and is dees: 2 Mac. 15. Capharsalama, and again at Beth-horon, where he is killed and his army dispersed by Jade

The 2nd bok of Jaccabeer lobriously less accurate than the ist) ude. 1 Mac. 8.

During an interval of peace, Judaj obtains an offensive and defensive alliance with Bote, 1 Mac. 9. 1-22. but before receiving the Senate's decree, is killed in battle a: Elend Dear Beth-hoto. 1 Mac. 9. 23. The ungodly party, encouraged by Judas' death and reinstated by Bacchides, jersecute und Jos. Art. 13.1. dieperies Judas' adherents, whom the people, sufferers by war and a great fami. deset

Finally, they rally under Judas youngest brother JOSATHAS ("the Wary) in the Idenne

E. Judaa (Tekoa)! John, the eldest. is slain, while conveying their property into anta 1:44) 1 Mec. 9. 48. They avenge his death, whereupon Bacchides drives Jonathan and Simon across the detaisa

bridles Judæa with Syrian garrisons, esp. Bethsura and Gazara (Gezer), entrustiac botie Jen 100.

sons to the garrison on Zion, as hostages. Alcimus, while removing the partition wal berada Jos. Ant. 12.10.6. the sanctuary and court of the Gentiles, dies paralyzed ; Bacchi des therefore withdraw tojoch. (ace to Josephur. prob. in error, Juday surviving

Alcimus, was made 11. Poby the people". The high priesthood certainly now devolved on the Asionaan family. Pesce ensues 158. 1 Mac. 9. 58. Bacchides, recalled by the ungodly', but defeated by Jonathan while besienirt Sinon ha

Bethbasi, vents his disappointment on his inviters, and accepts Jonathan's overtures of peace 73. Jonathan judges Israel from Michmash (6 years), and thence protects the Pious.

Henceforicard, rirals for the Syrian throne court Jonathan and his successors, and the contri

bute to found and establish the demonran dynasty of native high priest-princes. 153 1 Mac. 10. 1. Demetrius, preparing to attack Alexander Balas, pretended sou of Antiochus Epiphanes 171 Jus. d nt. 13. 2. 1. 162), acknowledsed by Rome and welcomed at Ptolemais, empowers Jonathan to raise sa aray.

and to receive the Jewish hostages from the garrison of Zion. Jonathan ætties to Jerse lemn, and begins fortifying it and the Temple, whereupon most of the Syrian gurrisons Be sad

Jonathan's opponents take refuge in Bethsura. 1 Mac. 10. 15. A. Balas then offers Jonathan the vacant high priesthood (160) and the insignia of a prince, Jos. Ant. 13.2.2. apparently with a territory. JOSATHAN assumes the sacred office at the F. of Tabernacles.

i Mac. 10.92-47. Demetrius nakes offers of honours and independence too lavish to be trusted. 150.

48. A. BALAS defeats and kills Demetrius I. At his marriage in Ptolemais with Cleopains dahJos. Ant. 13. 4. ter of PTOLEMY VI. PUILOMETUR), Balas makes Jonathan governor of Syrian province. 148. 1 Mac. 10. 67. Demetrius, son of iemetrius I. (Soter). invades Cilicia from Crete, and joined by Alonins

governor of Corle-Syria, sends him to challenge Jonathan, who with Simon captures Jepps and

Azotu: (Ashdod). Ascalon surrenders. Balas treats Jonathan as if of royal blood. 146.

1 Mac, 11.1-S. Ptoleiny Philometor, while Balas ig quelling a rebellion in Cilicia, treacherously occupies

Jur. ant. 13. 4.5. the Syrian maritime eiti (144) to Seleuceia, the port of Antioch. Jonathan attend him from

1 Mac. U. 7. | Joppa to the R. Eientherus. Piolemy transfers Cleopatra and his alliance to lenetris 145.

18. crowned king of Syria. Ezypt at Antioch. & defeats A. Balas, but lives only to receio the besd Jos. Ant. 13. 4.9. of Balas, who had sought refuge in Arabia (68). DEMETRIOS II. (NICATOR) reists undist 1 Mac. ll. 20. Meanwhile, Jonathan besieses the Syrian garrison in Zion. Summoned before Decktriu. II.

he ventures to Ptolemais with & deputation and presents, though pressing on the shere, and wins fresh honours and nearly all the concesions offered by Demetrius I. (153)

Peace continuing, Demetrius retains his_guards (Greek mercenaries, es but dismis his native soldiery; their discontent tempts Tryphon, a discontented courtier, to concert wird

Simalcue the Arabian, his guardian, the restoration of A. Balas' youthful son (14€ Artocbos. 41.

Jonathan obtain Deinetrius' promise to withdraw the Syrian zarrisons from Zion, seura Jos. Ant. 13. 5.2.' bodykuard of Jews, which (30) saves Demetrius' kingdom and life when Antioch rose sosiast

him, but Demetrius evades his promise and even troubled. Jonathan 'very sore. 14. 1 Mac. ll. 51. Tryphon entering Syria crowns ANTIOCHUS VI. (Tueos). and, beinz joined by the distrigee!

soldiery, defeats Demetrius (who takes refuge in Parthia) and captures Antioch. TO 57. Jonathan, Antiochus adds royal state to Demetrius' concessions 11451. and appoints his or her 60. Sinon captain of the Palestinian ses-board. Jonathan captures for Antiochus the STD

cities from Ascalon to Damascus, defeating Demetrius' adherents. Simon takes Bett 1 Mac. 12. 1. Jonathan revives the Maccabean alliances with

Sparta and Rome. On the retirement 1 Deme Jos. Ant. 13. 5.8. trius' army from the land of Amathis, Jonathan invades Nabathæan Arabia, sind returning tug

Damascus, again overruny Syria, while Simon secures Philistia and Joppa. Jonathan, on his re1 Mac. 12. 35. turn, induces the Jews to fortify the Judean strongholds, to raise and repair the walls of Jere cp, ch. 13. 19. salem, and cut off the garrison on Zion froin the city market by a great rampart.

1 Mac. 12. 39. Tryphon, aiming at the Syrian throne, lures Jonathan into Ptolemsis and captures his.
1 Mac. 12. 33. The neixhbourinz nations and Tryphon attacking the Jews, they clect SIMOx Jone's tro
1 Mac. 13. 1.

ther, the only surviving Maccabee, leader : he completes the fortifications of
Joppa, and foils Tryphon's attempts to invade Judra and relieve the garrison in Zion. After in

sincere negotiations for Jonathan's release, Tryphon puts him to death in Gilead. 143


At Modin, simon erects a monument to his parents and brothers, and re-inters Jocsihen.

TRYPHON murders Antiochus, and usurps the Syrian throne. During the revolution. So The strengthens Judæ, azainst attack (for details, see ch. 15. 39),

and makes

overtures to Demers Macca- 1 Mac. 14. 40 who, infiuenced by the Maccabees alliance with Rome, recosnisce Simon 11. P. bran

grants Judæa complete amnesty, and immunity from tax and tribute. Simon capture Gas. Com Jar. Ant. 13.7.7. Zion surrenders. Thus Judea is freed from Syria (128). Era of Jerrisk independency ir. mon. 1 Mac. 14. 4. Judaa enjore peace and prosperity under Simon. He refurina religion, enriches ibe tempte wealth.

re-fortifies Zivin and Jerusalem, revives commerce through Joppa, and renew the lescue via 141.

Sparta and Rome. He reduces Zion, i.e. the hill of the city of David', to the level of the Temple-platform (me B.C. 18-1--The Jewg record the public benefits of Sion and his sons and the

settlement ut the government and high priesthood on Simon and his heirs for eter i am cp. Mal. & 1.

there should arie a faithful prophet.i.e. the expected Messiah), on brasen tablets on meurt Zios. 1 Mac. 13. L. Demetrius, captive of Arieskof Parthia(ch.14.1.2) marries his dauzhier. Demetrius sife Ce

opatra, enraged off rs herself to his brother ANTIOCHTS VII. (SIDETE), who, preparing to in še Syria, condrms all previous concessions to Simon, and adds the soverein right of cos (

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