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MONEY AND WEIGHTS OF THE BIBLE.
came to king Josiah, and said, “ Thy servants have gathered together (Heb melted) the money that was found in the house"; and the same plan was also followed by the Persian king Darius (B.C. 621-455), who melted the post and silver into earthen vessels, which when full were broken off, leaving the metal in a mass, from which peos were bruken off as necessity required.
The oldest coins extant are certain electrum staters of Lydia, probably about B.C. 720, which, issued on paras standards, continued in circulation till the time of Cræsus, who, on his accession in B.C. 568, reorganisei the Lydian coinnge, abolished electrum, and issued instead pieces of gold and silver. Before the introduction of coined money into Greece, there was a currency of obeliskoi,“ spitz" or "skewers", probably of iron are six of which made a handful (drachme), and which were of a considerable size. The first Greek sulver ca were struck at Egina in B.C. 670–660.
The earliest coins mentioned in the Bible are the coins called drams, B.C. 539 (DRAM). It is supposei by soe that Jewish silver shekels and half-shekels were introduced under Ezra, about B.C. 45$ (SHEKEL): but it is an probable that they were issued under Simon Maccabeus, B.C. 139 (1 Macc. IV. 6), and copper coins were strucs by the Asmonean and Herodian family.
The N. T. history falls within the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, but only dress (Luke ii. 1). Tiberius (Luke iii. 1), and Claudius (Acts xi. 28; xviii. 2), are mentioned; but Nero is alsdei tos the Acts from chapter xxv. to the end, and in Phil. iv. 22. Coins of all these Emperors would therefore be is circulation.
The following list embraces all the denominations of money mentioned in the Old and New Testamenta :-
proper was not in circulation till the reign of Daries.s05 BEKAH (Exod. wxviii, 26). Literally a half": "half of pure gold, though the actual name of Dirk
of Hystaspes (B.C. 39185), who issue a revo & shekel", about 18. 4d. Extant half-shekels weigh was not in vogue till the time of his success. Ies about 110 grains. (HALF A SHEKEL and SHEKEL.] (B.C. 455-465); and the drams mentioned under tberes
BRASS (Money)., (1) In the O. T. a passage in Ezekiel of his son, Artaxerxes Longimanus (Ezra visi (xvi. 36, Heb, nechosheth, LXX. Chalkos, Vulgate æs, A.V. vii. 72), are certainly the coins called Duria, vuck at filthiness) has been supposed to refer to brass money, but this period extensively circulated in Persa
It is with no probability, as this was the latest metal intro- bable
that the staters of Crasus, king of Luz, con duced into Greece for money. The Hebrew word pro- in circulation from after the capture of Saries in bi bably means something worthless, like "hase metal” to the time when Darius reformed the connage: anische (comp. Jer. vi. 28 : Ezek. xxi. 18). (2) Chalkos, pecunia the Lydian staters would be those aliudei duning the (Matt. 19). The brass coins current in Palestine in the reign of Cyrus. The ordinary Persian darie is a thick N.T. period consisted of Roman copper and
Greek im- gold piece, bearing the figure of a king kneelagbo perial coins, of the coins of Alexander Janners, of tho in left hand a bow and in right a spear or a dagar Herodian family, and of the Procurators of Judæa. See Ezek min. 3; Isa livi. 19 and has an arerace veios Farthing and Mite.
of 130 grains. The English sovereign weighs 12 .
which, after deducting th, leaves 11313 grains ce bze DARIC, See Dram.
gold; but the daric is thfiner than our golda dreck DENARIUS. See Penny.
ing it at 130 grains in weight, contains146 grains of pare DIDRACHM. See Shekel and Tribute-money.
DRACHM, Drachmē, drachma (2 Macc. iv. 19. 1. 20; xii. gold; therefore in value it equals es of soteris 43; Tobit v.14). It is of various weights, according to the - but rare-and perhaps half-varies, weighing es graiss
or about £1 23. Double darics, weighing about 113e of the different talents. The drachma here mentioned are of the Attic talent, which became almost universal drums at the time of David (1 Chron. 117). Es
are also in existence. With reference to tbe identicit weighed only 61'3 grains, and thus became very nearly his readers the value of the gold subscribei acd E67-2 grains. In later times (about B.C. 27), the drachm be remembered that the writer, who in all pro
was Ezra, wished to express in language intet equal to the Roman denarius [PExyy): the average fore translated the terms eruployed in his XIL weight of which was 60 grains. The carliest Attic drachm whatever they were, into terms that were in ne in his contained about th or the weight of alloy, and there
own day (Speaker's Comu, VoL IIL, D. 71). remain 68'1 grains of silver to be valued. Our shillings weigh 872 grains, and contain 807 grains of pure silver. FARTHING. This wont occurs four times in the IT.
of the N.T. Two names of coins are rendered by The earliest Attic dracbm is therefore worth of a (1) Assarion (Matt. 1. 29; Luke nii. 6). the Green shilling, or 982 pence, which is 91d.+ 7 of a farthing of the Roman as or assarius. From the fact that the The later Attic drachm, deducting also of the weight of Vulgate substitutes the word dipondius (==two Sky) for alloy, is worth ** ; of a shilling, or $93 pence, which is bable that a single coin is intended by this latter eins sid. + % of a farthing; and hence the value of the latest sion, an idea fully borne out by the copper coins
og druchm or denarius may be taken at about 8d. [PIECE duo, and assaria
tria. The assarion of tbe X T. dde! OF SILVER and PENNY.]
sought for among the Greek imperial coins and the sea DRAM. The translation in the A.V. of the Hebrew brass coins of Antioch in Syria seem to furtzabuni words Adarkon and Darkemon (Ezra ii. 69 ; viii. 27 : Seh. probable specimens. One of these coins, with the counter, vii. 70-72; 1 Chron. xxix. 7). Though there are several inark GAD (in Greek letters), proves that it was lat opinions concerning the origin of these words, it is agreed current in Gadara of Decapolis. These coins, from the that by them a gold coin or stater--the Persian doric-is time of Augustus, consist of two series—a)
with Gres intended. The origin
of the terın has been sought in the legends, and having the name of the town and tbe dite pame of Darius the Mede, but on po sure grounds, or of of the era of Antioch; and (b) with the name of it that of Darius, son of Hystaspes. In consequence of the emperor in Latin, and on the reverse the letters type of the coins being an archer" (hy which name- (Senatus consulto). After the reign of Vespasian ( AD 19; torotai- they were soinetimes called), some have thought the two sets become amalgamated, and iorm one sera that the Hebrew words were derived from darak. "to The second brass coins of these series arerage jo sezt hend the bow"; whilst others suggest a connection with 143 grains, and are specimens of the as which at 10 so the Persian wordis dashtan, “to have, to hold, to pos- the denarius (Pexxy). would be equivalent to of sess", or dara, “a king", which latter would be a likely money, (2) Kodrantes (Matt. v. 23. Mars ni *** derivation, as the figure represented is not any particular quadrans, the fourth part of the Roman as origna king, but the king of Persia in a general sense. Though equal to the chalkous, weighing 67 % grains. Tirona the passages in Ezra and Nehemiah would seem to show currency of Palestine in the time of Angustu ani that coins of similar name were current during the reigns Tiberius consisted partly of Roman and Jewish yn of Cyrus. Camhyges, and Darius Hystaspes, it is a question and partly
of Græco-Roman or Greek imperial in co-! if the coin called "Daric" is intended by those mentioned sequence of the reduction of the weixit of the er, the during the reign of Cyrus, B.C.53(Ezra ii. 69). The daric quadrans became reduced to just half the weighs, e
MONEY AND WEIGHTS OF THE BIBLE,
33-6 grains, and the Roman coins and small copper coins kind in connection with gold, the A. V. supplies the word of the Herodian family of this weight represent the "shekels" (SHEKEL); and as a similar expression is furthing of the N.T. The as being equivalent, as we found in connection with silver, and as there is not have shown above, to d., the quadrans would be equal much doubt that a weight is intended, the word underto about id. or of an English farthing. According to stood in this passage would also probably be “shekels”. St. Mark, two mites make a farthing" ; but on this PIECE OF MONEY. (1) Kesitah (Gen. xxxii, 19; question see Mile.
piece of silver", Josh. xxiv. 32; Job xlii. 11). From the FOURTH PART OF A SHEKEL. Rebah (1 Sam.
translation by the LXX. of "lambs", it has been assumed is. 8), about 8d. (SAEKEL.]
that the kesitah was a coin bearing the impression of
a lamb or a sheep, but the coins so frequently quoted GERAH (Exod. xx. 13; Lev. xxvii. 25; Num. iii. 47; as examples belong probably to Cyprus, and were not Ivii. 16; Ezek. xlv. 12). The twentieth part of a shekel, struck till after B.C. 450. The real meaning of kesitah about id. (SHEKEL.]
is "a portion", and it was in all probability & piece GOLD oney) There is no positive mention of
of rough silver of fixed weight. (2) Stater (Matt.
xvii. 27). the use of gold money among the Hebrews (see Isa. xlvi.
The word stater means a coin of a certain 6; Job sxvii, 15) (PIECE OF GOLD; SHEKEL), though gold weight, and hence a standard (comp. shekd and pondo), constituted part of the wealth of Abraham (Gen. xii. :), and was a term applied by the Greeks to coins of if we exclude the “600 shekels of gold" paid by David for gold, of electrum, and of silver. the threshing-floor and oxen (1 Chron. xxi. 25 ; comp.
first to the didrachm (two drachms), and then to the 2 sam. uxiv. 24. “ shekels of silver"), and it was generally centuries, the silver currency
of Palestine consisted of
tetradrachm (four drachms). During the first and second nection with the Temple (2 Chron. iii, 9. &c.). (2) Chru- tetradrachms of Antioch on Orontes, of Tyre, &c., and of sos, aurum (Matt. x. 9; James v. 3); Chrusion, aurum Roman denarii of a quarter their weight. The Attic (Acts iii. 6; xx. 33; 1 Pet. i. 18). The gold coinage cur
tetradrachm was called stater, as the standard coin of rent in Palestine in the N.T. period was the Roman im
the system, and no other stater was current in Palestine perialaurers, which passed for 20 denarii, and was worth
at this time. The great cities of Syria and Phenicia about el 18.
either ceased to strike tetradrachms, or debased their
coinage before the close of the first century A.D. Antioch HALF A SHEKEL (Exod. xxx. 13, 15), about 18. 4. continued to strike tetradrachms to the third century, (Bexan; SHEKEL.]
but gradually depreciated them, the commencement of KESEPH. See Money, Silver, and Silverling.
which cannot be determined. It was carried so far as to
destroy the correspondence of the stater to four denarii KESITAH. See Piece of Money and Piece of Silver.
by the time of Hadrian (A.D. 117). Other cities, if they MITE (Mark xii. 42; Luke xii. 69; xxi. 2). The ren issued staters towards the close of the first century, struck dering of the Greek word lepton, which was a small Greek them of such base metal as to render their separation copper coin 1th of the obol, weighing 33-6 grains, and from copper money impossible. On this evidence, the hence half of the original chalkous or quadrans. St. Mark Gospel is of the first century. The tetradrachm of states, two mites, which is a farthing", but he probably Antioch (stater) is a specimen of the piece of money
that was found by St. Peter in the fish's mouth (Matt. then extant, and the words which is a quadrans" have xvii. 27), It represents the tax for two persons-for our been added to show that the quadrans, weighing about Lord and for St. Peter (Tribute (Money), 1). It is equi36 grains, was then the smallest piece struck. The mite valent in weight to the shekel, averaging 220 grains-and alluded to was a Jewish coin, for the Jews were not per
to about 28. 8d. of our money. (PIECE OF SILVER, 2.) mitted to bring any but Jewish money into the Holy PIECE OF SILVER. This phrase occurs in the A. V. Place, and for this cause money - changers (Moner- of both the
0. T. and N.T. (1) The word "pieces" has been | CHANGERS) stood at the entrance to the Temple in supplied in the A.V. for a word understood in the Hebrew. | order to give Jewish money in exchange for foreign; The rendering is always "a thousand", or the like, "of and it is probable that the small coins of Alexander silver” (Gen. xx. 16; xxxvii. 28 ; xlv. 22; Judg. ix. 4; Jannæus, ranging in weight from 30 grains to 16 grains, xvi. 5; 2 Kings vi. 25 ; Song of Solomon viii. 11; Hosea are the pieces in question. Their value would be about iii. 2; Zech. xi. 12, 13). In similar passages, the word
d. or of an English farthing. If, however, the pieces “shekels" occurs in the Hebrew (SHEKEL), and there is of 15 grains are the half of those of 30, and not examples no doubt that this is the word understood in all these of the same coin of light weight, then two would equal cases. There are, however, some exceptional passages a quadrans, and their value would be of an English where a word equivalent to " piece” or pieces" is found farthing. But this conjecture is by no means sure.
in the Hebrew. The first occurs in 1 Sam. ii. 36, Agorat
keseph, "piece of silver", and the agorah may be the MONEY. (1) In the 0. T. the general expression is same as the gerah (q. v.). Both are translated in the Keseph. (2) In the N. T. money is rendered as follows : LXX. by obolos. The second is in Ps. lxviii. 30 (Heb. 32), (2) Arvurion, pecunia, "silver" (Matt. xxv. 18, 27 ; xxviii. Ratsee keseph," pieces of silver".(LXX. [lxvii. 30)argurion), 12, 15;, Mark xiv. 11; Luke ix. 3; xix. 15, 23 ; xxii. 5; and the word ratz from ratsats, “ to break in pieces", must Acts vii. 16 (argentum]; viii. 20 (pecunia). In Matt. mean a fragment or piece broken off. The third, the kesixxvi. 9, the phrase is “inuch (money)."). (b) Chalkos, æs, tah, to which I have already alluded. [PIECE OF Money,1.) “brass " (Mark vi. 8; xii. 41). (c) Chrema, "a thing that (2) Two words are rendered in the N. T. by “piece of one uses or needs”, pretium (Acts iv. 37; pecunia, viji. silver": (a) Drach mē, drachma (Luke xv. 8), and here 18, 20; xxiv. 26). (d) Kerma, "anything cut small”, es correctly rendered, as the Attic drachm was at the time of (John ji, 15). (SILVER and Money-CHANGERS.) St. Luke equivalent to the Roman denarius [DRACHM;
PENNY. Dēnarion, denarius (Matt. xvili. 28; XX. 2, PENNY]:. This accounts for the remark of Josephus 9. 10, 13; xxii. 19; Mark vi. 37 ; xii. 16; xiv. 5; Luke vii. (Antiq. iii. 8,2), who says that "the shekel 41; *. 35; xx, 21; John vi. 7; xii. 6; Rev. vi. 6). Its equalled four Attic drachms". for in his time the drachm standard weight in the reign of Augustus, and to the and denarius were almost equal to the quarter of a shekel time of Nero, was 60 grains. Deducting th of the [SHEKEL). Value about sd. or 7d. b) Argurio, arweight for alloy, there remain 68 grs. of pure silver, and genteus, denarius. This word occurs in two passazes-(A) the chilling containing 807 grs. of pure silver, we have the account of the betrayal of our Lord for thirty
pieces of silver" (Matt. xxvi. 15; xxvii. 3, 6, 6, 9). These 107 of a shilling, or $*6245 pence = about 8d. In the
have usually been considered to be denarii, but on no time of Nero the weight was reduced to 52-5; and apply- sufficient ground. The parallel passage in Zechariah ing to this the same method of reckoning, the penny of (xi. 12, 13), is translated "thirty i pieces of silver"; but Nero's time would equal about 7d. There is no doubt whilst it is observable that thirty shekels of silver" was that most of the silver currency in Palestine during the N. T. period consisted of denarii, and "a penny
the price of blood to be paid in the case of a servant
The passage may the tribute-money payable by the Jews to the Roman accidentally killed (Exod. xxi. 32). Emperor (TRIBUTE (Money), 2).
therefore be explained as "thirty shekels of silver". not
was the das's pay for a labourer in Palestine at the time of our
current shekels, but tetradrachms of the Attic standard
of the Greek cities of Syria and Phoenicia, These tetraLord (Matt. xx. 2, 9, 10, 13; comp. Tobit v. 14), as it was the pay of a field-labourer in the middle ages; and the themn the stater was a specimen (PIECE OF MONEY, 2).
drachms were coinmon at the time of our Lord, and of term denarius
is still preserved in our £ 8. D. (DRACHM In the A. V. of St. Matthew the prophecy is ascribed to and PIECE OF SILVER, 2.]
Jeremiah instead of to Zechariah. Many suggestions PIECE OF GOLD. This phrase occurs only once in have been made on this question, but it may be observed the 0. T., in the passage respecting Naaman the Syrian that the Syriac version omits the proper name, and (2 Kings v. 6). In several other passages of a similar merely says “ the prophet"; hence a copyist might have
MONEY AND WEIGHTS OF THE BIBLE. inserted the wrong name. (B) The price of the conjuring (B.C. 40—37), and the numerous coinage and Alerodes books that were burnt (Acts xix. 19). The Vulgate has Jannæus (B.C. 105–78) doubtless circulated even accurately rendered the phrase denarii, as there is no N. T. times (MITE) , The Idumotan princes. doubt that these coins are intended. (Money and mencing with Herod I. (surpaired the Great, coSILVER.]
tinued a copper coinage with only Greek legends, which POUND. Mnā (Luke xix. 13-25)--money of account.
circulated in Judaa (as well as a procuratorial coinage A.D. 6-59) till the death of Agrippa II (Acts ust.
13: At this time the Attic talent obtained in Palestine.
xxvi. 2. seq.) in A.D. 100. The national coinage, cons Sixty mine went to the talent (9. r.). The "pound contained 100 drachms. The drachm of the Gospel ing of silver shekels and 1 shekels, as well as of coppe. period being, equivalent to about 8d., the value of the with old Hebrew inscriptions, was revived during the pound would be £3 68. 8d. The Greek name mnă was first revolt (Mas, A.D. 66-September, A D.70% and during probably derived from the Hebrew manch (q. v. under the second under Bar-cochab (A.D. 132-AD. K. WEIGHTS).
which time many of the Jewish shekels Fere stress
over Roman denarii. RATZ, See Piece of Silver. REBAH. See Fourth Part of a Shekel.
SILVER (Money). (1) Keseph in 0. T. (2. e.); in
N. T. arguros, argentum (Mati, x. 9; Janes s. 3), o SHEKEL. A word signifying "weight": and also the argirion, argentun (Acts ili. 6; xx. 33; 1 Pet. 1, 19). T name of a coin, either silver or copper. It only occurs in silver coins current in Palestine in X. T. period consisted the 0.T., where it signifies the weight of certain objects, of the tetradrachms and drachms of the Arcanin or where it is employed for a piece of silver of fired and of the Roman denariis. (MOSEY, 1 and , ad value. The word " shekel" occurs in the Hebrew and the PIECE OF SILVER, 2.] A.V. in the following passages :-Gen. uiii. 15, 16; Exod. xxi. 32; XXX. 13, 15; Xxxviii. 24-26; Lev. v. 15; xxvii. SILVERLING. Kesepk Isa vii. 23). The rord arem 3-7; Num. iii, 47, 50; vii. 13, 19, 25, 31, 37, 43, 49, 55, 61, 67, ling occurs in Tyndale's version of Acts ril l», ALI I 73, 79, 85. 86; xviii. 16; Josh. vii. 21; 1 Sam. ix. 8; xvii. Coverdale's of Judg. ix. 4; XY1. 3. The German scrisă 5,7; 2 Sam. xiv. 28; xxi. 16; xxiv. 24; 2 Kings vii. 1; w. found in Luther's version (Bible Word-Book. The serce 20; 1 Chron. xxi. 25 (gold shekels); 2 Chron. ii. 9 (gold word is also used in Cranmer and Tyndale for the m shekels); Seb. v.15; X. 32; Jer. xxxii. 9 ; Ezek. iv. 10; xlv. stolen by Micah (Judg. xvii. 2, 3)
—the leuen bundred 12; Amos viii. 6. It is supplied in the A.V. in connection Syluerlynges" (Bible Educator, vol. iv., p. 2101 with "silver" in Deut. xxii. 19, 20; Judg. xvii. 2-4, 10;
STATER. See Picce of Money, 2, and Tribute-saone 2 Sam. xviii. 11, 12; 1 Kings x. 29; 2 Chron. i. 17; and in connection with "gold" in Gen. xxiv. 22 į Num. vii. 14, SUM [of Money). (1) Kephalaion (Acts ui , 20, 26, 32, 38, 11, 50, 56, 62, 63, 74, 80, 86; Judg. viii. 26; classical authors capital as opposed to interest or LO.DE 1 Kings x.' 16, 2' Chron. ix. 15, 16 (see Maneh under lep, principal", Lev. vi. 5 Sum v. il. In NE s. 1: WEIGHTs). Three kinds of shekels appear to be men- epikephalaion, poll-tar". is used in the place of time tioned-11 the shekel, (2) the shekel of the sanctuary, ordinary word kensos. (TRIBUTE (Money, Saxo and (3) the shekel of the king's weight. The “shekel Money. (2) Time arguriou, pretium argera Acta tä of the sanctuary", or "holy shekel", a term generally 16), i.e. price in silver. (Moser) applied to the silver shekel, but once to the gold (Esod. Xxxviii, 24), was probably the normal weight, and was
TALENT. Talanton, talentum, & sum, not a one kept by the priests. The shekel of the king" was con (1) In 0. T. the rendering of the Hebrew scour les nected with the Assyrio-Babylonian manch of the king, as Talent under Weights); (3) in X. T. this word occurs marked on the monuments from Vineveh (Talent under (a) in the parable of the unmerciful sertant Matt miti WEIGHTS). The LXX. translate the denominations in 23—25); and (b) in the parable of the talents (Matt wt.' silver by didrachmon and sills. The shekel as extant 14-30). At this time the Attic talent obtained in Pale corresponds in weight to the tetradrachm cr didrachm tine; 60 minæ and 6,000 drachma went to the talent. It of the early Phoenician talent in use in the cities of was consequently worth about £200. [Porxd.] Phænicia under Persian rule. It is probable that the THIRD PART OF THE SHEKEL Web : 3), about Alexandrian Jews adopted the term “didrachm" as the common name of the coin which was equal in weight to 10d. See Shekel and Tribute (Honey) the shekel. The value of the silver shekel is about 28.8d. The gold shekel, as derived from a passage in Josephus, (Matt. xvii. 24). The sacred tribute or payment the
TRIBUTE (Money). (1) The sacred tribute, distract must have weighed about 253 grains (see Pound under *atonement money" was half a shekel Brod MIL WEIGHTS), a very little lower than the 6th of the 16), and was originally levied on erery male of twenty Assyrian mina in gold, which weighed 260 grains; and years old and above when the Israelites were first ni when he says.in auother passage (Antiz, iii. 8. 10; comp. bered. In the reign of Joash the same sum va is Num. vii.
14) that ten gold shekels equalled ten darics, he manded for the repair of the Temple (2 Chron. Ev, must mean the double darics, weighing about 200 grains. 4-14) After the return from the
Captirity, the anco The gold shekel was worth about £2. None have ever payment "for the service of the house of God was de been discovered. (See General Remarks.) Fifteen shekels third of the shekel (q. o.), and was rolantarits cos! of silver, each weighing about 224 grains, were equal in tributed (Neh. x. 32). The amount of tribute was aga value to one shekel of gold (Talent under WEIGHTS). The restored to the hall-shekel (q. c.), which the Jews when divisions of the shekel mentioned in the 0. T. are the dispersed throughout the world continued to pay toranis half (bekah), the third part, the fourth part (rebah), and the Temple. It is to this tribute that st. Matthew refers the twentieth part (gerah), 99. v. In the reign of Arts and the stater found in the fish's mouth was an Attic xerxes Longimanus B.C. 463) a special commission was tetradrachm, and at this time equal to a shekel granted to Ezra " to do what seeins good with the rest (PIECE OF MONEY; SHEKEL). Many commentators. of the silver and the gold" (Ezra vii. 18); and it has been both ancient and modern, hare entirely missed the suggested that this was virtually permission to the Jews meaning of this miracle by interpreting the pasmet to coin money,and the silver shekels extant dated of the as a civil one. That it was the sacred tribute is years 1 to 5, and the half-hekels of the years 1 to 4. plain from our Lord's reason for exemption: 0 tonn weighing about 220 and 110 grains respectively, are con; do the
kings of the earth take custom or tribute ? of their sidered to be of this period. As regards the " shekels of own children or of strangers ?" (Matt. xrii. , , add silver" mentioned in Nehemiah (v. 15; comp.lx 32), I further. from His reason for payment, "lest we sh 21 these may perhaps refer to the silver coin circulating offend them", which shows that the Jews willingly pas in the Persian kingdom called siglos, of which 20 went the tribute; indeed, it was not enforced by law even sa to one gold daric, and weighing 84 grains, but having the earliest times, being in this respect unlike the civil no connection with the siklos (weighing about 220 tribute. (2) The civil tribute, nomis tou kiss, bro! grains), excepting in name. the darics, impressed with the figure of an archer sos poros: (Matt. xii. 17, 19; Mark xii. 14: Late
xx. 22: xxiii. 2). This was tax puid to the Roman In the year B. C. 139, Antiochus VII. (Sidetes) granted special permission to Simon Macca- became a Roman province.
Emperor, and was doubtless established whes Jona
The sum paid annuali bæus to coin money with his own stamp (1 Macc. is not known; but after the capire of Jerusalem W. 6), and the silver shekels and half-shekels most probably belong to Simon, and perhaps the copper Jews, in whatever country they might be, to pay the
and destruction of the Temple, Vespasian ordered the pieces it shekel, shekel, and of shekel), dated in sum of two drachma to the temple of Jupiter Captothe fourth year; but there is great uncertainty as to nus as they had previously paid to the Temple a Jeru: the latter.
salem. Under Domitian the tax was enforced with grest The Asmonaan dynasty continued to issue a copper severity, but upon the accession of Nerva it was abolisher coinage, gradually showing Greek tendencies, to the time Numismatic records establish this fact; coins are extant of Antigonus, the last prince of the Asmonæan dynasty, with the legend, Fisci Judaici calunnia sublata lectus
MONEY AND WEIGHTS OF THE BIBLE. cophantia-false accusation-Luke xix. 8). After the re- vessels of the Temple (Neh. iii. 8) are prototypes, sat in Olt of Bar-cochab, Hadrian renewed the tax, and in the the courts of the Temple on the 25th of Nizan for the eign of Alexander Severus (A.D. 226) the Jews continued purpose of exchanging foreign money for Jewish, as the
pay the didrachm. This civil tribute was paid in de- Temple tax could only be paid in this latter coin. They also aru. “Show me the tribute-money; and they brought seem to have acted as bankers, inoney being placed in ato Him a penny" (Matt. xxii. 19; comp. Mark xii. 15; their hands for the purpose of increasing it, and on which uke xx. 24). "And He saith unto them, Whose is this interest was paid (Matt. xxv. 27; Luke xix. 23). Though Eliage and superscription? They say unto Him, Cæsar's". the system of lending” was not altogether objected to The title of Casar is common to all the Roman emperors, in the 0. T. (Exod. xxi. 25; Lev. xxv. 36, 37; Deut. xxiii. nd the name of Tiberius, who was the Caesar alluded to, 19, 20; Prov. vi. 1; Ps. xv. 5; Jer. xv. 10: Ezek. xxii. 12; abbreviated on the coins, TL, while the title CÆSAR xviii. 13, &c.), yet after the Captivity the Jews were comat length. The answer may further be illustrated by pelled to leave off usury (Neh. v. 11, 12), whilst in the ze small brass coins issued under the Procurators Copo-NT. period it was sanctioned, provided it was done 1113, Ambivius, and Rufus, circulating in Judæa at this hoping for nothing again" (Luke vi. 36; comp. Matt. v. nue, on which is simply the legend Kaisaros--of Cæsar. 42). "The system, however, pursued by the moneyPexxy.)
changers in the Temple must have been a vicious one,
as is apparent from our Lord's denunciation of their TWENTIETH PART OF THE SHEKEL; about d. See Gerah and Shekel.
doings (Matt. xxi. 13; Mark xi. 17; Luke xix. 46; comp.
Isa. Ivi. 7; Jer. vii. 11). The two following terms bear direct relation to money, TREASURY or TREASURE. This term is used in od are worthy of Illustration:
the A. V. of the N. T. as the translation of three different MONEY-CHANGERS. Three distinct terms are em
words-(1) Gazophulakion (Mark xii. 41, 43; Luke xxi. 1; byer in the N. T. to express this class=-(1) Trapezites, John, vid, 20), from gaza, a treasure", and phulassõ, **tó takularius, A. v. exchanger" (Matt. xxv. 27), from keep". The word gaza' (Heb. ganzai, which occurs in apesa, "a table", a word employed for the tables"
this sense in Acts viii. 27, is employed frequently in the nensæl of the money-changers in Matt. xxi. 12; Mark T. for treasures" or "treasure-house
vi. 1; vii. 20; Esth. iii. 9; iv.7; Ezek. xxvii. 24; 1 Chron.
(Ezra v. 17; ix. z1 Trapezites was the ordinary name for the banker xxvili
. 11). It is not a Hebrew
word, but probably a
Persian. Athens. His principal occupation was that of chang
The term gazophulakion or gazophylacium ng money at an agio. He was a private banker, like occurs in various passages of the Maccabees, and the le argentarii at Rome, wbo must be distinguished from Vulgate uses it as the term for the "chest" (Heb. arun, je mensarii or mensularii and the numularii, who were LXX. kibőlos) in which Jehoiada collected the
money ublic bankers appointed by the State on various emer
for the repairs of the Temple (see General Remarks). The incies, the latter of whom seem to have been perma- treasury chamber appears to have been a place where ently employed. Hence the Vulgate has rendered people came to offer their charity-money for the repairs heir name in all cases correctly. As the Greek word chests (Heb. trumpets, because the mouths were wide at
and other uses of the Temple, and consisted of 13 brazen apezites is from trapeza, "a table”, so our English the top and narrow below), which
stood in the outer court ond banker" (French, banquier) is derived from
of the women. de Prench banc, "a bench", on which the person the sacred treasure of the Jews, and explained in Mark
(2) Korbanas, corbona (Matt. xxvii. 6), it to do his business. (2) Kollubistes, numularius, money-changer * (Matt. xxi. 12 ; Mark xi. 15);
a gift to vii. 11 as a git (dõron), and by Josephus as
God". Korban in the 0. T. is principally employed for V. "changer" (John ii. 15), from kollubos or kolshon, sometimes designated as " the changing of in the N. T. principally means “gifts in general" (Matt.
(comp. Lev. ií. 1, 4, 5, 6). Döron ney", or "rate of exchange", sometimes as a small i. 11), "sacrificial gifts” (Matt. v. 23, 24; Heb. v. 1; xi. 4); or "a kind of money!
A passage in Theohrastus shows us that the kollubos must have been a
"gifts of God to man" (Ephes. ii. 8), "of man to man"
Rev, xi. 10); but it is also used of gifts to the "treasury iter piece ranging between the lepton (Mite) and the (Luke xxi. 1), and in one case appears to mean the obol, and therefore of an obol, weighing about 14 "treasury itself" (Luke xxi. 4). (3) Thesauros, thesaurus. aing. It would thus be the silver equivalent of the (a) As the "treasure-house" (Matt. ii. 11; xiii. 52); (b) as Malkous, which was the copper of an obol. (3) Ker- the "treasure" (Matt. vi. 19, 20; xii. 35; xiii. 44; xix. 21; atistes, rumularius; A. V.“ changer of money" (John Mark X. 21; Luke vi. 45; xii. 33 ; xviii. 22; 2. Cor. iv. 7; 14), from a Greek word signifying to cut small
Col. ii. 3; Heb. xi. 26). The word is used in the LXX. as hich is from kerma, “money", John ii. 15 (MONEY). the translation of the Hebrew otsar, meaning either loney-changing was calledkermatismos. No coin
"treasures of God", "store-house for corn". "trea 23 called by this name. The money-changers, of sury for gold and silver", &c. (Deut. xxviii. 12; xxxii. 34; hich perhaps the “ goldsmiths" who repaired the
1 Chron. xxvii. 27; Josh. vi. 19; 1 Kings vii. 61, &c.).
WEIGHTS. The subject of Hebrew weights is involved in great obscurity, and scholars are at variance on several imporint questions. Some are of opinion that reliable information is to be obtained in Hebrew literature, and specially in Maimonides, who makes the Jewish silver shekel have a weight of 320 average-sized grains of Arley taken from the middle of the ear, which are identical with the grains of troy weight, and to equal 320 rains troy containing exactly 100 carats diamond weight; but the monuments in existence and other facts prove hat the Rabbinical distinction between the Mosaic shekel and the later shekel is altogether fallacious. hough specimens of Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, and Greek weights have been discovered, no Judæan tight has ever come to light. The following weights are mentioned in the Bible:BEKAH (Gen. xxiv, 22). "half", "half a shekel". gold was equal to 100 shekels, but it must be observed his word only occurs in the Pentateuch. See Bekah that in the
Chronicles the Hebrew is " 300 of gold ", the oder MONEY.
word shekels being supplied in the A. V.; and it has conGERAH. Properly a "grain" or "bean", the small sequently been suggested by some that the Chronicles st silver weight, th part of the shekel. See Gerah quently one should reckou what is here meant as 100
was written in the Macedonian period, and that conseder Money and Shekel.
drachms to the maneh", as in use among the Greeks. LITRA. See Pound.
The passage, however, is obscure, and in any case the MANEH (LXX. mnā; Vulgate, mina). "A portion or
calculation of 100 shekels to the maneh is not likely. art”; A.V." pound", sometimes called stater-standard; That in Ezekiel (xlv. 12) relative to the maneh is also word owing its origin to Babylon, and which, as the difficult of explanation (SAEKEL; TALENT]. The
word reight was employed by the Egyptiang, Phoenicians, maneh further occurs in Ezra ii: 69; Neh. vii. 71, 72; lebrews, and
Greeks, has the same meaning in the comp. 1 Esdras v. 46. anguage of all these nations. The weight of the golden POUND. (1) Mnā, mina (1 Macc. xiv. 24; xv. 18). argets made by Solomon for the Temple are stated to Here large sums are weighed by this standard, and it gee been 300 (shekels] of gold each (2 Chron. ix. 16), refers to the Attic talent. (2) Litra, a word used by the hilst in the parallel passage the amount of gold em- Greeks of Sicily in their system of weights and money, Ployed for each shield is given as three pounds (manehs, sometimes called stater-standard--and equivalent to Kings X. 17). It would thus appear that the maneh of the Latin word libra or as, the unit of weight among the MONEY AND WEIGHTS OF THE BIBLE.
Romans. Josephus says that the Hebrew maneh of gold Assyria and Babylonia. Of the talents carrest in the equalled 2 litre. The libra or Roman pound = 5059 countries, the heavy or Assyrian talent saada grains, consequently 24 Roman pounds = 12647 grains; Mesopotamia aud Syria to the Poabican anda and as the Hebrew gold shekel was the fiftieth part and to Palestine, where we find it in use ante of the maneh, it must have
weighed about 253 grains raelites. In Nineveh, as well as in Palestine,besan (Shekel under MONEY]. The word litra occurs in the weight talent of the king of Sou sixtietiis af te se N. T. in John xii. 3 and xix. 39.
for valuing precious metais, a special reckoning 2
by talents of 3000 gold and silver units; ou sais SHEKEL. A word signifying "weight", according found convenient to reckon 300 shesels instead of to which numerous objects were weighed, especially the to the talent is not known, nor when a derinti wa metals. The passage in Ezek. xls, 12 is confusing, and made from the sexagesimal division of the malo cannot be satisfactorily explained, but it must be remem- was limited to 60 instead of to co units Total 1 bered that it is prophetical. 50 or 60 shekels equalled a the taxes to the sanctuary paid by the past maneh (MANER; POUND). 3600 or 3000 shekels equalled to be (Exod. xxxvül. 25) ico talents its best a talent (TALENT). See Shekel under Money.
which 603,60 men each contributed a base
that according to this, 3000 sliekels are recizce D DE TALENT. Kikkar, properly “a circle” or “globe"; talent; and as the talent is always divided in such hence kuklos, circus. The largest Hebrew weight for 50 shekels went to the marck, which is corroborstel metals. First occurs in Exod. xxv. 39, "a talent of pure the fact that the taxes for persous of varis 17e! gold”. It is also specially spoken of as "talent of sil. sex commence at a maximum point of 5 steltis la ver” (2 Kings v. 22), “ talent of lead" (Zech. v.7), “talent xxvii. 3, 16), and that Achan found a self of brass” (Exod. xxxviii, 29), and “talent of iron” (1 i just 50 shekels weight, and not a Joshi Chron. xxix. 7). A talent of silver bound up in a bag, General Remarks.) Among the ancient Heiress tere and one change of garment, was about as much as one appear to have been three different kinds of 2 man could carry (2 Kings v. 23), and weighing was pro- which were derived from the three simniis nada bably avoided by the sealed bags containing a certain syria and Mesopotamia, as shown by the weight of silver. The Hebrew talent was derived from table :
lbs. oz. dris gta 1. The weight talent“ of the king' 910499 4 00 minə or 3600 shekels X 252 9165 = 158 -17 114 The maneh..
60 shekels X 252 9165 3 7 19 699 The shekel. 252 9165 =
10 1.913 2. The gold talent.
768749-5 = 60 ming or 3000 shekels X 252-9165 131 8 14 135 The maneh
126 15 825
50 shekels X 232 9165 The gold shekel. 252 9165 os of the weight maneh
10 1991$ 3. The silver talent
674392-5 60 ming or 3000 shekels X 224 7975 = 117 - 19 165 The maneh..
1 11 8 155 The holy shekel
221 7975 The shekels of the weight talent the gold talent are identical, the latter talent having a Chron. xxii. 11; xxix. 4, 0. The annual is
of the king," and the reigns of David and Solomon are almast isas! been formed from the former, which appears to have Solomon is said to have been 6e5 talente o mai been used for weighing other materials than the metals Kings x, 14; 2 Chron. ix, 13), which, taking the ("king's weight 2 Sam. xiv, 26). weight of 9
[SHEKEL). The of some that the gold talent was double the * holy " silver shekels (224 7975 X ) thus would be equivalent to £7,780.000, a sup more those * equals 8 sixtieths of the weight” maneh (2529165 X 8), revenues of the whole Persian Enpire moder les and the value
of 15 " holy" silver shekels equals that of which has been calculated at about three Dillo ! 1 gold shekel, i.e. £2. Some, however, have taken the a half. But if we take 15 shekels of silver is die silver talent as weighing 660,000 grains (114. 's lbs. troy), one shekel of gold, and 15 talents of silver as een and, on the basis of the shekel being equivalent to 3s. one talent of gold, then 6661 talents of gold were equalling £450, and the gold talent" with a shekel of 10,000 talents of silver, or £1,000,000. It is boere about 132 grains) as weighing double the silver, 1,320,000 ficult to hazard any safe conjecture, and met lies grains (229) Ibs. troy), and equalling, at £4 per oz. troy, figures in all these passages hare been contupiai. £11,000 (Smith, Student's 0. T. Hist.). As to the copper talent, which is supposed by some to have had a shekel NOTE-For further and fuller information on the com of four times the weight of the gold shekel, though only Weights" of the Bible, the following Webb 1,500 to the talent, and therefore equalling 792,000 grains, ed : -- Rev. R Hussey, Weights and Voar, si Splet it is impossible to speak with certainty; but in all proba
art. "Weights", in Smith's Diet of the Bible, 19;
2. Are bility the copper talent did not contain a fewer number
Das Münz-Mass-und Gerich Leicesen in Terderekir, is of shekels than that of the silver.
History of Jewish Coinage and on they The amounts of talents mentioned in the Bible during the Numismatic Chronicle for 1874, 185, 186
oid and New Testaments, 1864; and survient to the sea
Roman Money, mentioned in the New Testament, reduced to the English and American Standard
£ 8. d.
cts, A penny, or denarius...
0 0 8-8}
14.67-15.50 A pound, or mina (Gk, mna)...
8 6 8
$ 16 12