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The success in Great Britain and America of the Sunday School Teacher's Bible* published in May 1875, proved that our project had anticipated a public need.

The cordial approval of its principle and contents by eminent Biblical Scholars and by representatives of all classes of Bible Teachers, encouraged us to enlarge and improve each successive issue of its AIDS TO BIBLE STUDENTS," SO aneet the wants not only of Teachers in Schools, but also of Parents at Home, and of Bible Students in general.

In particular, we obtained concise or exhaustive articles from the most eminent authorities on leading Biblical Subjects ; these articles will be found to summarize information possessed by few, or only obtainable by those who have access to a Library and leisure for special study.

Some of the more interesting and important articles-riz., on Hebrew Poetry, by the Rev. T. K. Cheyne, and Music, by Dr. Stainer; on Bible Ethnology, by the Rev. A. H. Sayce, Plants, by Sir J. Hooker, Animal Creation, by Dr. Tristram, Money and Weights, by Mr. Madden, and on Jewish Sects, and Bible Chronology, by Dr. Green-were published separately in an Appendir in November 1879.

This Appendir-the importance and high quality of which has been 80 fully acknowledgedwas shortly after incorporated with the original work, and has been found to greatly extend its scope and usefulness.

Besides further improvements in the original work, including new and more elaborate sections of the Historical Epitome-esp., 'Between the Testaments' and the ' Apostolic History' by the Rev. P. Thomson and the Editor-additions were made in 1878 and 1879 in pursuance of the original design, notably a Glossary of Bible Words, by the Rev. Professor Lumby, D.D., and 'The Bible and the Monuments,' by the Rev. Professor Sayce.

Finally, on the occasion of the Sunday School Centenary, 1880, these " Aids" were republished with the new VARIORUM REFERENCE BIBLE, the combined world being entitled the VARIORUM TEACHER'S BIBLE.

EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE. GREAT NEW STREET, FLEET STREET,

LONDON, E.O.

It is necessary to point out, that it was at least 16 months afterwards

that a Bible issued from the Oxford University Press, bearing on its title page The S.S. Teacher's Edition, and closely following the model of the Queen's Printers Sunday School Teacher's Bible (Title, &c. copyright), even including their •Index of Persons, Places, and Subjects' afterwards withdrawn, because the later is sometimes regardod as the contemporary or even as the predecessor of the Queen's Printers work,

AIDS TO THE STUDENT

OF THE

HOLY BIBLE.

CONTENTS.

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Preface. Supplementary Contents.
I. MATERIALS FOR BIBLE LESSONS :-

1. INTRODUCTION: the Bible as a whole-its Divisions and Connections..
2. SUMMARY and ANALYSIS of each Book of the OLD and NEW TESTAMENT.
Old Testament.........

Rev. STANLEY LEATHES, D.D.

Professor of Hebrero in King's College, London, &c. &e. Revised (with Additions) by the Rer. W. SANDAY, D.D. few Testament

Rev. W. SANDAY, D.D.

Dean Ireland's Professor of Ezejeris. 3. PARAPLES and MIRACLES in the OLD TESTAMENT. 4. MIRACLES of our LORD. 5. PARABLES of our LORD.

The Editor. 6. PROPHECIES relating to our LORD:

(1.) Expressly declared in Holy Writ to have been fulfilled.
(2.) Quoted and applied in the X. T., but not distinctly asserted to have been fulfilled in a

particular manner.
(3.) Not quoted in the N.T., but which we see to have been exactly fulfilled..
(1.) Prophecies relating to the admission of the Gentiles to the Gospel corenant.

Rev. T. WOODHOUSE, M.A. 7. ANALYSIS of the Serxos on the MOUNT 8. Notes on the LORD'S PRAYER.

REF. G. S. GRUGGEN, M.A. 9. PRAYERS of our LORD...... 10. OTHER PRAYERS in SCRIPTURE...

The Editor.

BIBLE)

GEOGRAPHY. 11. DESCRIPTION of the HOLY LAND-WILDERNESSES of the South - PExiSSULA of SISAL.

PALESTINE - its CLIMATE. - GEOLOGY.- WATER SYSTEM.-Ports and Carer Towss, and

PLACES of BIBLICAL INTEREST......... 12. REMARKABLE MOUNTAINS & Hills of the BIBLE Arranged geographically, 13. RIVERS and LAKES

with Bible notices and references......

The Editor. TIMES and SEASONS, &c. 14. BIBLE CALENDAR.- The Divisions of Tine, and their PeincipLES. THE SEASONS. -Tos

JEWISH Months.—THE WEATHER and STATE of the CocNTRY (monthly).-THE JEWISE
FEASTS.—THE WEEK, SABBATICAL YEAR, JUBILEE, &c.-Divisions of Day and N108T.

The Editor. 15. Corns, and MEASURES of the OLD and NEW TESTAMENTS..

F. W. MADDEN & Rev. C. HOLE, M.A. II, PLANTS of the BIBLE.....

....SIR J. D, HOOKER, K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.S.

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III. ANIMAL CREATION in the BIBLE:

(1.) Mammalia of the Bibie..
(2.) Birds of the Bible..
(3.) Reptiles of Scripture.
(4.) Invertebrate Animals..

Rev. Casos TRISTRAM, LL.D., F.R.S. IV. POETRY of the BIBLE. 2.) Technical terms connected with Hebrew Poetry and Music in the Psalms (Bible Version).

Rev. T. K. CHEYNE, D.D. Late Fellor of Balliol College, Orford.

CONTENTS_continued.

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V. MUSIC of the BIBLE:

PAGE (1.) Vocal Music of the Hebrews...

51 (2.) Musical Instruments of the Bible,

51 (i.) String-instruments.......

51 (ii.) Wind-instruments.

52 (iii.) Instruments of Percussion.

52 (iv.) List of passages in which musical instruments are mentioned in 0.T. & N.T....

J. STAINER, M.A., Mus. Doc., Organist of St. Paul's Cathedral. VI. MONEY and WEIGHTS of the BIBLE......

.F. W. MADDEN, M.R.A.S. 55

Author of History of Jewish Coinage, &c., dc. VII. ETHNOLOGY of the BIBLE:Linguistic and Geographical Introduction

61 (1.) The Patriarchal period.. (2.) The period of the Davidic empire...

64 (3.) The period of the Babylonish captivity.

64 (4.) The time of Christ and His Apostles.

Rev. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 65

Queen's College, Orford. VIII. THE BIBLE and the MONUMENTS ; or the Hebrews in their relations with the

Oriental Monarchies of Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, Aram (Syria), and Phænicia.
Geographical Introduction..
(1.) Historical and Political relations.

66 (2.) Religious relations.....

70 (3.) Commercial relations

72 (4.) Science, Literature, and Art.

Rev. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 73

IX. CHRONOLOGY. (1.) Bases of BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGY.

Rev. S. G. GREEN, D.D. (2.) CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY of BIBLE HISTORY, exhibiting the contemporaneous Persons

and EVENTS in non-Jewish countries.... . REVISED BY REV. S. G. GREEN, D.D. 76 (3.) COMPENDIOUS CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES :

From the Death of Solomon to MALACIII, exhibiting the Hebrew Kings & PROPHETS. 81
A TABLE for READIXG the Books of the PROPHETS in their chronological order

81
X. HISTORY.
DISTORICAL EPITOME, or CHRONOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT of the BIBLE:-
PART I. THE OLD TESTAMENT..

82 Part II, BETWEEN the TESTAMENTS, or the Jews under the Persians, Macedonians and Romans, with an abstract of 1& 2 Maccabeer 96

Rev. P. THOMSON, M.A. and Editor, JEWISH SECTS and ORDERS..

101 TABLE of the HERODIAN FAMILY...

Rev. S. G. GREEN, D.D.
CHROXOLOGICAL TABLE of GOSPEL HISTORY, and a HARMONY of the Four GOSPELS :-
(i.) Events connected with the Birth and Childhood of our Lord,

105 (ii.) Announcement and introduction of our Lord's public Ministry.

108 (iii.) From the 1st Passover, during our Lord's public Ministry, until the 2nd.

108 (iv.) From the 2nd Passover until the 3rd.....

108 (v.) From the 3rd Passover until our Lord arrives at Bethany, 6 days before-...... 109 (v.) the Last Passover Week.

110 (vii.) Our Lord's Resurrection, His subsequent Appearances and Ascension...

111 (Revised )

-Rey. E, ROBINSON, D.D. HISTORICAL EPITOME, PART III. APOSTOLIC HISTORY,

112 Exhibiting the Travels and Epistles of St. Paul. Rev. P. THOMSON, M.A. and Editor. XI. GLOSSARY of BIBLE WORDS..

Rev. J.R. LUMBY, D.D.
A TABLE to find each Psalm by its FIRST LINE.
XII. SYMBOLICAL LANGUAGE of SCRIPTURE.

.By S. G. XIII. DICTIONARY of PROPER NAMES, with their MEANINGS and a REVISED PRONUNCIATION ...........

Rev. T.K. CHEYNE, D.D. XIV. INDEX to the PERSONS, PLACES, and SUBJECTS of the BIBLE (16,000 refs.)

XV. CONCORDANCE of BIBLE WORDS with their context - (above 40,000 references). XVI. Copyright (Klaps (6), DOUBLE PAGE, FROM RECENT SURVEYS, Endered, on A NEW PLAN.

107

SUPPLEMENTARY CONTENTS.

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99

92

9

99

... 63, 67

N.B.- The contents of articles which are arranged alphabetically, i.e. Plants, Animal

Creation, Music, Money and Weights, are not included. For ready reference, the
chief names and words are shown in the other articles by capital and italic letters.
Page
Page

Page Abana, River

31 Aretas-seo Nabathæan 28, 99, 100, 112 Bethhoron, Battles of (Eleasa).. 98 Abarim Mountains 29 Arioch, king of Ellasar.

67 Bethlehem.

27, 105 Abraham-see Heb. Migration 66, 67 Aristobulus I.,II.-seeAsmonæan 99 Bethsura..

97, 98 Accad, Accadians-Elam 63,67,70,71 Aristobulus (III.), H.P..... 99, 100

* Bible' explained Accho, or Ptolemais 69, 96 Armenia-seo Ararat, Ashkenaz. 68 Birds of the Bible.

43 Achaia, Roman province (n.) 113, 114

described.
29, 61 Bitter herbs..

39 Acrostic-see Alphabetical Poetry 48

Peoples of

63, 64 Books, Old Testament. Actium, Battle of...

100, 115
Kingdoms of-see Minni '64

New Testament

8 Acts of the Apostles.

12
Tigranes, king of
99 Brass.

56 Admission of Gentiles. . 24, 112,-115 Arnon, River

31 Brook, i.e. Torrent-see Rivers 31 Adrammelech

63 Arphaxad explained.. * Adria' explained..

115 Artaxerxes-see Pseudo-Smerdis 68,96 Africa-see Cush, Egypt, Libya.. Longimanus. . 35, 68, 95 Cæsar, Julius

99 Jews of, see Cyrene, Alex Aryan languages

08
Sextus.

99
andria..
96 Asceticism--see Essenes

103 Cæsarea, City of.... 27, 100, 112, 114 Agorah

56 Asherah-see 'Grove', Manasseh 72 Cæsars-see Roman Emperors .. S5 Agriculture of Canaan 28, 32, 33 Ashkenaz, kingdom of

61 Calf-worship (i.e. Ox).. 70, 72, 90, 91 Agrippa, Augustus' minister 100 Ashtoreth, pl. Ashtaroth.. 71, 72,97 Cambyses, k. of Persia

94, 97 I. and II.-see Herod 107 Asia Minor, described .

61 Canaan

02, 69 Ahasuerus-(1) Cambyses, (2).Xerxes 94 peoples of-see Gog 64 Canaanites.

61, 62 Aijeleth Shahar, upon......

49

Cyrus conquers.. 61, 68 Canon of Old Testament. 95, 96, 105 Alamoth, upon. 49 Asia, Roman province. 100, (n.) 112 Capacity, Measures of

37 Alcimus, H.P.--see Assidæans.. 98 Asia, Western, Geography of .. 61 Capharsalama, Battle of Alexander the Great. .... 35, 68, 96

Commerce-seo Caphtor-see Philistines 62, 64, 66, 69 Alexander Balas, king of Syria.. 99

Carchemish 73 Captivities of Israel. 66, 67, 77, 93 Alexander Janneus Judea 35,99

Cyrus conquers. 68

Judah 66, 68, 77, 75,93 Alexandria, Jews of-see Colony 96

Jews of..96, 100, 112 Captivity, effect of the.... 71, 103 Alphabet, Origin of the...... 62, 73 Asiarchs

(note) 114 Caravan-see Commerce 72, 73, 94, 95 Alphabetical Poetry ... 5, 49 Asmonæan-see Maccabee ..... 97 Carchemish - see Hittites 62, 64, 69,1 Al-Taschith, upon.....

49
Coinage
35, 98

(note) 70, 72, 73 Amalekites

62, 63
H. P. Princes of Judæa Carmel, Mount

30, 90 Ammonites-see Nomads, Ara

Jonathan

98 Carthage & Cyprue, Phan. colon. 19 bia.

62, 66, 97
Simon...
99 Casdim.

63 Amorites John Hyrcanus 99 Cassia

88 Amos, Prophecy of.

7, 92 Asmonæan H. P. Monarchs Caucasus-see Tubal, Meshech 61, 6: Amraphel king of Shinar

Aristobulus I.. 99 Celibacy-see Essenes .71, 105 Angel worship-see Essenes 105

Alexander Jannæus ib. Cenchrex (Cenchrea). 14, 103, 111 Aniraal Creation

Alexandra

Chaldeans-see Ur, Elam.. 63, 67, 73 Animal Worship of Egypt. 70

Hyrcanus II....

99, 100

Chasidim, Assidæans Gk. 96, 97,99,103 Antigonus, of Judaea. 100

Aristobulus II.
99 Chebar, River ..

31 Antigonus Socho (Sadducees) 96, 104 Antigonus 99, 100 Chedorlaomer

C3, 67, 73 Antioch on Orontes 35, 96-100, (n.) 112 Asnapper

67, 102
Chemosh-see Moloch

72 Jewish Colony at. 96 Assidæans or Chasidim.. 97, 98, 103 Cherub.

68, 72, 73 in Pisidia, St. Paul at. 113 Assur, Assyria, Assyrians 63,64,66,67 Children of East-see Arabia 03 Antiochians

97
Religion of
70, 71 China-see Sinim

63 Antiochus III., the Great. 96 Assyrian Empire - seo Tigris, Chinnereth, Sca of

31 Antiochus IV., Epiphanes 97 Nineveh, Carcasu8, Medes., 64, 66 Chittim or Cyprus. 64, 65, 69, 72 Antiochus V., Eupator

98 Assyrian kingssee Tiglath-Pie Christ, Life and Ministry of.. 108–11 Antiochus VI., Theos ...

98 leser 1. & II., Pul, Shalmaneser See Parables, Miracles, DisAntiochus VII., Sidetes(Eusebes) 99 11. & IV., Sargon, Sennacherib,

courses, Appearances, & Index. Antiochus XIIÍ.(last Seleucid).. 93 Esarhaddon.

Christians, Jewish

12, 119 Antipater, Herod's father. 28,99 Augustus Cæsar befriends Herod 100

Gentile

113 · Herod's eldest son.. 100

Judaizing .. 14, 113–114 Antony, Mark 99 Baal, pl. Baalim, fem. Baaltis..

72 Chronicles, Books of the .. 4, 89, 96 Appearances of risen Lord 111 Babel, Gk. Babylon

Cilicia, Roman : (note) 119 Arabah, The, A.V.‘plnin'

28

kings of-see Merodach. Cleopatra's Jewish policy 1001 Arabia, Peninsula, peoples of 61, 03

Baladan, Nabopolassar.
Climate of Palestine.

26 Nomads of seeNabathmans 62 Babylonia

67 Cockatrice-see Glossary ..

44, 117 Arabia Petræa.

61, 63
Plain of
61 Cæle Syria

9% Kingdom of

Divistons - see Accad 63 Coinage, Persian, Jerrish, &c... seeAretas 28,97,99,100

Peoples of

63, 67
Coins of New Testament.

33 Aram (Syria, O.T.) .;.. 61 62, 66, 69

Religion of

70 Colonia, Roman Colony.. (note) 113 Peoples, Hitlites 62 Libraries, Art, &c. 73 Colonies, Jewish...

96, 99 Divisions..... 61, 69

History of... 63, 67, 68 See Alerandria, Cyrene, AnLanguage 69

Jews of. 94, 95, 96, 99, 100 tioch on Orontes, Ephesur, CoKings of -- see Hadad. Babylonian (Chaldæan) Empire rinth, Lydia, Phrygia, Rome. ezer, Rezon.

-see Nebuchadnezzar, Belshaz Colossians, Epistle to the .. 15, 115 Cities of - Carchemish,

car..

61, 93, 94 Commerce, land-see Caravan 55, 72 Damascus, Hamath, &c. Balaam--see Divination...... 71, 101

sea - see Tarshish, Aram, Geshur in 69 Barbarian-see Glossary .... 65, 117

Ophir, Isler, Jaran. 64, 72 Maachah 69 Baruch the Scribe..

105

Phnician ... 64, 68, 72, 7 Naharaim Mesopotamia) 63,69 Battles, decisive--see 188us, Ip

Hebrew 26,68,70,73,90-92,99 Padan 63 8u8, Jagnesia, Bethhoron, Phar.

Arabian-see Petra.... 73 96
Rehob

69 salia, Philippi, Actium. ... 96-100 Community of Goods
Zobah.
61 Bedouins-see Nomad, Arabia 62, 66

see Essenes

10-1 2, 61, 65, 68, 96 Bekah

56 Copy of the Law, Samaritan Ararat, Mount.. 29, 63 Bel..

70 Coral kingdom-see Armenia.. 64 Belshazzar

68, 70, 78, 94 Corinth, importance of (note) u: Archelaus, ethnarch of Judæa.: 100 | Berma, St. Paul at.

113

Jewish Colony at.....

........... 67, 68

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112

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Aramaic

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