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B.C. Genesis The Generations of Isaac.-Esani and Jacoh, twins, are born to Iss in the leren 1857. Xxv, 19. (Beer-lahai roi, ch, xxiv. 62 & xvi. 14). Before their birth, God reread that 'the a

ination) shall serve the younger' (see Rom. ix. 10–12). 1853. 1-6.

Abraham marrying Keturah becomes the ancestor of six Arabian and Mistite zibs 12-18 on the S.E. frontiers of the Promised Land. Ishmael's descendants Near

Teman, &c.) occupy the Arabian wildernesses, between Egypt and the R Eurore, Li N 1822. 7-10.

Abrahain dies, aged 175; Isaac and Ishmael bury him iu the care of Nepal. 1805. 29-34.

Esau recklessly sells his birthright (with its temporal and spiritual privileges

Heb. xii. 16, 17. 1801. XIvi. 1-31. A second famine in Canaan, Isaac migrates into Gerar, but is forbidden toe

Egypt; the Promises are confirmed to him on his remaining in Causan Isk and cultivates land in Gerar. His growing wealth provoking jealousy, be 100%

Beersheba, where the Abimelech (1898) makes a treaty with him, and Gia contra 1796.

34, 35, the Promises. But here Esau, aged #), profanely marries two patire Hatte als 1760. xxvii, 1–45. In about Isaac's 100th year, Rebekah induces Jacob to supplant Esan ly be

Isaac into making him the heir of the full covenant-blessing of Abraham le

lest Esau kill Jacob, but on the pretext that Jacob also might marry a C
46; xxviii. Rebekah induces Isaac to send Jacob into Padan-Aram to seek a daughter of

Laban in marriage, and to confirm consciously the stolen blessing to asses
Jacob, asleep by the wayside, the Promises made to Abrahain, and coobrnet
Jacob vows on his safe return to commemorate (1732) the dream, and Goista

at the spot, which he names Bethel (God's house).

Jacob loves Laban's younger daughter Rachel, and serves him seren years for ta. Loka 1753,

substitutes the elder, Leah, but gives Rachel to Jacob for a second sereu jeansen 1749 35.

Leah bears her third son Judah, the destined ancestor of David and tue Presse 1745. XXX. 22-24. Rachel at length bears Joseph Jacob, obliged to provide for his famus 7 A

Simeon, Levi, Judah Leah's sons), born B.C. 1752–2; Gad, Asker (Zilpab s soltas

born B.C. 1719-8; Dan, Naphtali Bilhah's sons Rachel's), born B.C 1745-:: Is 25-43. Zebulun, Dinah (Leah's children). born B.C. 1747–5; and JoA). consent to a tra

xxxi. 1-2. compact with Laban. Laban's sons grudge Jacob's great prosperity. 1739. 3-56.

After 20 years' service, God bids Jacob return to Canaan, and promises His perto Jacob escapes

Laban overtakes him at Galeed (Gilead) and make a treate si xxxii. Jacob, again encouraged at Mahanaim (tuo hosts) and at Peniel (jace of Cret, praat

deliverance from Esau. At Peniel he is named ISRAEL (prince os God. He sa Xxiii, 1-17. to Esau, who abandons Canaay to Jacob, and retires to Me Seir (Seir = &nbs

Horites, or cave dwellers, ch. xxxvi. 6-8), thence named Edom, 18-20. In Canaan, Jacob buys land at Shalem near Shechem (cp. Josh. xxiv. 1. cross 1732.

Xxxiv. El-Elohe-Israel: Gor the God of Israel), & settles. Simeon & Levi avrnge Dinalis
XXXY. 1-8. on the Hivite chiefs Hamor and Shechem. God bids Jacob remove to Betboi

solemnly putting away the Aramrean idols of his housebold. Jacoh buikis jau
9-20. confirms (1760) the Promises to bim and his seed. As Jacob migrates tonal

(Bethlehem, Mic. y. 2), Rachel dies in bearing Benjamin. Jacob ættles 1716. 21; 27-29.

Mamre [Kirjath-arha, later Hebron). Esau and Jacob bury Isaac there is based xxxvi.

The Generation of Esau.-Account of chiefs and kings of Edom.
Xxxvii. 2-36. The Generations of Jacob. -- Joseph, sold into slavery in Esypt er. 11-34 henger

xxxix. --xl. half brethren, becoines steward to Potiphar, commander of Pharaoh's body! 1715.

xli. is long imprisoned on a false accusation. Interpreting Pharanh's creann be s reissa.

and made viceroy of Egypt to provide for the foretold 7 years of farine. 1712-11. 50-52. Joseph's wife, daughter of the priest of On (Heliopolis), hears Manasseh and Ephren 1707. xlii. --xliv. During the famine, Joseph's ten brethren fetch corn from Egypt to their secret 1700. xlv. 1-15. visit they bring Benjamin, and Joseph discloses his identity and Gott's para

him beforehand to preserve Jacobs family and so to prepare for the sojourn pics

ment of a Hebrew nation in Egypt as foretold to Abraham). Jab testades xly. 16- xlvi. 7. cept Pharaoh's invitation, but moves from Hebron to Isaac's sanctuary at Beers

there God encourages him (1804) to leave Canaan and enter Egypt by s

promise--that of the restoration of his seed thence to Canaan as a great bain 8-27. ch. xv. 13-14). Jacob with seventy sons and grandsons enters Egynt in bas atk jest

xlvi. 28-xlvii. 12. Pharaoh settles them in the pasture-land of Goshen on the X E frontier. 1702-1. 13-26. Joseph acquires for Pharaoh all the money, cattle, and land (the priests' escepit.

the Egyptians. 1689. xlviii.

Jacob adopts Ephraim and Manasseh, prophetically preferring the younger, and the xlix. 10.

tribes of Israel. He foretells the descent of the Promised Seeri from Jab shadows in blessings pronounced on his twelve sons the character and foteca

genealogy through Pharez son of Judah and Tamar, see ch. xxxviii. -: kether 1.1--21. Matt. i. 3--16). Jacob dies, aged 147. His sons bury him in the care of Mactpelli

great pomp and mourning. Joseph reassures his brethren. 1035. 22-26. Joseph pleriges them to carry his body also into Canaan when God should tas

Promise quoted by Jacob in ch. xlviii. 21, and dies, aged 110 years. Exolus Towards the fulness of time see Acts vii. 17) a new Pharaoh Rameses i tres razn* i. 8-22. check the increase of Jacob's descendants by (1) excessive levies for force! IST.

lic works, (2) by ordering (a) the destruction, (b) the exposure of all llebrer den 1571. ii. 1-10. Moses younger brother of Aaron and Miriam (Num. 26. 591, and great stats

cated in Pharaoh's family in all the wisdom of the most civilised nation of the gre
(ch. 6. 16-21), is born and exposed, but is saved and adopteri by Pharanb's daugtta It

becomes famous, but prefers to share his people's fortunes (see Acts vii. --: Hen 1531. 11-22 Moses, aged 40, enquires into the oppression of his people. He slays an Eyptus ab

takes refuge with Renel or Jethro, the patriarchal priest-prince of Minan, marry 15 daughter Zipporah, who bears a son Gershom (see Acta vii. 23-29; Hein Il'*

The Hebrero Nation.—'The LORD, the God of the Hebreus' (Jeborah.- The End 1191. iii.

God reveals Himself to Moses in Mount Horeb from a burning bish as the God to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, now purposing to deliver His people, ani to triste

them into Canaan (1913). God commissions Moses to conduct the Exodus. Po iv. 1-17. a

bids Moses deliver this message to the assembled elders of Israel, further encor
with a new revelation of Himself as JEHOVAH (the Eternal Self-eristensen
LORDI, and with signs confirmatory of his mission to be repeated before Praraad 1

hesitates, and Aaron is assigned to be his spokesman (see iets vii. 3)- 35.
18-31. Moses returns to Egypt : Gershom is circumcised, and Aaron meets Max in Eng
The elders joyfuliy accept God's

message: but when Pharaoh-coming the Golde Hebrews and this demand that His people should go three days' jourbes out of Egri la


BC. 1191.


PART 1.-OLD TESTAMENT. Exodus to Mount Horeb) to sacritice to Him-adds to their burdens, the elders reproach Moses, vi. 1-13. and he God. Then God further reveals Himself to Moses as Israel's future Covenant-God,

and promises to prove His Godhead (1) by delivering His people by wonders discrediting

the gods of Egypt, and (2) by bringing Israel into Canaan as He had promised to their vi. 28-vii. 7. forefathers. The dispirited elders disbelieve. God sends Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh to

repeat the demand, and commissions them (aged 80 and 83) to conduct the Exodus. vii. 8-13. Moses and Aaron revisit Pharaoh; but the Egyptian magicians imitate their credential

miracles, and Pharaoh is obdurate. Though shaken by each of 10 progressive plagues upon vii. 14-xi. 10.

Egypt and its people-viz. (1) the Nile turned into blood, (2) Frogs, (3) Líce, or Gnats (the magicians' inuitations cease). (4) Flies, (6) Murrain, (6) Boils (the magicians sufier also and retire), (7) Hail, (8) Locusts, (9) Darkness, (10) and the threatened Death of the

tirstborn-Pharaoh refuses to let Israel go (see Ps. Lxxviii. 43-51; cv. 26-36). xii, 1-28, 43-49. The Passover is instituted for 14th Abib, henceforward the first month (May 4), to com

xiii. 1-16. memorate the sparing of Israel's firstborn and the Deliverance from Egypt (see Heb. xi. 28). xii. 2011. - On the 15th at midnight (plague 10) all the firstborn of the Egyptians and their cattle die. xiii. 17--22. Urged, and even paid by Pharaoh and the Egyptians, the Hebrews start (bearing

Joseph's bones) in the 130th year after Abram's visit to Egypt (Bee Gen. xii. 10), viz., 600,000 adult males, besides children and a mixed multitude (sp. ch. xxxviii. 26). They march

(1) from Rameses to Succoth, (2) to Etham, avoiding the direct coast route N.E. to Canaan, xiv. through warlike Philistia ; (3) southwards to Pi-bahiroth, along the wilderness W. of the

Red Sea. The Shechinah leads and shrouds them and covers their night march through Iv. 1-21. the Red Sea, miraculously divided. On the Arabian shore, the nation gives thauks for its

deliverance from Egypt and Pharaoh's pursuit (see Ps. cvi. 11, 12; Heb. xi. 29).
22--96. The Hebrews march S. along the E. shore of the Sinaitic Peninsula through the wilder-
Num. xxxii. 8. ness of Shur three days) to the þitter wells at Marah, which Moses cures, pacifying the
Exod. xv. 27. people; thence inland to Elim and again to the Red Sea, reaching the wilderness of Sin,

xvi. 1. between Elim and Sinai, on the 15th of the second month after the Exodus.

Lacking food, and recalling the plenty of Egypt, they murmur against Moses and Aaron. God provides quails and a supply of inanna daily (the Sabbath excepted) during 40 years (i.e. until a second generation having crossed Jordan eats Canaanite corn in Gilgal). On

the commemorative pot of manna, see Neh. ix. 16; Ps. lxxviii. 23-25; John vi. 31-49. xvii. 1-7. Encamping for a week here and at Dophkah and at Alush (Num. 33. 12–14), they reach

Rephidim, where Moses miraculously provides water, naming the spot 'Massah' and

Meribah' ('temptation'and 'chiding'. See Ps. lxxxi. 7. 8-16. The Amalekites in possession of the scattered pastures of the Peninsula, attack Israel.

Joshua directs the defence, while Moses prays--the altar Jehovah-Nissi and God's sentence of extermination on Amalek (executed by Saul, Israel's first king, see Deut. xxv.

17--19; 1 Sam. xv.) commemorate the victory, Iviii.

Jethro visits Moses, bringing Zipporah and her two sons, and holds a covenant-sacrifice and feast with him. On Jethro's advice Moses delegates his judicial authority in minor causes to the tribal heads of fifties, bundreds, and thousands.

The Covenant Nation.The Law given at Mount Sinai. xix.

In the third month, Israel encamps 'before the Mount' in the wilderness of Sinai. God

offers through Moses a Covenant (conditioned on obedience), and on the 3rd day delivers XX. 1-17. directly to the people the Ten Commandments, having descended in fire upon Mount Sinai

amid clouds, thunder, lightning, and earthquake (see Heb. xii. 18-21). 18-21. Moses, as intermediary between the terrified people and God, receives further ordinances IX. 22.-xxiii. 19. for the regulation of civil life and elementary religious observances called (ch. xxiv.7) The

Book of the Covenant,' and executes with the people the formalities of the New Covenant. xxiv. 1-11. (See Ieb. ix. 17-20.) Moses, Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and 70 elders, are permitted to see

God's glory and to hold the Covenant feast (eat and drink') in the mountain. xxiv. 12-xxxi. Moses summoned into the mountain receives the tables of Stone, the Law, and other

details of the Theocratic constitution, and after six days spent there with Joshua, is called up into the cloud alone. During 40 days' absence, Moses is instructed as to (1) making a l'ent of Meeting (see ch. xxv. 22; xxix. 42, 43; and xxxiii. 7-11) between God and the peoplo CA.V. tabernacle of the congregation) and its furniture; (2) the Aaronic priesthood; (3) the Services, ritual, and materials used; finally Moses receives the two Tables of the Decalogue

inscribed by God (see 2 Cor. 111.3; Heb. ix. 1--10). xxxii. 1-6. The people's faith failing during the withdrawal of the Shechinah and of Moses into

Mount Sivai, the Covenant is forfeited by (Ps. cvi.. 20) a heathenish worship of Jehovah,

under the idolatrous representation of Aaron's Golden Cali.
God reveals to Moses this relapse

and His purpose to destroy Israel, and make of Moses' seed another Covenaut-nation; but Moses' intercession is accepted, and he returns (with Joshua), Seeing the festival afar, Moses in righteous indignation drops and breaks the two Tables. He destroys the calf, upbraids Aaron, and calls on the faithful to execute the

faithless. The tribe of Levi responding slays 3,000 men, thus earning the privilege of the 30. Holy Tribe to be accepted in lieu of the dedicated firstborn. Moses returns into the

mount, and God accepts his intercession for the people, but sends plagues, and announces

that His Angel and not He Himself would henceforward be their guide. But the people's xxxiii. mourning is accepted, and, at Moses' intercession (in the Mount), God promises to resume

His personal leadership; and permits Moses (as visible evidence) to see His glory. xxxiv.

God summons Moses again into the mountain with two new tables of stone. "At Moses' intercession, God renews the broken Covenant between Himself and Israel, and promises

to displace the Canaanites if Israel inake no terms with them and generally will be 10-26. faithrul. During this second absence of 40 days, Moses is instructed afresh in the moral and 29–35. ceremonial laws of the Covenant; and on his return, a dazzling reflection of God's glory

irradiates his face, as on subsequent interviews with God in the Tent of Meeting (see

2 Cor. iii. 13---16). IV.-xxxix. Moses invites contributions of materials and labour towards a Tent or Tabernacle of

Meeting (described in detail to him in the mount), and aided by Bezaleel and Aholiab xl. 17. completes it with its furniture. On New Year's Day of the second year after the Exodus, 34. the Aaronic priesthood is consecrated, and the Shechinah descending signifies God's

acceptance of the Tabernacle-it abides thereon during Israel's wanderings. On the 14th Numb. ix. 1-5. of Ahib, the Passover is kept. Leviticus . Nadab and Abihu, Aaron's two elder sons, offering incense with ordinary fire (ʻstrange,'

i.e. not from the altar) are miraculously destroyed. Numbers

March to Canaan-from the Wilderness of Sinai to Kadesh. i., ii. Organization of the Nation. The first military census of males above 20 years, Levi

being exempted, gives 603,650 warriors. Census of male Levites of 30—50 years, the priests,


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36; xii. 1-16.

16; xiii.


i.e. Aaron's family, excepted ;-duties as assistants of the priests in the serve alt
Tabernacle and in the transport of its fabric and contents, are assigned to the
Gershon, Merari, and Kohath.

The order of the Encampment, - A hollow square with the Tabernacle it tbe sis
surrounded by the tribe of Levi; the other 12 tribes in four group-Juan
and Zebulon on the E.; Reuben, Simeon, and Gad on the Si Epcran. Na
and Benjamin on the W.; Dan, Asber, and Naphtali on the N. - The
March. The Ark covered by the Shechinah leadis, borne by the Priests; Le poi
three tribes follow, viz., (1) Judah, &c.; next Gershon and Merari, the Lensects
waggons laden with the fabric of the Tabernacle ; (2) Reuben, &c fabsing, the
and the Levites bearing on their shoulders 'the Sanctuary' and its sacred the
viously covered by the Priests (ch. iv. 1--15); (3 Ephraim, &c. fo.joying:
closing the rear (see ch. x.). The Shechinah rising from or setting on taciuca
signals the march or halt, and the Priests' silver trumpets start the trials

The chiefs of the Tribes present offerings at the Dedication of the Ta kaz Altar. Moses, entering the Tabernacle, hears the voice of God from the use ** cloud on the corer or lid of the Ark).

The March.-In the 14th month after the Exodus, the Covenant-nation leares for Canaan (the usual 11 days' journey occupy four months, Deut. i :: Yum . ll. and encamps in the wilderness of Paran. After three days' march, discopieiressu at Taberah burnin), and many are burned miraculousis: Moses interne

[Henceforward, God being visibly present as their Leader, tbe Isa
punished by miracle for want of faith, discontent, disobedience, &c., as recer
Himself.) Again, at Kibroth Hattaavah (the graves of lust), led hy 'the IELS
(i.e. their Egyptian kindred), Israel regrets the ease and plenty of Egypt, adie:**
ordinary food as a change from the heaveuly. Moses saddened and orerbunden
God promises a month's food, and inspires 70 elders to share Moses' inte
labours. (Contrast Ex. xviii.] 'Quails settle round the camp in extraordia zi
are collected, but a great plague follows (see Ps. lxxviii. 97-31).

At Hazeroth, the Cushite (or Ethiopian) wife of Moses excites Miriam's jest
Aaron and Mirian, claim equal prophetic authority with Moses. The Shecta
God summons the three learlers (Ex. xv. 20; Micah vi. 4), but declares the ser
prophet-hood of Moses, and when the Shechinah withdraws. Miriard is felmus
Moses interceding, she is healed in seven days; the march is meanwhile suspe=20

After several encampments in the wilderness of Paransi.e the lines
Tih, which rises from Sinai to the 8. border of Canaan) Israel reaches 51
but hesitates to enter Canaan (Deut. i. 20, 21). The people suggest the sa
twelve spies; who return after torty days to Kadesh, having searchal Can I
wilderness of Zin (i.e. the Arabah, or valley S. of the Dead Sea) to Rehat the
Lebanon valley and back W. and s. by the coast and the South
Hebron, whence they bring a sample cluster of grapes (Escol) Caled
faith, urge an immedliate advance, but the other ten spies dilate on the street
Canaanite cities and stature of the Anakim. Doubting the promises WWS
the miracles of the Exodus and the march, the people openly reb 1, and purper
to Egypt, and would have stoned Joshua and Caleb, who protest and conne
But the Shechinah descends, and God tells Moses that he will destroy Israe
him the father of a better and mightier nation. Moses intercedes and me
generation of the Exodus is condemned to wander 10 years outside the Prince..
year for each day of the spies’ absence, and to die in the wilderness; ons josta
Caleb should enter Canaan. The ten spies die in a plague.

The Penal Wanderings in the Wilderness Forty Yours
At the order to march back into the wilderness, the people repent, and attempt, there
forbidden, to enter Canaan. The Canaanites and Amalekites rout there a: Hr

[Of the next 37) years few events are recorded, as if this generation hai con TX in the history. The Israelites probably had their headquarters at Kadest on TREI (Judg. 1, 17. now Sebaita), while roarning or partly settled in the pastures of the learn of Sinai after the manner of the Patriarchs. Apparently circumcision Joir. neglected, the Sabbath desecrated (yet see Num. xv. 32), and junlatry * 7* (Ezek. xx. 10--26 ; Amos v. 25, 26, but see Variorum ; Acts vii. 42, 43, ;-the Passites mentioned Num. ix. 5-Josh, v. 10, i.e. between Sinai and Gilgalj

Korah, a Levite, as if jealous of the exclusive priesthood of Aaron's famny, asser religious equality of the nation. Dathan and Abiram, Reubenites, as if awtzt patriarchal privileges of the tribe of the firstborn against

the supremac of him of tyranny and oppression, and of deluding the people with false mees 1 conspire with 250 tribal chieftains and protest openly against Moses and last adopts Moses' test of who are His representatives' and 'who is hols, anzi swallows up, Dathan, Abiram, &c. Korah, and the 250 offering ineens (as the are miraculously burned; yet, next day, the people accuse Moses and di dering them. Aaron's intercessiou stays the consequent plague Altr palstu censers, with Aaron's rod that budded, commemorate God's vindication of the price of Aaron's family (the 2nd branch of Levi).

March of the New Generation towards Canaan.
In the 1st month of the 40th year, the Israelites reassemble at Kadu bere V
is buried. Lacking water, they murmur against Moses and Aaron
rock twice (Meriboh) and speaks unadvisedly as if he and Aaron would 3
(cp. Acts vi. 12). For assuming glory due to God only, both are sentered to
the Promised Land (see Ps. cvi. 33). Moses, forbidden to attack Israel's gusto
Moab, and Ammon, asks of the Edomite king a free passage (probably top
Petra leading to the fords of Jericho); his refusal obliges Israel to neret a
8. and E. of Edom. In the border of Edom, on Mt Hor, in tbe 5th month, Asruss
aged 123, after the transfer of the High Priesthood to his son Eleazar.

The Canaanite king of Arad (Varirum), in the South,' ie. the Nogeb attackle
Hormah, but is destroyed (see Judg. i. 16, 17). The Israelites discargado
circuit murmur and are plagued with serpents, but cured on repentance and a
which the Brazen Serpent is a test (see 2 Kings sviii. 4, Jobn ii. 14. 15
cross the hrook Zered into Moab, and the R. Arnon into the territory of Sibice
the Amorites, lately won from Moab (v. 26), and reach the platean of in der
where the ridge of Pisgah overlooks the plains of Moab beside Jordan opposite Jaitu

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Conquests and Allotments East of Jordan under Moses.-Sihon refuses Israel a passage and attacks them at Jahaz, but is repulsed and slain, and his land occupied as far as the R. Jabbok. Israel, avoiding, Ammon in its strongholds on the Jabbok, defeats Og the king of Bashan at Edrei, and conquers the lava-labyrinth of Argob (Trachonitis, now the Lejah, see Num. xxxii, 41, 42; Deut. iii. 14), and the rest of Gilead to Mt. Hermon. Then Israel crossing Mt. Abarim encamps on the high terrace of the Jordan valley ('the plains of Shittim') facing the fords of Jericho.

Balak, king of Moab S. of Arnon (ch. xxi. 26), and his Midianite confederates (Josh. xiii. 21), dismayed at Israel's numbers and success, hires Balaam, a famous but unscrupulous prophet of God, from Pethor in Mesopotamia, to help him to conquer and expel Israci. Covetousness outweighing God's probibition, Balaam accompanies Balak's second mission, but is rebuked by the ass and overruled to utter God's messages only: Balaam blesses Israel from three idolatrous high places, and finally foretells its glorious future, the clestruction of Edom. Moab, and Amalek, and the later supersession of the Semitic race by a Western power (ships from Chittim, i.e. Cyprus). See 2 Pet. ii. 16. 10; Jude 11.

Balaam remaining among the Midianites advises the corruption of Israel through the impure worship of Baal-Peor practised by the Midianite women (as if to weaken or destroy it through the wrath of Jehovah). The chief apostates are executed and the votaries slain or destroyed (24,000) by a plague, which Phinehas by an act of righteons zeal stays, thereby earning an everlasting priesthood. God sentences the Midianites to destruction (see Ps. cvi. 28-31).

The Census at Shittim.-The warriors now number 601,730; the Levite males, from a month old, 23,000. The only survivors of the census at Sinai are Joshua and Caleb.

Moses is commanded to divide Canaan, assigning a territory to each tribe proportioned to its numbers in a situation decideci by lot. The case of Zelophehad's daughters decides that (to keep inheritances and the tribal territory unbroken) daughters may inherit, but must marry within their tribe.

God bids Moses view the Promised Land from the range of Abarim or Pisgah before his death. Moses prays for another leader for Israel, and is commanded to publicly appoint and instruct Joshua, to whom God will communicate His will through the High Priest.

Phinehas, son of Eleazar the H.P., with 12,000 jnen exterminates the Midianites in a sacred war; Balaam and five chiets perish, but 110 Israelite. The people spare the flocks, &c., and the women and children, but Moses destroys all the males and married women. and halves the spoil between the combatants and the rest.

Reuben and Gad ask to have their allotment in the newly conquered pastoral downs and forests E. of Jordan. On condition that they fully share the conquest of Canaan, Moses allots (1) from the R. Arnon to the S. slopes of Mt. Gilead to Rouben; thence (2) along Jordan to the Lake of Chinnereth (Gennesaret) to Gad; and (3) N.E. Gilead and Bashan as far as Mt. Ilermon to half Manasseh.

Moses defines the bounds of Canaan, and delegates its allotment to Eleazar, Joshua, and a prince of each tribe; Levi to receive 48 dispersed cities, each in a square of pasture ground (A.V. suburbs), six of the Levitical cities to afford sanctuary in cases of blooul-feud for accidental homicide: he appoints Bezer in Reuben, Ramoth-Gilead in Gad, and Golan in Manasseh, as the Transjordanic Cities of Refuge (see Dent. iv. 41-43; xix. 1-10).

In the 11th month of the 40th year Moses, aged 120, delivers three parting addresses to all
Israel, his prayer to be spared to enter Canaan being denied. () He recapitulates the
history of the present generation from its departure from Horeb(chs. i.-iii.. emphasising
(ch. iv.) the Spirituality of Jehovah. (2) He reiterates-a) The Ten Commandments, ex:
pounding the lessons thence deducible as to the Israelites' duty towards their God, and
urging then by the memory of the past to be faithful to Him (chs. v.--xi.); (b) The Book
of the Covenant (Ex. xx. 19- xxiii. 19), expanding it and giving the Israelite a manual to
guide him in his duty to his neighbour (chs. xii.- xxvi.) ; concluding with an injunction
to inaugurate the Law publicly by a ceremony at Shechem (ch. xxvii. and with a declara-
tion of the consequences of faithfulness and disobedience, respectively (ch. xxviii. ; cf. Ex.
xxiii. 20—33 and Lev. xxvi.). (3) Finally, he charges Israel and Joshua, conimits this
(written) law,' to the priests' custody for septennial public reading, and teaches Israel a
song, as a perpetual forewarning of the consequences of disobedience.
Moses blesses Israel, and after viewing Canaan from Mt. Pisgah, dies, aged 120.

The Conquest and Allotment of Canaan.
In Shittim, after the mourning for Moses (Deut. xxxiv. 8), Joshua is appointed to lead
Israel across Jordan, and settle it in Canaan.

Joshua's two spies, saved at Jericho by Rahab, report the discouragement of the Canaanites. Joshua encamps hy Jordan, and Israel crosses it at its fullest dryshod; memorials of the miracle are set in mid-stream and at Gilgal (ch, v. 9), the first encampment in the Land of Promise. The new generation being circumcised keeps the Passover and Feast of unleavened cakes, made of the old corn of Canaan. The manna ceases.

Siege and fall of Jericho, the key to the fords of Jordan and to the E. passes into the central highland. Rahab is saved. After a reverse, due to Achan's sacrilegious covetousness, Ai is destroyed and Israel established on the highland. The prescribed ratitication and publ reading of the Law (Deut. xxvii. 2-8, 11-26) take place in the vale of Shechem (Gen. xii, 6, 7 & xxxiii. 19).

League of S. Canaan.--The Gibeonite confederacy, which controls the chief W. pass (Beth-horon), craftily makes peace, and Gibeon is besieged by Adonizedec of Jerusalem, and four kings of the league. Joshua relieves Gibeon, and in the pursuit, miraculously prolonged, captures Makkedah and Libnah, and executes the five kings. In the campaign following, Joshua captures the fortified towns S. of Gibeon and Gilgal (except Jerusalem) as far as Kadesh-barnea and Gaza, i.e, he conquers (1) the highland 8. of Jebus with the Anakim, (2) the steppes of the Negeb (south beyond, (3) the W. foot-hills (“springs' or slopes), and (4) the plain of the coast or Shephêlah (' vale').

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League of N. Cangan.-Joshua at L. Merom destroys Jabin and his allies, their chariots, &c., and conquers Jordan-valley and the plains of Kishon and of the sea coast to Dor.

In a long war (? 7 years), Israel united under Joshua destroys 31 kings and 6 nations.

Joshna, being old, is ordered to allot to the 99 tribes W of Jordan (Levi omitted ; Joseph 13) the conquered territory with the unconquered, viz. the Philistine and Phonician sea coast and the Mid-Lebanon valley to the entering in of Hamath, He charges the several tribes to complete the conquest of their allotments.

Allotments to Judah and Joseph are made in Gilgal. Caleh claims and conquers the district of Hebron. The bounds and cities of Judah, of Ephraim (Gezer unconquered), and of half-Manasseh (the Canaanites of the sea coast and plain of Kishon unconquered).


xi. 1-15.

xi. 16-xii. 24.


1 115,

1 444,

xiv. 0-15.

Ivi.; xvii.


B.C. Joshua The tabernacle is set up in Shiloh; allotments to the 7 tribes are made at the taberneta 141, xviii. 1--10. door after a survey of the unallotted territory

xviii. 11, xix. 1, The bounds and cities of Benjanin, of Simeon (taken out of Judahl, Zero 10, 17, 24, 32, 40. Issachar, of Asher, of Naphtali, and Dan (with Laish added by colques dans

receives Timnath-serah.

Three cities of refuge are appointed W. of Jordan, riz. Kedes-Naphtai, Shake xxi. Ephraim, Hebron in Judah. The 6 refuge-cities, with 42 cities and a litt

('suburbs ') given by the other tribes, are allotted to the priests and Lette xxii.

The Transjordanic tribes, their forces being dismissed, erect the altar Edisa vitet

their union with the other tribes. 1427. xxiii.--xxiv. Joshua charges the elders and rulers ( at Shiloh), and finally a patra secas

Shechem, which renounces idolatry (see Gen, xxxv. 1-4), ard ole. Il ** Judges covenant of Sinai. Death of Joshua, aged 110. and of the H.P. Eleazar.

ii. 6--10. While elders of the generation of the Wanderings survive, Israel is faithio! 1406. xix.-xxi. certed national action is recorded once only-Phinehas, Aaron's grandson, bali

when the outrage at Gibeah (Hos. ix. 9 & x. 9) nearly caused Benjainin's elim i,

The W. tribes continue the conquest in their eereral allotments especials Simeon), but from want of faith, or union, or perseverance, fail to expel the FB and other Canaanites who had chariots of iron. The Canaanite romant

tributary, but, as Moses foresaw (Ex. xxiii. 31-35; Deut. vii. 14), iii. 1-7. Israel's religion and morals through inter-marriage (cp. 1 Kings xi. 1-: Nein ii. 1-5. and by example. A prophet rebukes Israel at Bochim for tolerating the case is

unable to expel the Phulistines, seizes unfortified Laish by the source : xvii.-xviii. establishes there Micah's oracle and teraphim under Micah's priess, Moees

in a sanctuary to Jehovah. The priesthoorl and image last as loos sa te ** xviii. 30, 31. central Sanctuary in Shiloh (i Sam. iv. 21); the sanctuary is adoptel is een and lasts till Tiglath Pileser's deportation (1 Kings xiii. ; 2 Kings xv.

Period of the Judges. ii. 11-19. The Wars of Deliverance - Israel's relapses are punishedi (the national distrito IST

by local or complete subjection to neighbouring nations; on repentance Libert raised up, who in subsequent periods of peace, partially and locally reforma toe te

aud religious lawlessness (“judge Israel'), being sustained by iaith Heb. D. iii. 8-11. Subjection to Mesopotumia (Chusban-rishathaim) 8 years cp. Gen. xiv. Jafgeskap

Othniel of Judah. 1331.

12-30. Subjection to Moah, Ammon, and Amalek 18 years.-- Ehud a Benjamite bilis Ert 1336.

31. of Moab, and destroys the retreating Moabites at the fords of Jonian; Ser

defeats the Philistines, but Israel is cowed (see ch, v, 6-8). 1316. iv.-v. Subjection to Jabin oj Hazor 20 years. - Deborah, the prophetesa-jorge, max whose deliverance Jael completes by killing Sisera, Jabin's

general. Julgestipu Domeen 1236. vi. 1-6. Subjection to Midiun, Amalek, and the children of the Eust (=- Bcudani. Ex1

XXV, 4, 5) 7 years. 1219. 7--10. A prophet rebukes Israel, An angel inspires Gideon, a Manassite, to deliver Island

after destroying his father's sanctuary to Baal and Asherah (A.V. 'the Tortlar

to substitute the worship of Jehovah by building an altar on the site of the RTL vi. 11-viii. 32. Gideon with 300 selected men twice surprises the horles of Midian, cap mutta

Zebah and Zalmunna beyond Jordan, while Ephraim captures the princes Oret ai? at the fords (Isa, ix. 4 & X. 26; Ps. lxxxiii. 11, 12). Judgeship of Gideon Hess 64425 refuses an hereditary sovereignty ; but, to promote the service of Jeborat, LGA

(cp. Micah) sets up a sanctuary and an oracle (* epbod’ in Ophrah. 1209. viii. 33-35. After Gideon's death, Baal-worship revives in connexion with a local cooleda

Shechem (Baal-berith, i.e. Baal of the League). Abimelech, Gidena's vius Ko**
Canaanite concubine, murders Gideon's 70 sons, Jotham alone escaping, so
by the Hivite and Israelite population Chief of the Confederacy as Jasbis
Shechem. Three years later, in a counter revolution, Abimelech is slain

when assaulting Thebez.
1206. X. 1, 2. Judgeship of Tola of Issachar in Ephraim 23 years

Death of "Tola. Judgeship of Jair of Gileal 22 years 1171. 1 Sam. 1. General apostacy of Israel (Ps. lxxviii. 56–59). Eli H.P. and judge Samne tera 1163. ii. 12--17:»2-25. Eli's sons, in his old age, by cupidity and immorality profane and distrit te 27-36. nacle-service at Shiloh. A prophet announces the doom of Eli's family, tbe logem!

the High Priesthood, and the death of Hophni and Phinehas on one day: 1161. Judg. x. 6-18. Subjection to Ammon 18 years, and to the Philistines 40 years. Samson bord, descass

xiii. begin the deliverance from the Philistines. 1143. xi.--xii. 7. Jephthah delivers Transjordavic Israel from Ammon. Judgeship of Joti 2

Gilead 6 years. 1141. xiv.

Samson's first exploits in Dan against the Philistines. The imminence of E 1 Sam. iii. (1165) is revealed to Samuel at Shiloh. All Israel recognises the renera **" iv.

through Samuel. The Philistines capture the Ark at Ebenezer and say Hin

Phinehas. Death of Eli. The destructiou of Shiloh (Jer. vii. 12-14; Ps 11:16 1110. Judges xv. Samson, a refugee in Judah, massacres the Philistines in Lehi. Judge-based! 20 years. The Philistines,

after 7 months of plagues, send back the Ark to Bhe 1 Sam.v. 1-vii.i. it is placerl in Abinadab's house in Kirjath-jearim (= city of roods, cp. Pe

Judges see 2 Sam. vi. 4). 1137-30. xii. 7-10, 11, 12 Death of Jephthah. Judgeship of Ibzan, 7 years, and of E?on, 10 years-both of Zest 1120.

xii. 13-15; xvi. Judgeship of Abdon of Ephraim 8 years. Betrayal and death of Snea
1 Sam. vii. 2–14. repentance the prophet Samuel conducts a national reformation at Mizpeh, dr.

the Philistine invasion at Ebenezer, frees Dan. The Philistine subjection ends 15--17. ship of Samuel; his yearly circuits to Bethel, Gilgal, and Mizpeh; his bune, just

and sanctuary at Rainah.
The Monarchy.Saul and David. - The Promise to David (to be falilled tria",

See Isa. lv. 3-6, cp. Ps. xviii. 43–45; Jer. xxiii. 5, 6, cp. xxxiii. 14-is, Isa 33

Luke i. 33: Acts ii. 20--30). 1112. viii. 1-3. Corrupt administration by Samuel's song, his deputies in Beer-sbeha, in bis a 1095.

Relapse of Israel and its renewed oppression by the Philistines. The per la king to administer

justice and lead them in war, especially against the MRS 7--22. a threatened invasion by Ammon. Samuel's protests are finally crerrulei; bi ix., X. Benjamite, is indicated by God, and being apointed privateix

by Samuel is chose and records the new constitution. Saul relieves Jabesh-gilead, surprising tae Jezus


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