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THE BIBLE AND THE MONUMENTS;
HEBREWS IN THEIR RELATIONS WITH THE ORIENTAL MONARCHIES.
BY THE REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A,
Queen's College, Oxford
X.B.-The dates below are those necessitated by the Assyrian Canon. See also the "Chronological Susmary". 1. THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF PALESTINE cessive dynasties of kings and not by years of these must be carefully borne in mind, since it was this dynasties, Manetbo, the Egyptian Pastorian wo which brought the Israelites into contact with their fourished in the third century B.C., number that heathen neighbours, and in spite of the commands of dynasties from Menes to the second Persisa codes the Law and the protests of the Prophets, made them (B.C.
340), occupying 5528 years. But Egyptian secasts fall so readily under the influence of foreign customs are not yet agreed as to whether or not some of these and beliefs. Palestine stands midway between the dynasties are to be regarded as contemporades. two great powers of the ancient world, the empires of Egyptian history is usually divided into tbe three ! ASSYRIA and BABYLONIA on the east, and the periods of the Old Empire, the Middle Empire, adibs empire of EGYPT on the south-west. Whenever New Empire. (1) Under the Old Empire. 14. årsties these powers came into collision with each other, i.-ri., MEMPHIS (Hos. ix. 6, elsewhere Nops, was the Palestine was the chosen battle-field, while ARAM capital. To this period belong the pyramids, ad ! was the inevitable scene of the wars and conquests higher perfection of art than was ever subsequently through which the two great empires of the East attained. After the fall of the Old Eropire came : oscillated towards
each other, The northern period of confusion, and probably foreigd innan, part of Palestine itself was occupied by the and then (2) under the xi and xii. dyrastes Eg PHENICIANS, of the same race and language as the revived in the Middle Empire, with its caras Israelites, and therefore all the more likely to influence No, i.e. Thebes in the south. Anoiber periode ದೆ ! them for good or for evil. The Phænicians were
weakness followed, and after & time Egypt was isthe most important relics left of the old Canaanite in. vaded by swarms of wandering strangers from Asia, habitants of the country, and they were pre-eminently known as the Hyksos or shepherds, who estabssted a commercial people, with their cities, Tyre, Sidon, themselves in northern Egypt at Zoas,
or Tapis, sed Gebal or Byblos, &c., on the sea-coast, and their mer Avaris, while the native princes still continued to razie chantmen trading to the furthest limits of the known in the south. It would seem that the visits of Ages world. Eastward of the Israelites came the kindred HAM, JOSEPH, and Jacob to Egypt must be placed tribes of Moab, Ammon and Edom, as well as the during the occupation of the country by the Hşkes Midianites, the Ishmaelites, the Kedarites, and other kings. The latter would have been of the kn wandering and lawless Bedouins who occupied the Semitic race as themselves, and therefore predisposed desert of northern and central Arabia. Next to the to give them a favourable reception. But ai las "there' Phænicians, however, the Egyptians with their arose up a ner king oder Egypt, sabied ise * venerable civ ation exercised most influence Joseph". The Hyksos were driven out, and a native over the Israelites. This was owing partly to their prince ruled from one end of Egypt to the other, close proximity, partly to the fact that Palestine had The New Empire was constituted by the tha and once formed a portion of the Egyptian empire and xix, dynasties, who restored Egypt to its early pore been garrisoned by Egyptian soldiers, partly to the and splendour, conquered Palestine, od overs superior culture of the ancient monarchy of the Nile. Mesopotamia. The Israelites were associated with It was only in the later period of Hebrew history that the Hyksos, whom the Egyptians naturally regarded! first Assyria and afterwards Babylonia and Persia took with the most bitter hatred, and that series of os gres 1 the place of Egypt. The Assyrians extended their sions was accordingly begun which ended with the conquests to the shores of the Mediterranean, and car. EXODUS. Probably this took place in the time of ried the Ten Tribes into captivity (B.C. 721); the Baby. the xix. dynasty, two of whose kings bore the date of lonians overthrew the Jewish kingdom and led the Jews Rameses, like one of the treasure cities built by the I into exile, and the Persians not only included Palestine raelites (RAAMSES, Ex. i. 11). A short time before the in their dominions, but conquered Egypt as well. PHILISTINES, Phoenician tribes settled in Capatos
or the Delta,' had been established as a soric II. THE HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL RELATIONS OF Egyptian outpost in the five cities of souther Pan EGYPT, ASSYRIA, BABYLONIA, Persia, ARAM, AND lestine; but Palestine itself had become independei THE PHENICIANS, WITH THE ISRAELITES.
of Egypt. The conquest of the Canaanites by se (a) EGYPT, the Biblical MIZRAIM, Mizraim being Israelites under JOSHUA was probably facilitated by a dual form, meaning "the two Mazors" or "fortificar the losses they had suffered in their struggles with Esp tions". These represented Lower and Upper Egypt, After the close of the six dynasty, Egypt once i the latter being properly called PATHROS (Isa. xi. 11; fell into decay, and the high-priests of Amun at Thebes Egyptian, Pe-to-res,“ land of the south"). Lower usurped the regal power.-The Egyptian pross Egypt was Mazor, as in Isa. xix. 6, xxxvii. 25, where married by Solomon was apparently the dangbter of it is mistranslated "defence" and "besieged places", & subordinate king who reigned at Tanis toranis the and was so called from the line of fortification which end of this period. But SHISHAK or Shesbons L, defended the country from the attack of its Asiatic founder of the xxii. dynasty, restored Egypt's pora. neighbours on the east. Egypt is the oldest kingdom Early in his reign he received JEBOBOAX, Solonca's of which we know, though scholars have not yet 'adversary'(1 K. xi. 40), and later conquered RIBONAX settled the date to be assigned to Menes the founder and captured Jerusalem(1 K. xiv. 25, 26). An scoonid of it. Mariette Bey makes it B.C. 5004; Brugsch Bey, his conquests, with a list of the towns he had taken in B.C. 4400; Lepsius, B.C. 3-92; Bunsen, B.C. 3648; Pessl, both Judah and Israel,is inscribed on the outside of the B.C. 1917; Poole and Renwick, B.C. 2700. These various S. wall of a temple at Karnak. Perhaps his successor, views show how uncertain is the whole subject of Osorkon L., is the Biblical ZERAE: Ctr. xiv. 9. Toer. Egyptian chronology, and oblige us to reckon by suc- dynasty was a foreign one, consisting of ETHIOPIANS
THE BIBLE AND THE MONUMENTS.
wbo had conquered Egypt. One of these, Sabaco or decessors to be translated and edited. The kingdom So, made an alliance with Hoshea king of Israel ; and of ASSYRIA, so called from its capital AssUR (now another, TIRHAKAH, came ineffectually to the help of Kalah-Sherghat), was founded in the 17th century B.C., HEZEKIAH. In fact, it was under these Ethiopian rulers and soon became powerful enough to contend successthat Egypt first came into collision with ASSYRIA. fully against BABYLONIA, where BABYLON had now The Jewish kings turned to Egypt for alliance become the capital in the place of Ur. In 876 B.C., an and aid against the common foe, but, as the prophets Assyrian king named Assur-natsir-pal laid PHENICIA declared, Egypt was a “broken reed". Sabaco’s sue under tribute, and his son and successor, Shalmane. ceskor, Sabatok, was defeated at Raphia by SARGON in ser II, defeated BENHADAD of Damascus, and ARAB 720 B.C., Tirhakah was defeated at Eltakeh by SENNA. of Israel, with their allies, in a battle at Aroer. BenCHERIB in 701, and Egypt was finally conquered and hadad and his successor, HAZAEL, were weakened in a turned into an Assyrian province by EsaR-HADDON. series of campaigns, which accordingly allowed the It successfully revolted, however, under Psammeti. Israelites to gain advantages over the Syrians (1 Kin. chus I. of Sais, B.C. 660, and the wars of his suc. xx.). In 842 B.C. Shalmaneser states that he received cessors, Necho and HOPHRA, or Apries, against tribute from “JEHU, son of Omri”, and the Jewish BABYLONIA caused them to come into conflict with tribute-bearers are represented on a black marble Judæa, now & tributary state of the Babylonian obelisk, now in the British Museum.
In 745 B.C., empire. Josiah was slain at Megiddo by Necho, when TiGLATH-PILESER II., an usurper, ascended the throne, the latter was on his march against Nebuchadnezzar the old line of Assyrian kings having ended with Assur (2 Kings xxiii. 29), and the Egyptian monarch nirari. In 742 B.C. we find Tiglath-pileser overthrowing subsequently deposed JEHOAHAZ, making JEHOIAKIM HAMATH, then allied with AZARIAH (Uzziah) king king in his stead, and laid the land under a tribute of of Judah, and in 738 receiving tribute from MENAHEM 100 talents of silver and one talent of gold. HOPHRA of Israel, and Rezin of Syria. Considerable difficulty sent an army to the assistance of ZEDEKIAH when is occasioned by the mention of "Pul, the king of As. attacked by NEBUCHADXEZZAR (Jer. xxxvii. 5, 7, 11), and syria” in 2 Kings xv. 19, as no such king is known to it was into Egypt that the Jews fled, carrying Jere- the Assyrian monuments, and the tribute said to have miah with them, after the murder of Gedaliah. been given to Pul is claimed by Tiglath-pileser to Hophra was deposed and put to death by his subjects, have been given to himself. Different explanations of and his successor, Amasis, had a long and prosperous the difficulty have been suggested; but perhaps it is reign. Hardly was he dead, however, before Egypt best to regard Pul as a corrupt reading for Tiglath
invaded by Cambyses, king of Persia, and pil-eser. In 784 B.C. Tiglath-pileser states that he inredaced to the condition of a Persian province, vaded the PHILISTINES, and about the same time B.C. 525,
received tribute from Ahaz, of Judah; conformably The title of PHARAOH, given to the Egyptian to what we read in 2 Kings xvi. 8. As he calls the sovereigns in the Bible, is the Egyptian per-da, or king of Judah Jehoahaz, it would seem that the “Great House"; a title which may be compared with
Biblical writer has dropped the sacred name which that of the “ Sublime Porte" or Gate.
properly formed the first part of the name of Ahaz
on account of the latter's wickedness. In return for (6) ASSYRIA and BABYLONIA. The two great the submission of Abaz, Tiglath-pileser attacked Iskingdoms of the Tigris and Euphrates come before us rael, and laid siege to Damascus, which he captured, early in the Old Testament. NIMROD, we are told B.C. 732. Rezin, its king, was put to death, and Syria (Gen. 1. 10), made BABEL or Babylon, Erech (now became a province of the Assyrian empire. Three Warka), Accad, and Calneh, the beginning of his king- years afterwards Israel was overrun (2 Kings xv. 29), dom, and out of SHixar or Sumir, that is, north. HOBHEA was appointed king of Samaria in the place of western Chaldea, Asshur went forth and built the murdered PEKAH, and a tribute of 10 talents of NINEVEI, Ir-Rehoboth ("the city of streets"), Car gold and 1000 talents of silver was exacted. B.C. 727 lah (now Nimrud), and Resen, called Ris-eni, "the Tiglath-pileser was succeeded by SHALMANESER (IV.), head of the fountain", in the inscriptions. At who undertook the siege of Samaria in consequence of Babel, “ the Gate of God", which the Greeks Hochea's revolt. Before Samaria was taken, however, changed into Babylon, the confusion of tongues took Shalmaneser died, and the throne was seized by place; and in Ur of the CHALDEES, now Mugheir, on Sargon (B.C. 721), who took the Israelitish capital, the western bank of the Euphrates, the capital of the carrying 27,280 of the inhabitants into captivity. The earliest Chaldean kings of whom we know, ABRAHAM rest were allowed to remain under the government of was born. The first inhabitants of the country, who vassal kings appointed by the Assyrians. One of these built the great cities there and invented a system of kings, Menahem II., is mentioned by Sennacherib in writing, apoke an agglutinative language like that of 701 B.C.; another, Abi-baal, by Esar-haddon. About the Finns or Turks, which is usually termned Accadian; 665 B.C., the kings were replaced by a governor, which but the Semites had already settled among them, the explains Isa. vii. 8. The change of government was chief seat of the latter at the time being in Shinar or probably in consequence of another revolt, which was Sumir rather than in Accad, the south-eastern division suppressed by ESAR-HADDON, who carried away the reof the country. From time to time Babylonia was maining Israelites, and supplied their places with overrun by the mountaineers of ELAM, whence the foreigners (see Ezra iv. 2). Perhaps the ASNAPPER of Accadians had themselves originally come, and Ezra iv. 10 is Assur-bani-pal, or Sardanapalus, the son Elamite dynasties ruled in Chaldea. One of these Elam- and successor of Esal-Haddon. However this may be, ite princes was CHEDOB-LAOMER or Cudur-Lagamar, Sargon (B.C. 721-704) laid all Palestine under tribute, " the servant of the god Lagamar”, who commanded and in 711 checked the formation of an alliance bethe three vassal sovereigns, Tidalor Turgal of Gutium tween MERODACH-BALADAN, k. of Babylon, on the one (a wide tract of country, in part of which the kingdom side, and HEZEKIAN with the Philistines, Edomites, of Assyria afterwards arose), ARIOCH or Eri-Acu, king Ammonites, Moabites, and Egyptians, on the other, of Ellasar, possibly the Babylonian town Larsa (now by invading Palestine, taking Jerusalem as it would Senkereh), and AMBAPHEL, king of Sumir, in their appear (see Isa. X. and xxii.), and utterly destroying campaign against the West (Gen. xiv.). At this period Ashdod, the centre of the confederacy (Isa. xx. 1.), beBabylonia was still governed by Accadian monarchs, fore the Babylonians were ready to move. Merodachas is shown by the proper names Turgal, Eri-Acu Baladan, who is called the son of Yagina or Yugæus, ("the servant of the Moon-god"), and Amraphel. was originally the chief of a tribe named Caldai or Subsequently the Semites obtained the upper hand; CHALDEANS,on the Persian Gulf. He had made himthe Accadian language became extinct, and even the self master of Babylon, where he ruled from B.C. 721 names of many of the cities were changed. Thus the to 709, when he was driven out by Sargon. His city which was called Ca-dimirra, “Gate of God”, was embassy to Hezekiah (2 Kings xx. 12—19) was sent with translated into its Semitic equivalent, Bab-el. One of the purpose of forming the confederacy against the the Semitic kings, Sargon 1., was a great patron of common enemy. In B.C. 704, Sargon was murdered, literature, and caused the books of his Accadian pre- and SEXXACHERIB his son mounted the throne on the
THE BIBLE AND THE MONUMENTS. 12th day of Ab, or July. Three years after (B.C. 701) (c) PERSIA. Cyrus founded the Persian empire by occurred his well-known campaign against Hezekiah, conquering those of Media, Lydia, and Babylonis. which ended with the destruction of his army and and thus making himself master of all Westeri Asia the overthrow of his schemes of conquest in the The Persians belonged to the same Aryan race as the West. After defeating Hezekiah's ally, 'TIRHAKAH of modern Persians and most of the European Eations Egypt, at Eltakeh, and severely punishing the leading and they inhabited the mountainous regions on the men of Ekron, who had revolted against Assyria and south-east of ELAM. The Aryan Medes, wbro bad isdelivered their king Padi, who was faithful to Senna vaded and overcome the old Turanian inhabitants of cherib, into Hezekiah's hands, the Assyrian monarch
Media in the sth century B.C., were a branch of the overran Judah and shut up Hezekiah in Jerusalem
same race ; indeed, the Persians being originals but a "like a bird in a cage". Sennacherib claims to have
Miedian tribe, the frequent association of 'MEDES and received at the same time a tribute of 30 talents of PERSIANS’ is not surprising (e.g. in Ira. M. Vedig gold and 300 talents of silver (comp. 2 Kin. xviii. 14), includes Persians). Mored by God, in fulplinent ! besides Hezekiah's daughters, wives, and eunuchs, Jeremiah's prophecies (Esra i. i), and perhaps also in and an immense quantity of precious stones and other
return for the assistance the Jewish enles seem to have which, in a bas-relief, is now in the British Museum) rus allowed them to return home and rebuild the tes
a in the rain hope of inducing Sennacherib to spare ple. A large number of the priests took advartare Jerusalem (2 Kin. xviii. 14). But Sennacherib, after
the permission, though comparatively few of the rest sending into captivity 200,150 Jews with their cattle the people. Under Sherkbazzar or Zeruttatel, Ears and camels, and capturing 46 fortified cities and and Nehemiah, the temple was restored, the walls numberless villages, despatched the three officials, raised, and the injunctions of the law carried out. the Tartan or "commander-in-chief ", the Rab-shakeh Owing to the opposition of the SAMARITANS, or * prime minister", and the Rab-saris or “lord however, the building of the temple was stopped for 16 chamberlain", to besiege Jerusalem. It has been years, that is to say, during the last seven years of the conjectured that the Rab-shakeh was a renegade Jew, reign of Cyrus and the reigns of Cambrses and the since he spoke Hebrew instead of the Aramaic or Magian usurper Gomates, who professed to be Beries Syrian (not Assyrian) language, which was now the the brother of Cambyzes. But in the second year language of trade and diplomacy, like French in Darius Hystaspis, B.C. 520 (or more probably Be 519, modern times (2 Kin. xviii. 96). After the destruction after the capture of Babylon and the destb of the of his army Sennacherib returned home, and the next rebel king Nidintabel, who called himself Xebecnd. year carried his arms into Babylonia, which had revolted nezzar, son of Nabonidus, in the June of the rear, with the help of the ELAMITES. Twenty years later the original decree of Cybts was found at Echerasa (681 B.C.) his two elder sons, Adar-malik (adrammelech) in Media, and a fresh and favourable decree issued by and Nergal-Sharezer, jealous of the favour shown to Darius. Ezra the priest was despatched by ABTAIRIE their younger brother Esar-haddon, murdered him (2 K. Longimanus, the grandson of Darius, in B.C. 558,0 xix, 36, 37). After the murder they fled to Armenia, & organise and reassure the Jews at Jerusalem bo gainst which Esar-baddon was at the time conducting a had fallen into a state of great weakness and con campaign, and along with the Armenians were defeat fusion, and shortly afterwards NEREXIAB, the cap ed by their brother in a battle in eastern Cappadocia. bearer of the same king, was appointed Tirskatis & ESAR-HADDON conquered Egypt, which he divided into governor of Judæa. To Nehemiah ras due the 20 satrapies, and is probably meant by the “ cruel restoration of the walls and the settlement of interca! lord" of Isa. xix. 4. Among his tributaries he names affairs, which enabled the Jews once more to maine MAXASSEH, the idolatrous king of Judah, who was themselves against their heathen neighbours, sed to afterwards carried captive to Babylon and temporarily establish a compact state. Xerxes, the father of Arts confined there (9 Chron. xxxiii. 11). Babylon, which xerxes, seems to have been the AĦASTERCs of the book had been destroyed by Sennacherib, was rebuilt by of Esther. The monotheism of the Persians, and Esar-haddon, who held his court there during half the their batred of idolatry, naturally produced, cerata year; this accounts for the fact that "the king of sympathy between them and the Jews, who repaid the Assyria" brought Manasseh to Babylon, and not to favours they had received at the hands of the Persian Nineveh. In B.C. 670 Esar-haddon associated his son monarchs by acting as a military check upos Egt. Assur-bani-pal with him on the throne (on the 19th This monotheism probably led to Cyrus' opposition to day of Iyyar, or March), and two years afterwards, on idolatry and rocation as the “ Anointed ", Iva. I. I. Esar-haddon's death, Assur-bani-pal became sole king. When Alexander of Macedon overthrew the Persisa The attempted revolt of Egypt under Tirhakah (who empire, and Persian monotheism replaced by Greek had taken refuge in Ethiopia) caused a terrible polytheism, the feelings of the Jews towards their vengeance to be taken on Nia or Thebes, the Biblical imperial masters gradually changed, and finally results NO-AMMOx or “No of the god Amun" (not “popu ed in the wars and victories of the MACCABEES. lons No," as A. V.). It was facked, its monuments destroyed, and its people carried into captivity. This (d) PHENICIA. Though Phonicis had been indestruction of Thebes establishes the date of the pro cluded in the Promised Land, its inhabitants success. phecy of Nauru, who refers to it as a recent event fully resisted the attempts of the tribe of ASHER 50 (Nah. iii. 8). After the death of Assur-bani-pal the expel them (Judg. i. 31), and LASH seems alone of the empire began to break up, and at length Nineveh was ZIDONIAN towns to have fallen into the hands of the besieged and destroyed by Cyaxares, king of Media, Israelites (Judg. xviii. 27). Subsequently, the intere and Kabopolassar, the rebel viceroy of Babylonia. course between the Phænicians and the Israelites NEBECHADNEZZAR'B.C. 601-561), the son of Nabopolas-was of a peaceful character. HIRAX, son of Abihal, sar, fonnded the Babylonian empire, and adorned his king of TYRE, courted an alliance with the potertul capital, Babylon, with great buildings, such as fortifi. David, and continued the friend of his son Solomon. cations, palaces, temples, and hanging gardens, which The Phænicians were at the time the chief traders of are mentioned in his inscriptions. JEHOIACHIX and the the world, and famous for their artistic skill; Hiram, Jewish nobles were carried into captivity in Babylon accordingly, sent cedar wood, precious metals, sod by him in 596 B.C., and in 585 came the destruction of workmen for the temple and other buildings erected Jerusalem and the temple, the overthrow of the Jew. by Solomon in Jerusalem. Among the various works ish monarchy, and the beginning of the Exile. The in brass executed by the workmen were palm trees last king of Babylon was Nabu-nahid, or Nabonidus lilies, lions, oxen, and cherubiin (1 Kin. ii. 13-45 (B.C. 555-539), who refers in his inscriptions to his the favourite subjects of such Phænician rors of "eldest son Bel-sarra-yutsur ", the BELSHAZZAE of art as have come down to us. Hiram also lent Solo Daniel. In 538 B.C. Babylon was taken by the Persian mon sailory for his trading expeditions to India, and king CYRUS, Belshazzar was elain, and his father received in return corn and oil (comp. Acta xii. 9 Nabonidus surrendered to the conqueror, who made
of little value, and the use of the porto him governor of Carmania.
Eziox-GEBER in the Red Sea (1 Kin. ix. 11-14, 26-;
THE BIBLE AND THE MONUMENTS.
After the division of the kingdom, Judah was of Phænicia were the highlands of Syria, the cities of cut off from any contact with Phænicia, though Tyre the Hittites, and the plateau of Mesopotamia. In occupies a prominent place in the writings of the the Old Testament this tract of country is known as Jewish prophets in consequence of the evil influence ARAM. Mesopotamia, enclosed between the Tigris its wealth and idolatry exercised upon their country. and Euphrates, is called ARAM-NAHARAIM, " Aram of men. With the northern kingdom, on the other hand, the two rivers ” (Gen. xxiv. 10; Deut. xxiii, 4; Judg. Phoenicia continued in friendly relations; a result of iii. 8), though only the northern portion of it is which was the marriage of Ahab with JEZEBEL, the designated Naharaina and Nahri or Nairi on the daughter of EthBaal, or Ithobal, king of Sidon (or, Egyptian and Assyrian monuments. Elsewhere it is according to Menander, the Phænician historian, of termed PADAN-ARAM (Gen. xxv. 20; xxviii. 2), identical Tyre), and the introduction of Baal-worship among with the country of Padan mentioned in an early the Israelites. The reforms of Josias naturally ex Babylonian inscription, as well as simply Aram "the cited the religious fanaticism and hatred of the highlands" (rendered "SYRIA" in the A.V.; see Gen. Phoenicians who bordered on the kingdom of Judah xxv. 20; xxxi. 20, 24; Deut. xxvi. 5; Judg. iii, 10). after the overthrow of that of Israel, and we find the Naharaina was the leading antagonist of Egypt in Tyrians, therefore, rejoicing over the fall of Jerusa Asia in the time of Thothmes I. (xviii. dynasty); one lemn (Ezek. xxvi. 2). But they were themselves be- of its kings, CUSHAN-RISH-ATHAIM, extended his consieged by Nebuchadnezzar for 13 years, though quests to Palestine shortly after the Israelitish conapparently without success. They had, however, quest (Judg. iii. 8-10); and the numerous principalialready suffered at the hands of the Assyrians. Under ties of Nahri were engaged in constant wars with the Luliya or Elulæus, Tyre had been besieged by Shal Assyrian monarchs. Strictly speaking, PETHOR, which maneser king of Assyria, and though apparently not lay on the western bank of the Euphrates, close to captured by Shalmaneser, the city lost its former supre
the R. Sajur, ought not to be included in this division macy over SIDON,ACCHo or Ptolemais' Acre),and CYPRUS of Aram (Deut. xxiii. 4). It was situated rather in (CHITTIM). In B.c.702, Elulæus was again attacked by ARAM-ZOBAH, conquered by David (2 Sum. x. 6,8; viii. Sennacherib and fled to Cyprus, and one of his succes. 3; 1 Chron. xviii., xix.). In the time of Saul, Zobah sors, Baal, gent tribute to Esar-haddon in B.C. 678. was ruled by several petty kings (1 Sam. xiv. 47), who Shortly afterwards, the latter revolted in concert with were subsequently reduced by HADADEZER, David's anTirhakah, and Tyre was besieged by the Assyrians. tagonist. Hadadezer seems also to have made Damas. It submitted to Assur-bani-pal after a long siege, cus tributary to him (2 Sam. viii. 5; 1 Kin. xi. 23, 24). Yabimelech, the eldest son of Baal, arranging the The territory of Zobah which extended into the desert conditions of peace. SIDON had fared even worse than towards Palmyra adjoined ARAM-REHOB and ARAMTyre. Elulæus had reduced it to subjection to Tyre,
MAACHAH (2 Sam, x. 6). Aram-Maachah, again, borfrom whose yoke it had previously revolted, and it dered on GESHUR "in Aram" (2 Sam. xv. 8; iii. 3), and was consequently besieged and taken by Sennacherib both formed part of the territory allotted to MANASSEN during his war with Tyre in 702 B.C., and Tubaal (Josh. xiii. 11, 13); however Rehob and part of Zobah appointed king. For a while Zidon became the lead. alone are included under the name of Arumu or ing city of Phænicia, until, in 679 B.C., it revolted Aram in the Assyrian inscriptions, which place them from Assyria, but was speedily captured and utterly on the west bank of the Euphrates, southward of destroyed by Esar-haddon. It must soon have risen Pethor and the R. Sajur. After the middle of the from its ruins, however, as it is mentioned in Jere. eighth century B.C., the Assyrian inscriptions speak miah (xxv. 22; xxvii. 3), and in Persian times it was of another tribe of Arameans, also called NABATHEANS, the most prosperous state in northern Palestine. which inhabited the marshes south of Babylonia. Tyre had probably been much weakened by the siege West of Zobah and north of Damascus (but separated of Nebnchadnezzar, and the internal dissensions from it by the chain of Antilibanus) lay HAMATH (now caused by the tyranny of the last king, Baal II., who Hamah), in the valley of the Upper Orontes, or N. was deposed in 562 B.C., and annual Suffetes or judges' part of the Mid-Lebanon valley. At the source
of appointed. Royalty was restored 6 years later. Tyre the Orontes lived a people called Patinai, cast of whom took its name from the word Tour, "& rock, the came the powerful kingdoms of the Hittites. The island on which it was situated being so named (see HITTITES are first mentioned in the Egyptian inle. xxiii. 2). Here was a great temple of Baal Mel- scriptions of Thothmes III., and in the time of the carth, the Sun-god, which the priests affirmed to have xix. dynasty they take the leading place previously been built B.C. 2750. The city is mentioned in the occupied by Naharaina. At this period they had two Travels of an Egyptian Mohar or officer who visited capitals, Kadesh, near Emesa, on Lake Kadez, or Palestine one or two centuries before its conquest by Homs, in the south, and CARCHEMISH, now Jerablús, the Israelites. Opposite insular Tyre was another south of Biredjik, on the Euphrates, in the north. city called Palætyrus, or Old Tyre, which sometimes Kadesh was stormed and taken more than once by appears as an independent state, but was more usually the Egyptians. In the age of the Assyrian king regarded as a suburb of Tyre proper. Sidon also was Tiglath-pileter I., B.c. 1130, the Hittites had receded a donble city, since Sennacherib mentions both Great towards their northern capital, Carchemish, which in SIDON (see Joen. xix. 28) and Lesser Sidon. Sidon, 1.e. the 9th century B.C. absorbed the smaller states and “The Fishing Town”, was the oldest city of Phænicia remained a rich and powerful rival of Assyria until (Gen. x. 15), the native name of Phoenicia being captured by Sargon B.C. 717. A treaty exists made CASAAN or the " owlands ". which was afterwards between the Egyptian king Rameses II. and a prince extended to denote the whole of Palestine. In the of the Hittites, the Hittite copy of which was on a Egyptian inscriptions Phænicia is called Keft, the plate of silver. Under Solomon horses were imported inhabitants being Kefa, and since Keft-ur or “Greater from Egypt for sale to “all the kings of the Hittites", Phoenicia" was the name given to the Delta of the "and of Syria” (Aram), 1 Kin. x. 29; see Judg. i. 26 Nile, from the Phænician colonies settled upon it, and 2 Kin. vii. 6, and among Solomon's wives were the Philistines who came from CAPHTOR or Keft-ur Hittites (1 Kin. xi. 1). In the Patriarchal Period a (Deut. ii. 23 : Amos ix. 7; Jer. xlvii. 4) must have been branch of the Hittite race seems to have settled in of Phoenician origin. Like
commercial nations the S. of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of HEBRON, generally, the Phænicians were great colonisers; It was this branch that is usually meant in the among their colonies may be mentioned CHITTIM or 0. T. when the Hittites are named. To it belonged Kition in Cyprus, from which the whole island takes EPHRON (Gen. xxiii.), Judith and Bas hemath, Esau's its name in the Old Testament (Gen. x. 4; Num. xxiv. wives (Gen. xxvi. 34; comp. xxxvi. 2, 3), Ahimelech, 24; Isa. xxiii. 1, 12; Jer. ii. 10; Ezek. xxvii. 6), and David's companion (1 Sam. xxvi. 6), and probably also Carthage on the northern coast of Africa, founded, it URIAH (2 Sam. xi.). Near Hebron was Debir, the city was said, by Elissa or Dido, the sister of Pygmalion of the 'Oracle', the early name of which was KIRJATHking of Tyre (B.C. 870).
SEPHER or book town' (Josh. xv. 15). The Hittites,
in fact, were a literary people; & scribe, Kirahvar or (e) ARAM and the HITTITES. To the north-east prince of Aleppo", is mentioned on the Egyptian
THE BIBLE AND THE MONUMENTS.
monuments, and they possessed a peculiar system of regarded as living and moving in the One omnipotent, hieroglyphic writing, as yet undeciphered': Inscrip- omniscient, and all-good God. Side by side with the tions in this writing have been found at Hamath, belief went, strangely, a worskip of animals. Bet the Aleppo, Carchemish, and Lycaonid, to which the educated classes looked upon the animais merely as Hittite dominion appears to have once extended. The symbols of the deities to whom they were dedicated, art of the Hittites was a modification of that of though the lower classes undoubtedly paid thes Assyria, and they worshipped a great variety of gods, Divine honours. Educated and uneducated site, to some of which temples may have been erected by however, all believed after a fashion in the restre Solomon. They had frequent wars with the Syrians rection of the body, the immortality of the songs of Hamath and of DAMASCUS, which after the fall of judgment to come, and a bearen and beil. I was in David's empire became the dominant Syrian state connection with the belief in the reurrection a ide (1 k'in, xi. 23-25; xv. 18; 2 Kin. vii. 6). In B.C. 834, body that embalming was practised. But Egyta however, a confederacy under BEX-HADAD of Damascus, superstitions never attracted the Hebrews, Tend which included Hamathites, Ammonites, and 2000 commandment was directed against the mains de chariots and 10,000 men from Ahab of Israel, was de- of idols and symbolical images in Egyptian terriss, feated at Aroer by Shalmaneser the Assyrian king. and esp. against the worship of animais. JERORANS The blows inflicted on Ben-hadad by the Assyrians calf-worship was not connected with the ETTS probably encouraged Ahab to attack Ramoth-Gilead worship of the bull Apis, but, as we shall see, we doe (1 Kin. xxii. 1-4). In B.C. 842, Shalmaneser defeated to Assyrian and Phænician influence. The cleariyHAZAEL, the murderer and snccessor of Ben-hadad expressed personality of God in the Old Testament, (see 2 Kin. viii. 15), who subsequently ravaged Israel. which is sometimes even described in azitrone Remix, the last king of Damascus, in alliance with morphic language, is in direct contrast to EOT Pekah of Israel, endeavoured to overthrow the dynasty pantheism. The references to a future state, and each of David in Jerusalem and replace Ahaz by a creature passages as seem to ignore it, indicate an attitude a of his own Isa. vii. 6). Ahaz, however, summoned mind quite different from that of the ancient EPTiglath-pileser II., king of Assyria, to his assistance; tians. The danger feared by the propheta, bea Damascus was besieged and taken and Rezin slain, they opposed any alliance COL Daercial B.c. 732. Both in peace and in war Damascus exercised course between Judah and Egypt, apparec:s from considerable influence upon the northern kingdom of ceeded not from Egyptian idolatry, but from the Israel, part of its important trade (Ezek. xxvii. 18) idolatry of the Semites settled in the Deita. Eren being diverted thither. Ahab acquired trading privi. the ecclesiastical system of the two peoples difered leges at Damascus, where he made "streets" or mer. essentially. The Egyptian priesthood was in large chants' quarters (1 kin. xx. 34), as Ben-hadad had measure secular, like that of Rome; the priests bead previously done in Samaria, and Amos (iii. 12) refers various civil functions, and though for the most pat
to the “damask couches" of Samaria (not“ in Da- the priesthood was hereditary, father, wife, and citi I mascus as A. V.). The same intimate relations that dren being all alike included in it, it was possible tor
existed between Israel and Damascus seem to have an Egyptian of any class or rank to raise tirse's into existed between Judah and HAMATH. In the time of it. Along with the priests there were also ecobs and Thothmes III., Hamath belonged to the Hittites; in nuns, who lived in cells attached to the temples. O the time of David its king, Toi, made an alliance with all this there is no trace in Israelitish his see the Hebrew monarch (2 Sam. viii. 10). Store-cities W. R. Cooper's Egypt and the Pentateuch. Bagate were built by Solomon in its territory (2 Chron. viii. 4), and Sons, 1875). and in B.C. 740 Azariah formed an alliance against Assyria with the king of Hamath, which howerer, was (6) Of ASSYRIA and BABYLONIA.-The refiriod
overthrown by Tiglath-pileser, and Hamath and its 19 the primitive Accadian population of Babska 38 | districts were conquered by the Assyrians, In B.C. 720,
Shamanistic, that is to say, every object and free Hamath revolted under a usurper, named Yahu-bihdi, nature had its "spirit", good or bad, which could be perhaps of Jewish origin, since his name is com compelled to confer a benefit or refrain from doing pounded with the sacred name of the God of harm by certain magic rites and incantations (Down Israel. He was, however, captured at Aroer and to the Shamans or sorcerers who took the place o fluyed alive, while Hamath was placed under an priests. Subsequently a hierarchy of deities mas Assyrian governor, and its inhabitants transported established, at the head of which were Ang " the sky", to Samaria (2 Kin. xvii. 24, 30). The only Ha. Ea “the deep", and Elum or BEL “tbe esrth" and mathite deity known to us is Ashima or Asimath nether world. The seat of these deities was placed on
(2 Kin. xvii. 30, but worship was also probably the summit of “the mountain of the worid” in the | paid to the two divinities of Damascus, Riumox north-east, the central pivot of tbe earth, on which the and Babia,
sky and its stars rested (see lra. xiv. 13, 14, where se
should translate "the mountain of the assembio III. THE INFLUENCE ON ISRAEL-OF THE RELIGIONS. ! the gods) in the extremities of the north". When
(a) Of EGYPT.-The foundation of Egyptian religious the Semites settled in Babylonia and amalgamssed belief was the rrorship of the Sun, which was adored un
with the Accadians, the worship of the Swed der various forms, as the rising sun, the midday sun,
assumed large proportions, and the various eparkets the setting sun, &c. When Egypt was organised nnder applied to the sun became as many solar deities and one government, the different local deities, such as heroes. At the same time the cultivation of astronoy Ptah of Memphis, or Amun of Thebes, were united in a
brought with it star-rrorship; and certain gods sere single system, and eventually all resolved into mani. identified with the planets. The numerous spirits festations of the Sun-god. The predominance of a
of the old Shamanistic creed were summed up among city was marked by the predominance of its deity: “the 300 spirits of heaven", and "the suo spirits of thug when Thebes (No, NO-AMON) was the capital, earth”. As the worship of nature lay at the bottom Amun stood at the head of the gods. The cult of of the religious belief of the Semites, and the pro Osiris was a particular development of solar worship. ; ductive powers of nature seem to impls a female as The Egyptian religion as professed by the priests and well as a male element, every god was now presided educated classes, became pantheistic. All that is was with a goddess, who was regarded as his wife or
double. In this way by the union offered on as . From the excavations about to be undertaken on the site of
Semitic beliefs there was formed an elaborate relocas Carchemish we may soon expect to obtain a large number of in.
system, which included an almost innumerable de sription, and a clue to the decipberment of the characters in ber of deities, each arranged according to raak sod which they are written, as well as monuments of the art and daily precedence. Into this system was furber fitted the
Meanwhile, the suntiness of the materials at present at our disposal forbids any attempt to trace Aramaic and
astro-theology, or worship of the stars, which te op Hittite religion, science, literature, or art. Hence, po mention
about B.C. 2000. After the extinction of the Accadisa Of Aram and the Hittites has been made under the beadings that power the whole of this religious system was adopted follow
by the Semitic Babylonians and Assyrians, along with
life or the Hittites.