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Queen's College, Oxford.

THB ethnological knowledge displayed in the Biblical Western Asia, with which the ethnology of the Bible books varies with their age. The geographical horizon is mainly concerned, may be regarded as a square, of the Jews became gradually widened, new tribes and bounded on the north by the Black Sea and the Cauraces appeared upon the scene, and information was col casus, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the east by lected from the merchants of Phænicia or literature the Caspian, the Persian Gulf, and the intervening mounof Egypt and Babylonia. The ethnology of the Bible, tainous country, and on the west by the Mediterranean therefore, naturally falls into four periods :-(1) the Patri- and Red Sea. Egypt is attached to the western side of archal; (2) the Davidic; (3) that of the Exile; and (1) the square by the isthmus of Suez, the promontory of that of the New Testament. Great light has been thrown Asia Minor lying opposite to it, with the Greek islands upon it by Egyptian and Assyrian research ; the first period of the Ægean Sea beyond. The square is further divided being chiefly illustrated by the monuments of Egypt, the by the two great rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, which rise next two periods by the monuments of Assyria. But near each other in the mountains of Armenia, and after we must first ascertain what indications may be found flowing in a parallel direction towards the south, fall into in the Bible itself of the origin and ethnological rela the Persian Gulf at the same spot. Armenia and Asia tions of the peoples with whom the Hebrews were Minor are high tablelands, intersected by lofty chains of brought into contact, and then consider how far these mountains, of which the Taurus, Masius, and Niphates have been confirmed or moditied by modern discovery.

ranges may be considered the chief, and sloping upwards In such a subject it is difficult to draw a hard and fast to the peaks of the Caucasus. The mountains of Arline between what is ethnological and what is geographi- menia extend to the south-east along the southern shore cal; our only means for determining the blood-relation of the Caspian, where they enclose Media Rhagiana, the ship of some particular people often consists in its geo: home of the Medes, and then, taking a bend, run southgraphical position and local names. Other means will be

wards to the Persian Gulf, and so form the highlands of language, history, tradition, and (where attainable) moral Elam and Persia on the east of Babylonin. The plain and physical characteristics.

of Babylonia enclosed between the Tigris and Euphrates We must remember, however, that language and race is low and fertile ; Mesopotamia, however, its northern are not convertible terms. A race may adopt a foreign continuation, is a limestone plateau of moderate elevalanguage even without intermarriage, and where inter- tion. On the west the spurs of the Taurus range, under marriages take place, such an occurrence is far from the names of Amanus, Bargylus, and Lebanon, and of uncommon. Of this, the modern Jews are a good instance Anti-Lebanon and Hermon, stretch southward along the in point. The fact that two nationalities speak the same shores of the Mediterranean, and constitute the mounlanguage only proves that they have been at some time tainous region of Syria proper and Phænicia. The Joror other in social contact, while diversity of language does dan rises on the S.W. slopes of Anti-Lebanon or Hermon, not necessarily imply diversity of race. At most, lin- and after flowing through the Sea of Galilee or Lake guistic agreement or diversity raises & presumption in Tiberias, falls into the Dead Sea. The angle enclosed favour of racial agreement or diversity.

between the mountains of Syria and Palestine on the Languages are classed (1) according to the way in which one side and the Euphrates on the other is flat and they express the relations of grammar, and (2) according barren, and was known to the ancients as Arabia Petræa. to their descent from a common parent-tongue. In This stony desert extends far into the heart of Arabia ; Europe and Western Asia we find examples both of in- indeed, it is only on the coastlands of the latter country Rectional and of agglutinative languages. An inflectional that mountains and rivers are to be found, and more espelanguage is one in which the grammatical relations of cially in the south, the Saba and Himyar of early writers, words in a sentence are denoted by terminations which the Arabia Felix of the Romans, the Yemen of modern have no independent existence apart from the words to geographers. The peninsula of Sinai at the head of the Red which they are attached, or else by the change of vowels Sea is also mountainous,but bare and barren, like the coast or consonants within the words themselves. French, or of the Red Sea on the African side. Here, however, the Gerinan, or Latin are familiar examples of infectional Nile flows at a little distance inland, fertilising the valley tongues. An agglutinative language is one in which the through which it passes. It was this valley, together with relations of grammar are expressed by affixing one word the delta at the mouth of the river, that constituted to another. In English, for instance, man's, men, book-8, Egypt, and saw the rise of the first postaliluvian civilizalove-d would be illustrations of inflection; there-in, there- tion. to, of agglutination. In Europe and Western Asia there are The 10th chapter of Genesis, especially if compared two leading inflectional families of speech, the ARYAN with Ezek. xxvii., offers a classified summary of the geoor Indo-European, to which Latin, Greek, Persian, San- graphical knowledge of the Old Testament. The chapter skrit, Keltic, Slavonic, German, English. & most modern bas often been called an “ ethnographical table"; but it European languages belong; and the SEMITIC, which has long since been shown that the names are arranged comprises Hebrew, Phoenician, Aramaic, Arabic, Assyrian, in a geographical and not in an ethnographical order. & Ethiopic; while there are at least two agglutinative They comprise the whole known world of the Jews, with families of speech, the TURANIAN or Finno-Tatar, its centre in Palestine and the Mediterranean, extend. coinprising Finnic, Hungarian, Tatar, Turkish, Mongol, ing from Media and Elam on the East to Greece and and other tongues ; and the Dravidian of Western Tarshish on the West, and from Gomer and the Caucasus India, of which Tamil is the chief dialect. There is also on the North to Arabia and Nubia in the South. The another inflectional family of speech known as Alarodian. three sons of Noah have each a definite zone assigned to once spoken throughout the Armenian highlands, of them :-SHEM, possibly the Assyrian Sa'mu, “brownwhich Georgian is now the chief representative. In the ish ", having the middle zone of Western Asia; while Caucasus we find the remains of several distinct families HAM. "the black one", has Egypt and Ethiopia; and of speech which have elsewhere disappeared. A family JAPHETH, perhaps "the fair one", has Asia Minor and of speech, it must be remembered, is a group of cognate Europe. How little ethnographical the chapter can be is languages which can all be traced back to a single parent indicated by the fact that the dark-skinned Egyptians tongue.

and Ethiopians, with short stature, receding chin, thick

THE ETHNOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. lips, and scanty beard, are associated with the Semitic clung to them in Palestine, where they lived in tents both Canaanites of olive complexion, lofty stature, aquiline in the north (Judg. iv. 11 and south (Jude i 16;18 nose, black eyes, and full beard; while the Turanian xv. 6). The south-west corner of Palestine was accepted Elamites are similarly associated with the Semitic As- by the PHILISTINES from Capbtor (Amos ir i; la syrians and Arameans. Equally little is it linguistic : xlvii. 4; Deut. ii. 23; the clause in Gen. 1. 14 se the Elamites, for instance, spoke an agglutinative lan- placed), with their five strongholds and prins Henrik guage, the Assyrians and Arameans an intlectional one. and others have made them Aryan, and connected the We cannot even attach any ethnological value to the name with that of the Pelasgi, appealing to the septuapaus genealogies contained in it, since when it is said that rendering, Allophuloi, and the resemblance of Capitate "Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn", all that is meant is Cyprus or Crete. The name Philistine (wbence Puestas, that Sidon was a city of Canaan, not that there was any however, probably means "emigrant", like that of the necessary connection in blood or language between the shas or Ethiopian Jews of the present day. Accordiana Sidonians and the inhabitants of the other parts of Herodotus (ii. 128), Philition was one of the same Canaan. The proper names, in short, are arranged Shepherds who fed his tlocks in Northern Eur : is solely according to their geographical order.

preferable to see in them, therefore, one of the Phenice

tribes settled in the Delta, called Kat-ir, "Granda I. THE PATRIARCHAL PERIOD.

Phænicia", by the Egyptians, and their mostan ist IL THE PERIOD OF THE DAVIDIO EMPIRE,


the reign of Ramses IIL (about B.C. 120. I . es

tury before, in the reign of Menephthak Land 1. THE PATRIARCHAL PERIOD. – In what may be the neighbouring cities were still garrisoned Is Lopes termed the patriarchal period, the dealings of the He- forces under the command of Semitic chlebs. Ele ed brews were confined to the tribes of Palestine and Syria, the country to the south of the Philistines 1 set to Egypt, Babylonia, and Arabia Petræa.

times known by the general name of TEMAN, #" the (a) The Peoples of Palestine, E. and W. of Jordan.- South". The name would be very old, Hats Palestine was occupied by tribes speaking dialects more right in making Temennu the Egyptian title of these or less closely allied to Hebrew and Phænician," the try when visited by a political refugee samed Sedan language of CANAAN” or “the lowlands”, and pro- the time of the 12th dynasty. bably belonging to the same Semitic race. There are in- (6) The Peoples of the Arabian Peninsula - Arabia dications, however, that the Semites had found an alien was probably the original home of the Seaitiers, race in possession of the country when they entered it, and the PHENICIANS accordingly believed themacie that the first settlements, such as Sidon, were in the low- have come from the Persian Gulf (Sirah i ...! lands or on the sea coast. The "GIANTS" mentioned 3, 4; 4, 27; Justin, xviii. 3.2; Pliny I. S. IT *; 54 from time to time seemn to have been relics of this alien i. 1; vii. 89; Schol. to Hom. Och iv. 81). They would race, whose exact character, however, we have no means taken the same line of march as that followed by Aber of determining: to them belonged the Rephaim or ham, like the many other allied tribes that arirala "giants" in the Hauran, the Zuzim or Zamzummim, time to time in Palestine, where some of them sted the Anakim or Emim, the Avim, and the Horites, or in the lowlands (Canaan), others intermarried with the "cave-dwellers" of Seir (Gen. xiv. 5, 6; Deut. ii. 10-12, aborigines, while others passed into Egypt, as eres 20-23). The four last populations were destroyed by the tually founded the dynasty of the Shepherds Semitic Ammonites, Moabites, Philistines, and Edomites in the south and east led a nomadic life, and cost The AMORITES, or“ Highlanders ", in the south-west of threatened their more civilized kinsmoen en the es Palestine, with their capitals Hebron and Hazezon-Tamar, of the Jordan. Among these Domadic tribes sabe were reckoned among the descendants of the Rephaim reckoned, at one time, the Israelites, with the Edonits or "giants", the two Rephaim kings of Bashan being Moabites and Ammonites, all of whom travel there also called Amorites (Deut. iil. 8). The term Amorite, scent from Terah. The Israelites, after a soroana i however, included all the hill tribes of the south and Egypt, were the last to establish themselves in Palestine east, without reference to race or language (see Num. and to extirpate, so far as they could, both the part ** xiii

. 29), and is as much a descriptive title as Canaanite, inhabitants of Canaan and the subsequent Perizzite ("native of the plain”), and Hivite ("villager"). settlers. The extirpation, however, Fas far from Hence we find HIVITES in the north (Josh. xi. 3; Judg. pleto ; and M. Clermont-Gannean has shown tbs tbt iii. 3 ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 7), as well as in Gibeon (Josh. ix. 7; present peasantry of Canaan are the descendsats ** xi. 19) and Shechem (Gen. xxxiv, 2), which are called ancient Canaanites, partly of Sernitic and parts of Amorite elsewhere (2 Sam. xxi. 2; Gen. xlviii. 22, mar- Semitic blood. As regards the old races of the most gin), while the Amorites of Hebron are more strictly it will be noticed that most of the names assigned defined as Anakim (Josh. xv. 14; Judg. i. 20). The Jebu- them (Amorite, Hivite, Horite, &c.) are Deres des sites of Jerusalem seem to have been Semites, though the tive, like the names of foreign populations in the for different modes of spelling the proper name Araunah or tian and early Babylonian inscriptions and beat Ornan, as well as the difficulty of finding a Semitic etymo throw no light on the origin and relationsdip egy for it, suggest the contrary. They are, moreorer, various tribes included under them. classed among the Amorites in Josh. x. 5, 6 (Heb. text); (c) The races of Syria,Syria, northward of Palace but this proves little, as the epithet “Amorite” includes was again disputed ground. Here, to the sea both Semitic and non-Semitic

tribes. The Girgashites on settled and founded kingdoms like those et Hasan the west of Phænicia, the Arkites and Sinites at the foot or Damascus, or Maachah. ARAM, with his kere of Lebanon, the Phænician Arvadites and Zemarites of dren, is a son of Shem in Gen. I å grandson of Soft

Aradus and Simyra, and the Hamathites on the Orontes, according to Gen. xxii. 21. Linguistic consideratione * were all Semitic. So, too, were the AMALEKITES, the that the Aramean Semites branched eff from the

Kenites, and the Kenizzites, or "hunters", to the south men in Babylonia before the Semitie migratices of Palestine and Mount Seir. A tribe of Amalekites also extreme West, and it is probable that the prender to established itself in central Palestine (Judg. v. 14: xii. Phoenicians proper in maritime trade and the sexe 15); but they were generally regarded as merely a branch alphabet. By the side of the Arameans stood the HIT of the Edomites (Gen. xxxvi. 12), like the Kenizzites TITES (Khatti, Kheta, of the Assyrian and Fores Amalekites (Num. xxiv. 20, 21; 1 Sam. xv. 6), but a por- Kings 2. 29), and with

their two centres at Carcbear tion of them followed the Israelites on their entrance into Canaan (Judg. I. 18 ; iv. 11). They seem to have been dez) between Hamath and Damascns. A little to the sea

(now Jerablás) on the Euphrates and Kadesh to lako of Midianite origin (Judg. iv.19), and their nomad habits of Carchemish was Pethor (now Sajur), at the desetin


of the Sajur and the Euphrates. A body of Hittites has | Alarodian nations, of whom the Georgians are the forced its way into the south of Palestine and the neigh- modern representatives. bourhood of Hebron (Gen, xxv. 9, &c.), but the main (e) Arabia. - Arabia was separated into three zones, part of the nation covered the country between Car (1) In the south were the JOKTANITES of Saba (Sheba) chemish and Luz or Bethel in the central hill country and Himyar, extending along the coast of Hadramaut of Canaan, i.e. Palestine W. of the Jordan (Judg. i. (Hazarmaveth) & Yemen (Gen. x. 26-30). The Joktanites 25). The Hittites are usually supposed to have been were Semites, but both in language and appearance they Semites; but their proper names as preserved in the differed a good deal from their northern kindred. At a late Egyptian and Assyrian inscriptions, as well as their date they passed into Abyssinia under the name of Ghe'ez, dress and physiognomy, point to an opposite conclusion, and there occupied Meroe and Axum. Hence the Biblical They seem, however, to have belonged to two distinct name of Cush, which properly applied to Abyssinia or races, one with no beard, the other with a large one, the Ethiopia, came to be extended also to the southern coast latter being perhaps of Aramaic descent. They wore a of Arabia (2) The middle zone was inhabited by the short-sleeved robe which reached to the ankles and was ISHMAELITES, to whom the Koreish of Mecca belonged. fastened round the waist with a girdle, and used oblong The Ishmaelites traced their descent from Abraham, but Baields of wicker-work. Their chariots were drawn by linguistically their language (the Arabic) belongs to the two horses, and contained three men apiece. The beard- southern division of Semitic, and must be classed with less race had thick lips, a straight nose with wide nos- Himyaritic, and not with Hebrew. Among the 12 Ishmaeltrils, and sunken eyes.

ite tribes the chief were the NABATHEANS (Nebaioth), (d) Chaldea, Elam, and Mesopotamia. — The whole whose camping-grounds were on the western banks of the country between the Caspian and the Persian Gulf was Euphrates, and the KEDARITES east of Moab. Edomoriginally occupied by tribes speaking agglutinative ites and Ishmaelites seem to have intermarried (Gen. dialects, and probably allied to the Finno-Tatar race. xxviii, 9), which is not surprising when we remember that In BABYLONA and Elam they had founded powerful the Edomite dominion extended to Elath on the Red Sea, monarchies and civilizations, and the cuneiform system and the Nabatheans themselves intermixed so largely of writing was their invention. Their religion was with their Aramaic neighbours as to give their name to Shamanistio *. They were short, but square-built, with the Syrians among Arabic writers. The western coast eyes slightly oblique, and round heads. It was to of Arabia (as well as Somauli) was called Punt by the Fgypthis race that Chedor-laomer (Cudur-lagamar) of Elam tians, the Phut of the Bible, and was regarded as a pecubelonged, as well as the three subordinate kings, Amra- liarly sacred country. (3) Arabia Petræa, the northern phel king of SHINAB or Sumir, Arioch king of Ellasar zone of Arabia, was inhabited by nomad tribes closely con(Larsa or Senkereh), and Tidal (Turgal) king of Goyim nected with the Ishmaelites, though they were derived (Gatium), A. V. “nations". Semitic nomad tribes from from another wife of Abraham, Keturah (Gen. xxv. 1–4). Arabia crossed the Euphrates into Chaldea at a very early Their leading tribe was MIDIAN, in the peninsula of date, and gradually obtained sufficient power to establish Sinai, a portion of whom seem to have been settled on a monarchy of their own in Sumir or N.W. Babylonia the coast of the Red Sea in a metalliferous region about B.C. 2000, leaving AOCAD or S. E. Babylonia in explored by Captain Burton (1876-7). The Midianites the hands of the alien race (cp. Gen. x. 8-10). But Ur shared the desert region to the south of Judah with (now Mugheir, on the west bank of the Euphrates), long the Amalekites; but there seems little ground for the the Accad capital, at last became Semitic, and by the Arab tradition which makes the Amalekites, like the 16th century B.C. Semitic had become the language of Adites and other prehistoric people, the primitive inBabylonia, and the Semitic element was preponderant habitants of south-western Arabia before the arrival of in the population of the country. From time to time, the Semites; indeed, they are actually brought from the however, non-Semitic tribes entered it from ELAM Persian Gulf, though it is disputed whether they are to be (Susiania) or the northern coastland of the Persian derived from Shem or from Ham. Gen. xxxvi. 12 merely Gulf, such as the Koss.cans (16th century B.C.), and the implies an intermixture of Edomites and Amalekites, Caldai (Chaldeans) under Merodach-Baladan (B.c. 721). and therefore does not contradict Gen. xiv. 7, which The Semitic population of Babylonia is termed Casdim places a colony of Amalekites in Palestine long before. in the 0. T.; ARPHAXAD(Arph Chesed, “ frontier of Baby- The tribes of Arabia Petræa are frequently called "the lonia") is a son of Shem according to Gen. x. 22, Chesed men " or "CHILDREN of the East" in the 0. T. (Job i. 3; a son of Nahor according to Gen. xxii. 22. Linguistically Gen. xxix. 1; 1 Kings iv. 30; Ezek. xxv. 4, 10), and they and otherwise the Semitic Babylonians are more closely are probably meant by the Kadmonites (Easterns” related to the Phoenicians and Hebrews than to any rather than ancients") of Gen. xv. 19. Like the Edomother branch of the

Semitic stock. Among them must be ites or the “Shepherds” of Egypt*, the Israelites intercounted the ASSYRIANS, who before the 16th century married with

the Arab Bedouins before their establishB.C. had established themselves on the Tigris in a corner

ment in Canaan (see Exod. xii, 38 ; xx. 10; Num. xi. 4). of the country called Gutium, which extended from the

Even Moses took a wife from Midian, and Caleb, the Euphrates to the mountains of Media. The Accadian hero of Judah, as well as Othniel, the first judge, were nese and language were more thoroughly extirpated in descended from the Kenizzites of Edom (Num. xxxii. Assyria than in Babylonia. In Mesopotamia also the

12; Judg. i. 13). A similar intermixture of Midianites Accadians had to yield before the advancing Semites, and Ishmaelites is indicated in Judg. viii. 24. In the though Harran had once been an Accadian town. Meso direction of Mesopotamia and the North the purely notaria itself is the Aram-Naharaim.or “Aram of the two Arab tribes yielded to tribes more or less Aramean. prens." (i.e. Tigris and Euphrates) of Scripture, also called Thus UZ of Huz (Assyrian Kha'su) is the firstborn of PADAN-ARAM (Padan and Alman are associated in Aram in Gen. 3. 23, and of Nahor in Gen. xxii. 21; and old Babylonian inscriptions). The northern part of it

. Buz, the Bazu of the Assyrians, to the south

of Kha'su, inned Nahri by the Assyrians, Naharina by the Egyp: which was conquered by Esar-haddon, was a brother of tans, was inhabited by a number of non-Semitic tribes. Uz Uz, it will be remembered, was the land of Job. sometimes supposed to be Turanian, but more probably on the western bank of the Euphrates, near Circesium Alarodian, and possibly akin to the Hittites. "North (Assyrian Sirki). were the Zimri (Jer. XX. 25), more ward were the mountains of Armenia or Ararat, with Aramean than 'Arab, mentioned frequently on the


syrian monuments. Shamanist (so called from the "Shamans" or gorcerer-priests

) The Peoples of Egypt, i.e. the Valley of the Nile.of Siberia) is a form of religion in which every ohject and phæno henon of nature is supposed to have a special spirit or god, who

is far more powerful than man, and is accessible only through the

• Also called Hyksos They conquered Northern Exypt, and ruled it for several centuries They are perhaps referred to in Gen. xliii. 32

Sorcerer or priest.

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THE ETHNOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. Egypt was considered to belong to Asia rather than to Palestine continued as they had been since the leadAfrican From its division into Upper and Lower came itish conquest; Tyre and Sidon remainei independenta the name MIZRAIM, “ the two Matsors", Matsor being and tribute was paid by the “ people that were left of the properly “the fortification " which defended the country Amorites. Hittites, Perizzites Hivites, and Jebusites" on the Asiatic side. Linguistically, and to a certain extent (1 Kings in 20, 21). physiologically, the Egyptians are allied to the Berbers, Moors, and other races of Northern Africa, but the re III. THE PERIOD OF THE BABYLOSISH CAPTIVITT. lation of the latter to the Semitic race is still a vezed -As it was towards the west that the geographical question. Many leading philologists regard the Egyp- knowledge of the Israelites became extended in the age tian and Libyan languages as distant cousins of the of David, so it was towards the north and east that it was Semitic idioms. The Delta was occupied from an early extended in the age of the exile. The Aryan peoples of period by Semitic tribes, who gradually spread south- Greece, Asia Minor, and Persia now came wihin his ward. The Egyptian was tall, spare, and broad-shouldered, geographical horizon. with long hands and feet, thick lips, copper skin, and little (a) The Medes.- The Aryan MEDES, as distinguished beard-a type still represented by the fellaheen of to-day. from the old Turanian inhabitants of the country (Magi Among the inhabitants of Egypt (Gen. x. 13, 14) are &e.), first became known to the Assyrians in G. BCA reckoned the LUDIM or Rudu, the Egyptians proper; when they were moving westward, but were sta ta' the Anamim, perhaps the prehistoric founders of On of the Par'suas or Parthians. Before BC 790, poserer, of the North (Heliopolis) and On of the South (Hermon- they had settled in Media Rhagiana (8. shores of the this); the Lehabim or Libyans settled in Egypt; the Caspian). One of these Aryan Medic tribes had taken a Naptuhim of No-Phthah, north of Memphis; the Path southward direction, and under the name of PERSIANS rusim of Peto-res (Pathros), "the southern land" of had occupied a district on the south-east of Elan in Sais, or Upper Egypt (Isa. xi. 11); the Casluhim, or coast. the 8th century B.C. Under Cyaxares a Median enpure men, and the Phænician Caphtorim of the Delta. South was formed which pushed its conquests far to the west, of Egypt came Ethiopia or CUSH with its semi-negroid and overthrew the Assyrian empire. Cyrus united the population, which, after being several times overrun by Medes and Persians, conquered Babylon and Asia Minor, the F.gyptian princes, was finally made an Egyptian pro- and made the Aryan race dominant throughout IFestend rince in the time of the eighteenth dynasty. SEBA or Meroe Asia. was its chief town; but in Gen. x. 7 there are further (b) The Persians first appear in Isa xi. 2; 4; counted among the descendants of Cush Havilah, perhaps comp. Jer. xlil 35. Susiania or ELAM, which bar Avaleites, opposite the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, SHEBA been almost depopulated by Sardanapalus (EC.C#), was or Saba in Arabia Felix (placed among the descendants thoroughly Aryadised, and Shushan (Susa) made the Paof Keturah, Gen. XIV. 3), and other Arabian districts. sian capital (Esther i. 2).

II. THE PERIOD OF THE DAVIDIC EMPIRE. – The (c) The Nations of the Caucasus, Asia Minor, ced empire of David extended from Egypt to the Euphrates. Greece. – Meanwhile, Assyrian conquest haci crouges It included all Aram or Syria properly so called (on the nations of the Caucasus within the geographical the west of the Euphrates); Aram-Naharaim or Meso- horizon of the civilized world. Already, abous ac potamia tending to become Naharaim simply. Syria 1120, Tiglath-Pileser had overrun the Tublai (Tabaren:) was called 'Subarti or Khubur, both meaning “High- and Muscai (Moschi), the TUBAL and MESHECHO lands", by the primitive Babylonians. The Egyptian the Bible, whose territories extended from the Black Sea name seems to have been Rutenu. ARAM, “the High- to the Taurus, as well as Kummush or Comagene, ani lands", was divided into a number of small principalities part of Khilak or Cilicia. The ethnic affinities of these

- Aram of Damascus (1 Sam. vii. 6,6), Aram of Maachah populations are doubtful; they may have belonged to and Geshur (1 Chron. xix. 6; 2 Sam. xv. 8), Arain of the Alarodian stock, or to some other family not eBeth-Rehob (2 Sam. x. 6), and Aram of Zobab (2 Sam. tinct. At all events, they were neither Sernitie por x 6,8). The latter bordered on the Euphrates, but the Aryan. The leading nation of Armenia were the Winni conquests of its king Hadadezer had extended its or Mandai of Van, who have left us undecipherad inboundaries as far S. as Damascus. Hamath formed a scriptions, and were probably Alarodian. The present separate kingdom, and the Hittites haul been pushed to Aryan population of Armenia did not enter the country wards the north-east and their capital Carchemish. before the 7th century B.C., when they followed in the

Tarshish, Ophir, and the isles of the Gentiler". -- track of the Medes. Before their arrival Armenia was Intercourse with TYRE had acquainted the Israel. divided into the two kingdoms of Minni and Ararat, ites with the white-skinned full-bearded Aryan race of the latter lying to the north-west (Jer. li 27), both a Europe and the dark-skinned Dravidian race of Western | which are often mentioned on the Assyrian monuments, India. TARSHISH, to which Solomon's ships traded, is Jeremiab associates the kingdom of ASHKENAZ, perdage probably the Spanish Tartessus, though it has also been the Aveinos, or Black Sea, with Ararat and Minni; in Gen identified with Carthage, the Tyrrhenians of S. Italy, x. 3, Ashkenaz is enumerated among the sons of GOMER. and eren with Tarsus. We hear of Jews sold to Javan, Now Gomer is the Gimirrai of the Assyrian inscriptions, or the Greeks (Joel iii. 6), and the Greek seas had long the Kimmerii of the Greeks, who represent the Satai or been traversed by Phoenician ships. Cyprus, called Scyths of the Persian texts, and were almost certainly CHITTIM from the city of Kitium, was a Phænician Aryans. They had been driven from their seats on the colony, like Rhodes, which is perhaps meant by the Tyras or Dniester by the nomad Seyths shortly before the Dodanim or Rodanim of Gen. 1. 4. Knobel, however, first unsuccessful siege of Nineveh bs (yarares, and identifies the latter with the Dardani of the Troad or while Psammetichus was king of Egypt (Hdt. i 103-105; plain of Troy. The first Greek tribes known to the iv. 11, 12). In 677 B.c. they were already in Khupesks Semitic nations were the Ionians or JAVAN, by which (north of Armenia) under a chief Teusps or Teispes, name the Greeks generally were known thmughout the when defeated by Esar-haddon and driven westward. East; and Cyprus itself was called Yarnan, the island After sacking Sinopê, they overran Lydia, and in * of "the Ionians" by the Assyrians. The names of the B.c. Gugu or Gyges, king of Lydia, the GOG of the 0. T. objects brought from OPHIR (1 Kings x. 11, 22) not only sent two of their chiefs as a present to Nineveh Gypes show that it was Abhfra at the mouth of the Indus, was afterwards slain in battle with them, but bis nature but that it was inhabited by a people speaking a Dra. became in the East a representative of the nations of Asia vidian language allied to the modern Tamil. Thuciuyim, Minor, just as in the West the name of Sardanapaltas "peacocks ", is not the Sanskrit 'sikhin, but the Tamil represented Assyria. MAGOG, over which Gogor Gyrus 18kei (see Vinson, Rroue de Linguistique, vi., p. 120, 1873). ruled (Ezek. xxxviii. 2), is probably Mat-Guju, "land of The relative positions of the tribes settled in and about Gyges," a synonyme of LUD (Luddi) or Lydia The


Lydians were Aryan, and their language, like the other Western Asia. It included also such non-Aryan popu. Aryan languages of Asia Minor, belonged to the Euro-lations as the Ligurians of Northern Italy and the pean and not to the Asiatic branch of the Aryan family. Basques of Spain, the latter of whom constitute a race Sardanapalus states that the very name of Lydia was sui generis, generally termed Iberian, On the East it | unknown at Nineveh before the embassy of Gyges in touched upon the empire of the PARTHIANS, apparently 6736 B.C. ; and we must therefore identify the LUD of Gen. a Turanian or Finno-Tatar people. Among the Aryan 1. 22, who is made a son of Shem, with the Rutenu or populations of Europe were included, besides Greeks and Syrians of the Egyptian monuments. Perhaps both Lot Italians, Kelts, Teutons, and Thraco-Illyrians; while in and Lotan (Gen. xxxvi. 20) are to be compared, while Asia the Aryan Armenians, who belonged rather to the Knobel refers to the Arab Laud, the ancestor of the Am& Asiatic than to the European section of the family, lekites and other prehistoric tribes. On the other hand, formed part of the empire. The JEWS were scattered Lud would be Lydia in Isa. Ixvi. 19, and perhaps Ezek. over the whole world, which was divided, from the reliuvii. 10; XXX. 5. The "ISLES" of the Greek Sea are re- gious point of view, into Jew and GENTILE, Socially the presented as the allies of the Lydian Croesus in Isa. xli. Greek division into Greek and barbarian was adopted, 5, 6; they are sometimes termed “the isles of the Gen- though the Romans were also necessarily classed with tiles" (as in Gen. x, 5), and in Ezek. xxvii. 7, "the isles the Greeks (see Acts xxviii. 2). St. Paul, however, lays of Elishah". Elishah is pretty certainly Hellas, the down that God "hath made of one blood all nations of Greek mainland, visited from an early period by Phæni- men for to dwell on all the face of the earth” (Acts xvii. cian merchants. According to Gen. x. 4, Elishah was 26; comp. Deut. xxxii. 8), refuses to admit the distinction a son of Javan, along with Tarshish, Kittim, and Doda- between Jew and Gentile (Rom. I. 12), and derives all nim. It is doubtful whether the three “sons" of Gomer, mankind from the same forefather Adam (1 Cor. xv. 22), Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah (Gen. x. 3), are to be though these statements must be taken rather in a reliregarded as Aryan or Alarodian, since the expression gious than an ethnographical sense. The ethnology of merely denotes their geographical position in regard to the Palestine itself had undergone considerable change. Kimmerii. At all events, TOGARMAH would probably Judea, indeed, was inhabited by pure-blooded Jews, be Alarodian if Dr. Fr. Delitzsch is right in identifying it though the Roman supremacy had introduced a small with the Tül-Garmi of the Assyrian inscriptions, which number of Italians, and the rule of Herod may have was situated in Melitene, i.e. the extreme east of Cap- brought with it Idumean settlers. The population of padocia. Neighbours of the Ashkenaz on the Black Sea SAMARIA, however, consisted mainly of foreign elewere the Sapardai (Sepharad in Ob. 20), who are described ments, imported from Hamath, Babylonia, and Elam by in a late Assyrian inscription as combining with the the Assyrian kings (2 Kings xvii. 24; Ezra iv. 9, 10), interMedes and Kimmerians in the invasion which ended in mingled with the survivors of the Israelites and Canaanthe destruction of Nineveh.

ites, and further enlarged by Greek and Latin colonists. (d) Egypt.-In Egypt the population had undergone "GALILEE of the Gentiles” in the north was thickly peoseveral changes. An Ethiopian dynasty had ruled over pled with Greeks, Phænicians, and Syrians, and the the country, the Semites of the Delta had intermingled Jewish portion of the community does not seem to have with the natives, and the land had been overrun and been very large. On the eastern side of the Jordan conquered by the Assyrians. The African Cush became Jewish or Israelitish blood was still more rare. The well known to the Jews, and the black skin of the great conquering civilizations of Babylonia, Persia, ETHIOPIAN was recognised as marking him off from Greece, and Rome, had, however, tended to destroy the fairer races of the North (Jer. xiii. 23).

local dialects and languages, and to spread three lan. (e) India and China.— Tiglath-Pileser II. (B. C. 745-guages-Aramaic, Greek, and Latin--throughout the 727) bad carried his arms across Sagartia (Zikruti) and known world. Here and there, no doubt, the old diaArachosia (Arakuttu) to the frontiers of India, which lects still struggled on, as in GALATIA or Lycaonia (see was thus opened up to the Semites of the West. In- Acts xiv. 11), and beyond the Roman dominion Persian deed, Von Bohlen has suggested that "the land of and other tongues were widely spoken. But the introHa-nod” (Gen. iv. 16) should really be Hind or India. duction of universal languages, together with the belief It is even possible that the Chinese are mentioned under of the Greek that every other tongue but his own was the name of SINIM in Isa. xlix. 12, since Thsin was the “barbarous", had brought linguistic differences into proname of the great feudal empire in the west of China, minence, and occasioned that confusion between philoestablished after the breaking up of the empire about logy and ethnology which is even now not extinct. Race 1100 B.C.

and language were made convertible terms, and to speak a IV. THE TIME OF CHRIST AND HIS APOSTLES. -- "barbarous" tongue was to be a "BARBARIAN". Hence The New Testament introduces us to the Roman dialectical differences were exaggerated, as in Acts ii. world, comprising the Aryan races of Europe and Asia 9.-11; and the Gospel was commanded to be preached Minor, the Berber tribes of Northern Africa, the mixed to "every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people" population of Egypt, and the Semites of Carthage and (Rev. xiv. 6; op. Dan, üi. 4, &c.).

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