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BY JOHN STAINER, M.A., Mus. Doc., Organist of St. Paul's Cathedral.

Music entered so largely into the private and public services organised by him (1 Chr. 15. 16 & 25. 1), and con. life of the Hebrews that its cessation typified utter tinued in the Temple. Early Hebrew melodies are misery or desolation (e.g. Jer. 25. 10; Ezek. 26. 13). Vocal probably reflected in the modern Asiatic, i.e. slight and instrumental music, often with 'dancing', i.e. melodies overlaid with extraneous graces, and would measured rhythmical movements, accompanied their pow seem to be in a sort of minor mode. But simple social gatherings (Isa. 5. 12 & 24. 9; Amos 6. 5; Luke instruments, such as barps, trumpets, cymbals, &c. (see 15.25), and their processions-whether religious (2 Sam. below), when used in large numbers simultaneously 6. 5, &c.), triumphal (Ex. 15; Judg. 11. 34, &c.), bridal (2 Chr. 5. 18) or in alternating masses, are capable of (Jer. 7. 34), or funeral (Eccl. 12. 4, with Matt. 9. 23) grand musical results, even independently of the awful Singing men and tcomen' formed part of David's and sublimity of the events and associations connected with Solomon's court (2 Sam. 19. 35; Eccl. 2. 8), and sang the worship of the Temple. dirges for Josiah (2 Chr. 85.25); hired minstrels The silence of the Bible obliges us to determine on emphasized the mourner's grief (Matt. 9. 23, with Jer. historical grounds the probable extent and nature of 9. 17-20; Amos 5. 16). The winepress was trodden Hebrew musical knowledge. Fortunately ancient (Jer. 48.83), and the vintage which closed the harvest music, especially Assyrian and Egyptian, has of late was gathered (Isa. 16. 10) with a song; the 'timbrels received considerable attention; the various musical and dances' of the daughters of Israel typify ordinary instruments represented in sculpture or on coins, and peace and prosperity. See Poetry, Psalms.

even found in tombs, have been carefully examined as But the Bible gives little direct information as to to their capabilities, compared, and classified. And, by Hebrew music. It probably resembled or comprised analogy, a very sound basis of probability has been the music of Mesopotamia and Egypt (see Gen. 31. 27; found in the comparative history of ancient music Ex. 32. 17, 18, 19), and the inevitable commercial and on which to describe the general outlines of Bible other intercourse would cause the instruments in use music. to pass from one nation to another. If not cultivated The study of names of instruments is less safe, and previously by the Levites for the service of the Taber- even deceptive. We shall therefore content ourselves nacle, music certainly formed part of the training in with a careful stady of the music of the surrounding the schools of the prophets founded by Samuel (1 Sam. nations, not neglecting any absolutely reliable infor 10.5;2 Kin. S. 15), and being developed (Amos 6.5; 2 Sa. mation to be gained from the researches of great 6.5; 1 Kin. 10.5, &c.) by the inspired genius of the mu- scholars, leaving the reader to apply the results atsician and poet David attained its highest expression tained to the various passages of Scripture collected (esp. in connection with the Psalms) in the musical and commented upon below.

VOCAL MUSIC OF THE HEBREWS, The tendency of recitation to develope into mono. of men, was frequent; the Hebrew word translated tone and an irregular chant or cantillation is illustrated "answered' (Ex. 15. 21; 1 Sam. 18. 7.) by course by the history of 'plain song' in the early Christian (Ezra 3. 11) suggests this; comp. Neh. 12. 24. The Church. The very irregularity of such a chant would Psalms should be studied with reference to this alter. be singularly appropriate to poems like the Psalms, nate musical treatment; on their strophes or stanzas, the rhythm and form of which being mainly determined chorus, and refrains, &c., see Poetry. Praise the Lord, by the sense, is complicated and changeful.

for he is good : for his mercy endureth for ever,' was apThe Psalms were without doubt sung to irregular parently a short formula of praise used on solemn chants or short simple melodies, accompanied by in- occasions e.g. 2 Chr. 5. 13 & 7. $; Ezra 3. 11. On the truments selected as appropriate in tone to the par. Levitical order of Singers" see i Chr. 25; Ezra 41; ticular Paalm; the whole body of instruments being 2 Chr. 9. 11; Neh.7.1 & 11. 22, 23 & 12. 29. Vocal music need in grand bursts of chorus. Alternate singing was nearly always accompanied by instruments (2 Sam. from side to side, or by choirs of women or boys and | 6.5, &c.); performers sang and played too (Ezek. 33.82).


(1) HEBREW, (2) BABYLONISH. 1. All ancient nations apparently possessed instru. | stretched membrane (1.0. tambourine, drums), or (6) mnents of three kinds :-(1) String ; (2) Wind; (3) Per. & rod of metal or other hard substance (e.g. triangle, cussion. The tone is produced in string instruments by glass-harmonica); the vibrations of the substance getting their strings into vibration (e.g, harp, piano): struck being imparted

to the surrounding air. in wind-instruments, by setting the column of air in The mistranslation of Hebrew musical terms and the them into vibration (a) by the lips directly (е.0. trum- translation of the same Hebrew word by different Eng. pet, horn), or (6) by blowing into a tube having a "reed" lish words render it necessary to Anglicise the original, or "lip" daly placed (e.g. flute, oboe). The tone of in- and to deal with the several instruments under their struments of percussion is produced by striking (a) a Hebrew names. The following table will prove a key. AUTHORISED VERSION MODERN COUNTERPART.

...Guitar, lyre, or small harp.

String. Viol (Lute' P.B.V. of Psalms)}.. Harp..

Instrument of 10 strings.....: }.. Harp (special sort).

Pan's pipe, primitive organ...


Halil (see Nekeb). Wind, Trumpet.

Cow's horn.

Ram's horn, Horn, Cornet.

Trumpet, Cornet...
. Trumpet (straight).

Tabret, Timbrel.

Cymbals, Cornets....

Cymbals................................. .Tzeltzēlim, Motzilloth.

dence indicates that the Hebrews called their guitar KINNOR, A. V. Harp. (Guitar, Lyre).- Each of the kinnor. It is the typical instrument (Ps. 137.2), the first most ancient nations had apparently under various mentioned in the Bible (Gen. 4. 21, kinnor and ugab names its national guitar. Much circumstantial evi. A. V,'harp and organ'), and the only stringed instru


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ment mentioned in the Pentateuch. So that long CHATZOZERAH or KHATSOTSRAH, A. V. previous to any Egyptian intercourse the Hebrews had Trumpet," of metal, probably straight, with a bel their national string instrument (possibly derived in mouth (Josephus), and closely allied to the nodes directly from remote Asiatic sources). To a wander. trumpet or clarion. The single or repeated clar' ing pastoral people, a guitar is specially convenient, blasts of the silrer trumpets of the priests for the being portable and easily tuned. It will interest those first code of signals on record see Xam. 10. 26 who believe the kinnor to have been a small harp to lor). They were also blown, apparently by presta notice the shape of the instruments in Figs. 48, 49, 50 only, at sacred festivals, including coronadons in of Engel's Music of the Most Ancient Nations, which war Num. 31. 6; ? Chr. 13. 12. & 30. Serenare might justly be called either harps or guitars. Such mentioned under Joshua and David, and Itu D Sol were used by the ancient Egyptians as still among the mon's reign. negroes (manga). But if the kinnor were of this form, KEREN, A.V. Trumpets of ram's horta, Heb.alara guitar would describe it better than harp.

trumpets (Josh. 6. 5.), horn (1 Chr. S. 5;, corte De NEBEL, A.V. Praltery usually (* Lute,' P.B.V.), ! Viol | 3. 5). A curved trumpet (Lat. corsa); if not the! (when used for secular purposes, Isa. 5. 12 & 14. Il; shophar, probably very like it. Amos 5.23 & 6. 5). First mentioned in 1 Sa. 10. 5, and N.B.-Hebrew trumpets (frithout slides, &e.), cu perhaps of Sidonian origin Athenæus iv. 4). Large, produce only a single series of natural harima. yet portable, and probably the most important if not NEHILOTH (Ps.5. title. Possibiy ibe doable fute, the largest of the harp family used by the Hebrews; or the collective term for wind-instruments. See the chief religious instrument. Its shape and number Poetry, Technical terms, No. 12.) of strings cannot be determined; but in ancient harps MACHOL, A. V. dances, dancing ; generally comthe strings almost always form the third side. Unwary bined with topa, timbrels Ex. 15. 20; Jodg. 11.

54; commentators have identified it with a dulcimer (often 1 Sam. 29.5; Ps. 30.11 & 150. 4; Jer. 31. 4.131. A srx called 'psaltery'); but the recorded occasions of its use flute or a dance, according to the Heb. derisations proshow nebel to have been alınost without doubt a harp. posed; possibly a flute and timbrel, like ibe Esgb

ASOR, rather, NEBEL ASOR, A. V. peallery pipe and tabor,' accompanied national dances. [and instrument) of ten strinys,' Ps. 33. 2 & 82. 2 & 144. 9).- Probably a ten-stringed harp, as usually INSTRUMENTS OF PERCUSSION. translated; a variety of nebel connected with it in the TOPH. A. V. Tabret, Timbrel. -A tanborrine, Hebrew), asor referring to the number of strings. mentioned first by Laban (Gen. 31. 7. Prussi That asor was a distinct instrument is a scantily sup

used to mark the time, simultaneously with mesere ported assumption, nor does the application of the rhythmical movements, A. V. dancer Exod. 15. 3. naine to some of the Assyrian harps seem justifiable.

TZELTZELIM (TSELTSELIM), METZILLOTH. Nebel asor is always translated in the Psalms as if two distinct instruments. X.B. David made both kinnors &

A. V. Cymbals, (Bello Zech. 14. 20.-Ancient cubes nebels of fir'; Solomon, of 'almug' wood. See plants. i.e. practically bells : see Ex: 98. $3 ; one kind -3309

were frequently more like a small baris Gr. kimi, MAHALATH. See Poetry, Technical terms, No. 7.

cal with handles. Arabs still use two distinct citu bat MINNIM, A.V. 'stringed instruments,' only in Ps. 150. 4; and in 45. 8, Heb. (shortened into minni), where A. V. large and small (op. Ps. 150. 5). Cymbals appears

the Bible in religious ceremonies only see babes “whereby they" should probably be " stringed instru.

1 Chr. 16). ments," or, music." Jinnim is traced to a root

MENA ANEIM, A. V. Cymbals (2 Sam. 6. 5 only, is signifying distribution, hence strings. NEĞINOTH, A. V. stringed instruments,' Hab. 3. 19. word. Probably a seistruen, an instrument consisting

correctly, as tzeitzelim (A.V. corneta) is the precio See Poetry, Technical terms, No. 11. NEGINIM, A. V. *stringed instruments,' Isa. 83. 20; metal bars or with loose rings upon it, the facts

of a handle and loop of metal, either with transese Ps. 68. 25.

* rattles" borne in the hands of women in processo WIND INSTRUMENTS,

on Egyptian monuments, &c.- both the Herrer ssd

Greek names being derived from roots mexing 'to UGAB or GHUGAB, A.V.Organ.”-The wind in.

shake'. strument mentioned first in the Bible (with kinnor),

SHALISHIM, A. V.“ instruments of mare " 1 Sam. Gen. 4. 21; Job 21. 12, 30. 31, and (with minnim), Psalm 150. 6, only. Probably in its simplest form merely

18. 6 only), in margin "three-stringed instruments.

The association of the root with the aber tree & collection of pipes, i.e. the ancient and universal Pan's pipe, Gk. syrinr, but in process of time so im.

suggests that triangles or seistra (YEXLUSTI prored as 'to mechanical construction and number of bar, added to the joyful tumult with which Dord

whether with three bars or with three rings on each pipes as to justify the A.V. rendering "organ." HALIL or KHALIL, A. V. Pipe (Oboe), traceable to

was received on his return from conquering Golsih. & root meaning bored' and usually regarded as in.

Stringed instruments could hardly hare bees deed a 'pipe,' was probably an oboe, a sort of fageolet general use, or have

been made audible. or of oboe, and used, like it, at festivals and funerals

II. BABYLONISH INSTRUMENTS. (Matt. 9. 23, belor), and by shepherds and travellers,

(Dan. S. 5). especially pilgrims (13.30. 29). Coarse oboes are known and used freely among Eastern nations, and are found

Space excludes the arguments which go to prote amongst modern Egyptians, and throughout Europe. the real nature of the instrunents used at the Irre The small oboe-like reed-instrument of Italian pifferuri Childrens' trial of faith. (See the autbor's Yume ! may be accepted as the halil's modern representative of the Bible (Cassell's), Engel's Mouse of the set NEKEB, A.V. Pipe", from a Heb. root meaning Ancient Nations, and Chappell's History of Pune, hollow '; possibly the double flute), which was known where reasons are shewn for believing that the Bsbo. to Oriental nations long before its use by the Greeks lonian musicians played on the following instrumateand Romans ; (Ezek. 2s. 15 only).

(1) Cow's horn (keren), Gk, salpinz, A. V. * eorde: SHOPHAR, A.V. “Trumpet," a cow-horn; the usual (2) Pan's-pipe or small organ (maxhrolitha, G# trumpet employed, as still by the Jews, on solemn oc (UGAB), A. V. 'flute;' (3) Guitar (kit kros), Gk. Hittars, casions, and for military purposes. Its mention in A. V. 'harp', large, and probably fixed on a stand; Job 39. 24 shows that the horn chronologically pre- large Oriental harp (sabbeca), Gk sambuk, A V. sschceded the chatzozerah or metal trumpet.

bat;'1 (5) Dulcimert partēria), G}. psalterion, A. V.

* psaltery;' (6) Bag-pipe (symphonia), A. V.‘dalcimer. "Harp." Stainer & Barrett, Dictionary of Musical Terms. LA Lute differs from a guitar only in the shape or length of the + A Dileimer is a stringed instrument without a neck played body and neck A Piol (whence violin,' &c.) was usually played with little hammers, the original of the pianoforte. with a bow.

is a tube with a slide, the trombone.


** The Hebrew terms are explained in the preceding list of musical instruments. Gen. 4. 21. KINNOR, UGAB. (Job 21. 12).

Gen. 31. 27. KINNOR, TOPH. A. V. Harp and Organ.

A. V. Tabret, Harp, with songs. Labaa wonid give

Probably string and Jacob a Mesopotarnian farewell. Two of the s pos. wind instruments generically, as if invented by sible kinds of musical instruments are mentioned as Jubal.

used to accompany song.



Ex. 15. 20. TOPH. (See Judg. 11. 31).

with harps on the Sheminith' (rather, on the octave, A. V. Timbrel, with which inspired Miriam led the i.e. in the bass) to lead' (A. V. excel). (See Hebrer procession of women, their dances, and responsive Poetry--Technical Terms. V.22 may refer to the porters refrain (cp. Neh. 12. 24, & Ps. 186) in the intervals of only margin).] The priests blow the trumpets (chat. the hymn sung by the men in chorus under Moses' zozerah) before the ark, which is accompanied into the guidance. Comp. Ps. 68.25, & see Poetry.

City of David with shouting, the cornet (shophar), the Ex. 32. 6, 18, 19.

religious instruments, & a special psalm (ch. 16.7), David The worship, probably Egyptian, of the golden calf (himself) in a priest's ephod dancing before it. in Horeb, included loud singing and dancing, with i Chr. 16. 47. NEBEL, KINNOR, TZELTZELIM, instrumental accompaniment ('play', see I Sam. 18.6).

Ex. 19. 16, 19 & 20. 18. SHOPHAR,

David organises perpetual musical services; Asaph
A.V. Trumpet, heard'exceeding loud' when Jehovah plays the cymbals, other Levites psalteries and harps,
descended on Sinai: see Isa. 58. I (shophar).
Num. 10. 2, 8–10. CHATZOZERAH.

priests blow the trumpets before the ark in his

new tent'at Jerusalem ;(08.89-41) Heman, Jeduthun, A. V. Trumpets (rather, clarions) of silver of a whole &c., play trumpets and cymbals, and (v. 42, rather) inpiece', Heb. of beaten work, (so Ps. 98. 6, LXX.), with struments of Divine song, in the tabernacle at Gibeon. which the priests direct the movements of the camp

1 Chr. 23. 5. and summon the princes or people. The 'alarm was 4,000 Levites use the instruments of Darid' (2 Chr. a series of repeated blasts; slow with one' means & 29. 26; Neh. 12. 36; Amos 6. 5), i.e. harps, psalteries, long sustained single blast.

and cymbals, improved or invented by him. Lev. 25. 9. SHOPHAR,

1 Chr. 25. 1, 3, 5, 6. KINNOR, NEBEL, KEREN, A.V. Trumpet of the Jubilee, rather of alarm, (Num.

TZELTZELIM. 2. 5) announcing the Day of Atonement (49th year).

David, &c. divide the musicians into 24 courses, Josh. 6. 4, 6, 8, 13. SHOPHAR, KEREN.

under three . seers,' Asaph, Jeduthun (Ethan), and A.V. Trumpets of ram's horns, rather, alarm trumpets. Heman, who prophesy, i.e. perform the service of Heb. jobel, here used with shophar, refers probably song' (i Chr.6. 31), as directed by David, with cymbals, to a special trumpet-call at Jericho's perambulation.

psalteries, harps. The 24 band leaders (ep. Neh. 12. 46) Judg. 8. 27 & 6. 34 & 7. 8. SHOPHAR.

and their bands amount to 288 trained musicians, part A. V. Trumpet, the battle-call of Ehud, Gideon, &c. of 4000, (A. V.) 'instructed in the songs of the Lord'. Judg. 11. 34. TOPH (with MACHOL).

* Lift up the horn' may belong to the next clause, A. V. Timbrels and dances, with which Jephthah's and mean to increase Heman's dignity: keren being daughter welcomes his victorious return. (MACHOL.] usually a metaphor for strength.

1 Sam. 10.5. NEBEL, TOPH, HALIL, KINNOR. 2 Chr. 5. 12, 13. TZELTZELIM, NEBEL, A.V.Psaltery (harp), Tabret, Pipe (oboe), harp, (guitar),

KINNOR, CHATZOZERAH. with which a school of prophets welcomes Saul; moved Solomon brings the ark into the Temple. The 3 thereby, he prophesies (v. 10. see 2 Kings 3. 15). orders of singers in white linen play after David's 1 Sam. 13. 3. SHOPHAR.

ordinance (1 Chr. 25): viz. Heman and the Kohathites A. Y. Trumpet. Saul's call to arms : see Judg. 3. 27. in the centre, with Asaph and the Gershonites on his 1 Sam. 16. 16, 23. KINNOR.

right, and Ethan (Jeduthun) and the Merarites on his A.V. Harp. David the shepherd playing on the left (í Chr.6.31–44), and 120 priests blowing trumpets. primitive kinnor (guitar) removes Saul's evil spirit. When all standing in their place' at the east end 1 Sam. 18. 6. TOPH, SHALISHIM (here only).

of the altar, make one sound of praise and thanks. A. V. Tabrets, instruments of music (triangles), where giving--God visibly takes possession of the

Temple. with the Israelite women welcome victorious Saul.

2 Chr. 13. 12, 14. CHATZOZERAH. Played', in Hebrew, means 'to dance with vocal The priests with trumpets of alarm(Num. 10. 9), A.V. and instrumental music' (cp. Ex. 15. 20).

sounding,' attend Abijah's army at Mt. Zemaraim. 2 Sam. 2.28 & 18. 16. SHOPHAR.

2 Chr. 15. 14. SHOPHAR, CHATZOZERAH. A, V. Trumpet, with which Joab stops the pursuit. At Asa's reformation, the people swear to the Covenant

with a loud voice.. shouting, trumpets, and cornets.' • Sa. 6.5. KINNOR, NEBEL, TOPH, TZELTZELIM.

2 Chr. 20. 21, 28. A. V. instruments made of fir; harps (guitars), peal.

NEBEL, KINNOR, terics (harps), timbrels (tabrets), corneta (cymbals,

CHATZOZERAH. (See ch. 13. 12). rather, castanets), cymbals (MENAANEIM here only, Jehoshaphat's army is preceded by singers to praise Gk. seistra, rattles). Playing on these, and with sing in holy adornment: (A. Vi the beauty of holiness) ing', David and Israel (see i Chr. 15. 2, 16) essayed to with psalteries, harps, and trumpets--and so returns, bring the ark to the city of David from Abinadab's headed by the king, to give thanks in the Temple. house 'in the hill', i.e. Kirjath-jearim (sce 1 Chr. 13.8). Jahaziel who predicts the deliverance, is an Asaphite 2 Sam. 15. 10 & 20. 1, 22. SHOPHAR.

Levite. A. V. Trumpet. Sheba's call to arms. Joab's signal . Chr. 23. 18. CHATZOZERAH. (2 Kin. 11. 14). to raise the siege of Abel of Bethmaachah.

At his coronation in the Temple, Joash stands on i Kin. 1. 34. SHOPHAR: 0. 40. HALIL. (Isa. 30. 29.)

the royal platform (A. V. pillar) at the entrance, the A.V. Trumpet. Blown by Zadok at Solomon's coro

trumpets are blown at his side: the singers playing nation; A.V. pipes, played by the people for gladness. I such as tanght to sing)

praise (cp. 2 Chr. 5. 12 & 20. 25).

instruments of music, and leading the chant of (A. V. 1 Kin. 10. 12. KINNOR, NEBEL. A. V. Harpe and Psalteries for singers, made of sandal 2 Chr. 29. 25–28, 525LTZELIM, NEBEL, KINNOR, srood by Solomon: usually of 'fir'; see 2 Sam. 6. 5,

CHATZOZERAH. (See 2 Chr. 5. 12). and Plants (ALMUG, FIR).

Hezekiah, reopening the Temple, restores David's 2 Kin. 3. 15; (1 Sam. 10.10; 1 Chr. 25; Ps. 49. 4.)

musical services, here said to have originated with Elisha uges a minstrel when seeking counsel of God.

Gad the king's seer, and Nathan the prophet.' The 2 Kin. 9. 13. SHOPHAR. (2 Sam. 15. 10).

'song of the Lord, the trumpets, and instruments of A. V. Trumpets proclaim Jehu (so Absalom) king.

David,' accompany the opening sacrifice. The Levites

praise Jehovah with the words of David and of 2 Kin. 11. 14 (2 Chr. 23. 13). CHATZOZERAH.

Asaph the seer.' A. V. Trumpets, with which the singers with instru.

2 Chr. 35. 15. See Psalm, 81. 1–3. ments of musir, leading the chant of (A. V. such as taught to sing) praise, proclaim Joash in the Temple.

Josiah, at bis great Passover, restores David's

musical services. 9 Kings 12. 13. CHATZOZERAH. A.V. Trumpets. Usually made of offerings of silver.


While the Second Temple's foundation was laid, the CHATZOZERAH, SHOPHAR. (Cp. 2 Sam. 6. 15).

priests with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph By David's order, before moving the ark from Obed with cymbals (1 Chr. 16.5) after David's ordinance sang edom's honse, the Levites appoint some of their by course; the people shouted. Cp. Psalm 118. nuun ber to accompany it with songs and instruments,

Neh. 4. 18, 20. SHOPHAR. pealterims (guitars), harps, and cymbals, (rather) 'play.

Nehemiah's signal to the armed restorers of the walls. ing aloud to swell the sound for joy'; esp. (v. 19) the Neh. 11. 17 & 12. 8—42. TZELTZELIM, NEBEL, singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, to sound with

KINNOR, CHATZOZERAH. cymbala of brass,' others (v. 20) to play psalteries on Mattaniah the Asaphite was 'precentor or leader of Alamoth (i.e. probably, soprano); and others (v. 21) I the choir.' The Levites collected at Jerusalem celebrate


MUSIC-PASSAGES OF SCRIPTURE. the dedication of the walls with singing, cymbals, psal.

Iss. 14. 11. NEBEL. teries, and harps responsively (0.24, A. V. 'ward over A.V. 'Thy pomp is brought down to the grave against ward') as ordered by David. Choirs singing (Sheol), and the noise of thy viols (psalterres)' loud with these musical instruments of Darid the man

Isa. 16. 11. KINNOR. of God,' and priests with trumpets, lead the two com. A. V. 'My bowels shall sound like a harpsie.'tibrata panies, which perambulating the wall converge upon with thrills of grief')

for Moab. Comp. Jer. 18. 36. the Temple. (See also Neh. 13. 10, 11).

Isa. 18. 3. SHOPHAR.

A.V. Trumpet, when one (A.V. he) bloweth, bear ye. Job 21. 12. TOPH, KINNOR, UGAB. of instruments). The ancient ugab is coupled with thou harlot (Tyre) that hast been forgotten; sak:

A. V. Timbrel, Harp, Organ (the 's possible kinds Isa. 23. 16. KINNOR. (Cp. Ezek. 98.13 ; Eccles. 2. & f. kinnor in Job 30. 31 as in Gen. 4. 21.

sweet melody (i.e. of the upright, Ps. $. 1. song Job 39. 24, 25. SHOPHAR.

many songs', if thou wouldst be remembered,'ie. The war-horse for joy can hardly trust his ears.

favour (Ps. 106. 4). A call to repentance. The PhosiPs. 33. 2, 3. KINNOR, NEBEL-ASOR.

cian music, and that of revellers and of outcrats ar A.V. 'Harp, Poallery and an instrument of 10 strings.' itinerants, is identical in kind with that of the Tecuple Ps. 45. 8. MINNI(M).

Isa. 24. 8. TOPH, KINNOR. (Comp. Esek. 96.13) *Out of ivory palaces hath music made thee glad.' The silenced Tabret and Haro denote desolation. Ps. 47. 5. SHOPHAR.

Isa. 27. 13. SHOPHAR. (Cp. LeT. 35. 9;. A.V. Trumpet (cp. Amos 2. 2). God reascends from

The great Trumpet, Restoration to scattered Israel fighting for His people arnid their triumphal shouts,&c.

Isa. 50.29, 52. HALIL, TOPH, KINNOR. Ps. 49. 4. KINNOR. A.V. Harp. The Psalmist will proclaim God's headed by a fute player are a type of holy jog sp. Isa

A. V. Pipe. The pilgrim bands marching to Z message (A. V. dark saying) in song. See 2 Kin. 3. 15. 51.11; 1 K. 1.40): Tabrets & Harps, of triomph & peace. Ps. 57. 8 & 71. 22 & 108. 2. NEBEL, KINNOR.

Isa. 58. 1. SHOPHAR. (Jer. 4. 19. A. V. Paaitery (Pr. Bk. Version 'lute') and harp.


like, the prophet should alarm sod warm Ps. 68. 25. (KINNOR, TOPH.)

Jer. 1.5, 19, 21 & 6. 1. SHOPHAR. The order of the procession of the Ark (see 1 Chr. A. V. Trumpet. The

alarm of war vividly described 15. 16–28), A. v. thy goings in the sanctuary; the (cp. Jer, kl. 14. and the war-summons in Jer. 31 a. singers go before, the players on instrumente' (neginim,

Jer. 31. 4. TOPH. =kinnors) follow after: in the midst of (Alamoth)

Israel's daughters dancing timbrel in hand tests damsels playing toith timbrele.'

sent her restored prosp ty:

see Ps. 137.:; Lan 5 B Ps. 81. 1–3. TOPH, KINNOR, NEBEL, SHOPHAR.

Jer. 48. 36. HALIL. (Cp. Isa. 16. 11. 'Summons to the Paschal feast' ('new moon'). The A. V. Pipes. Jeremiah illustrates deep emotion by people are to shout (op. Ezra 3. 11); the Levites (2 Chr. a wind instrument used at funerals (Matt. 9.Sic 5. 12) to play a psalm with timbrel,

harp, and psaltery: perhaps bewails Moab as if already dead. the priests to blow the trumpets (Num. 10.8).

Ezek. 28. 13. TOPH, (NEKEB.
Ps. 87.7.

A. V. Tabrets, Piper (NEKEB.). An allusioa to Tyre's A. V. Players on instruments, (rather, probably, great prosperity (tabrets and pipes = festivity and to dancers).


or to the perfection of her musical instrumenta. Ps. 92. 3. NEBEL, ASOR, KINNOR.

Ezek. 33. 8-6. SHOPHAR.. (Cp. Isa. Se A.V. 'Instrument of 10 strings, Psaltery, Harp with A. V. Trumpet of the watchman, i.e. God's propbet. solemn sound'.

Dan. 9.5–15. KEREN, &c. See Babylonisk Instrument Ps. 98. 5, 6. KINNOR, NEBEL, SHOPHAR,


A. V. Cornet and Trumpet, signalling an invasion A. V. 'make a loud noise... sing with harp and the

Joel 2. 1, 15. SHOPHAR. voice of a psalm', rather, melody again in Isa. 51. 3

A. V. Trumpet ; probably also an allasion to the only). With trumpets and cornet' (P.B.V. sharom or

Feast of Trumpets', which prepared for the great shalm Fr. chalumean, or German schalmei, & reed

annual fast, the Day of Atonement. pipe), see Ps. 81.1-3 ; 'Clap hands,' see 2 K. 11. 12, &c. Ps. 137. 2. KINNOR.

Amos 2.2 & 3. 6. SHOPHAR. A. V. Harpe. Sorrow stills the national instrument

Of the (1) conqueror ; (2) watchman (Ezek. 3. (1 Sam. 16. 23, &c.), formerly associated with joy, as the

Amos 5. 23. NEBEL. willow with prosperity (Lev. 23. 40; Job 40. 22; Isa.

A. V. Viols, representing Jndah's (dirided) Forship 44. 4. See Planta). See Isa. 23. 16 & 24. 8. Ezek. 26. 13.

Amos 6.5. NEBEL.
Ps. 144. 9. NEBEL ASOR.

A.V. Viol. Samaria's listless and etfeminste nobia A. V. Praltery of 10 strings--A vow of thanksgiving.

improving their instruments of murie for larchio Ps. 149. 3. (MACHOL), TOPH, KINNOR.

feasting only, are contrasted with David, bo derated

his musical talent to God's service: re: Chr. 29. SS. A. V. Praise in the dance (see Jer. 31. 4. &c.; cp. 2 Sam. 6. 14), with timbrel and harp.

Hab. S. 19. NEGINOTH.

A. V. Stringed instruments. “My." in the dedication Ps. 150. 3-5. SHOPHAR, NEBEL, KINNOR, TOPH

of his ode, connects Habakkuk with the lettel MACHOL), MINNIM, UGAB, TZELTZELIM (2). Temple choir and its inspired musicians see I Chr. 85;

A.V. "Praise Him with Trumpet, Psaltery (harp), 2 Chr. 29).
Harp (guitar),.... timbrel and dance, with stringed in. Zeph. 1. 16; Zech. 9. 14. SHOPHAR.
struments and organs (rather, as Pr. Bk. Version, the

A. V. Trumpet of war, i.e. God's judgments. pipe', i.e.wind instruments), .. upon loud.... the high Zech. 14. 20. M'TZILLAH, TZELTZELIM. sounding, (i.e. smaller, of higher pitch,) cymbals.' A. V. Bells (see Exod. 98. 84. 86. The trappings of

Isa. 5. 12. KINNOR, NEBEL, TOPH, HALIL. worldly pomp shall be canctified (ep. Isa. 9. 1e bebe A. V. “The harp, riol (psaltery), tabret, pipe and inscription from the High Priest's golden erota. Ho wine are in their feasts'; so only are the instruments liness to the Lord." The little circular plates of of praise used.

metal on eastern harness are practically amall cymbals.

Hebrew music had become largely influenced by 1 Cor. 14. 7. AULOS, CITHARA.
Greek culture, as the few allusions indicate.

A. V Pipe, Harp, in Greek oboe, and lyre or guitar
Matt. 9. 23.. AULOS.
A. V. Minstrels, Gk, anlitae, probably players on an

1 Cor. 14.8 & 15. 52. SALPINX. oboe (aulos), corresponding very nearly to the ancient

A. V. Trumpet. . The last trump.' Salpinx is the Hebrew halil (HALIL). Jesus dismisses these profes.

Greek synonym in LXX. of the Hebrer shop bar sional mourners before raising Jairus daughter from (SHOPAAR), see Rev. 1. 10, A. V. ' a great voice ass death. A verb formed from aulos occurs in Mt. 11. 17;

trumpet (cp. ch. 4.1), and 9.14, the angel's trumpet Lk. 7. 32, A. V. 'we have piped.... ye have not danced.'

Rev. 5.8 & 14.9. KITHARA. 1 Cor. 13. 1. KUMBALON,

A.V. Harp: rather, Lyre. (1) The 4 living creatures A.V: Cymbal. Gk alalazón, shrieking, clashing and the 24 elders sing harps in hand. (?) The Apostle "Tinkling' formerly described a loud sound.

hears a voice from heaven like harp-accompanied voices




ANCIEST money was of two kinds, uncoined and coined. By uncoined may be understood pieces not issued under an authority, though they may have borne some stamp or impress of their value. By coined may be understood ingots, of which the weight and fineness are certified by the integrity of designs impressed upon the surfaces of the metal (Prof. Jevons, “Money", p. 57).

The first mention in the Bible, after the Flood, of uncoined money is when Abraham came up out of Egypt "very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold” (Gen. xiii. 2; comp. Gen. xxiv. 35). Though this passage does not imply anythiag more than "bullion ", yet we soon find a notice of the use of money (Heb, silver) as the price paid for a slave (Gen. xvii. 13). The first actual transaction of commerce is the purchase by Abraham of the cave of Machpelah for 400 shekels of silver, current (money) with the merchant (Gen. xxiii. 16); and silver as a medium of commerce appears to have been in general use among the nations of the Philistines (Gen. xx. 16; Judg. xvi. 6, 18; xvii. 2, seq.), the Midianites (Gen. xxxvii. 28), and the Syrians (2 Kings v. 5, 23). By the laws of Moses, men and cattle (Lev. vii. 3. seq.; Num. iii, 45, seq.), the possessing houses and fields (Lev. xxvii. 14, seq.), provisions (Deut. ii. 6, 28 ; xiv. 26). all fines for offences (Exod. xxi. xxii.), the contributions to the Temple (Exod. xxx, 13; xxxviii. 26), the sacrifice of animals (Lev. v. 15), the redemption of the first-born (Num. ii. 47—60; xviii. 15), were estimated and regulated by money value. It is probable that a fixed weight was assigned to single pieces, so as to make them suitable for the various articles presented in trade. The system of weighing (though frequent mention is made of the balance and the weighing of money, Exod. xxii. 17; Lev. xix. 36; Deut. xxv. 13. 15; 2 Sam. xvii. 12; 1 Kings xx. 39; Jer. xxxii. 9, 10; Prov. xi. 1, &c.) is not likely to have been applied to every individual piece. In the large total of 603,550 half-shekels accumulated by the contribution of each Israelite (Exod. xxxviii. 26), each individual half-shekel could hardly have been weighed Money was sometimes put into a chest, which when full was emptied by the high-priest, and the money was bound up in bags, and then told, perhaps being weighed in the bags (2 Kings xii. 9, 10; comp. 2 Chron. xxiv. 8–11). That there were pieces of different denominations is evident from the passage in Exod. xxx. 13, where the half-shekel is to be paid as the atonement money, and “the rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less” (Exod. xxx. 15). The third part of the shekel is mentioned in Persian times (Neh. a. 32), and the fourth part must have been an actual piece, for it was all the silver that the servant of Saul had to pay the seer (1 Sam. ix. 8. 9). Iron and lead bars of constant formand weight circulated in Egypt; in Greece, bars of iron; in Italy, bars of copper; in Britain, in the time of Julius Cæsar, bars of copper and iron; and from the earliest times, gold and silver in the same shape were employed in general traffic in the East. This explains the mention of a wedge (Heb, tongrue) of gold found by Achan at Jericho (Josh. vii. 21) (see Talent under Weights), as well as the different payments which are mentioned in the 0. T., and which presuppose with certainty the currency of single pieces of metal according to weight.

It is also probable that a system of "jewel eurrency" or "ring-money" was in vogue. The case of Rebekah, to whom the servant of Abraham gave "a golden ear-ring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight" (Gen. xxiv. 22), proves that the ancient Hebrews made their jewels of a specific weight so as to know the value of these ornaments in employing them for money. That the Egyptians kept their bullion in jewels is erident from their monuments, where they are represented weighing rings of gold and silver, and is further illustrated by the fact of the Israelites having at their exodus from Egypt borrowed "jewels (vessels) of silver and jewels (Fessels) of gold” (Keli keseph, Keli zahab), and “spoiled the Egyptians" (Exod. xii. 35, 36; comp. Exod iii. 22 ; xi. 2). So too it would appear that the money used by the children of Jacob, when they went to purchase corn in Egypt, was an annular currency (Gen. xlii. 35). Their money is described as "bundles of money and when returned to them was found to be “of [full] weight” (Gen. xliii. 21). It was therefore of a form capable of being tied up, which receives corroboration from the passage in Deuteronomy (xiv. 24–26), where directions are given as to the payment of the títhes to the sanctuary: "Then shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thy hand, and shalt go unto the place which the Lord thy God shall choose". The account of the sale of Joseph to the Midianites atfords another instance of the employment of jewel ornaments as a medium of exchange (Gen, xxxvii. 28), as we gather from the account in Numbers (xxxi. 50, 61) of the spoiling of the Midianites, that they carried their whole wealth in the forms of chains, bracelets, ear-rings, and tablets. The friends of Joh gave him, in addition to "a piece of money” (KESITAH). “an ear-riug of gold" (nezem zuhab, LXX. tetradrachmon chrusou kai asēmou-tetradrachm of uncoined gold, Job xlii. 11). Now had these ear-rings of gold not heen intended as representing money, all the friends of the patriarch would not bave given him the same article, and that in conjunction with a piece of silver. | From these statements, it is evident, firstly, that if the Hebrews became learned in “all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts vii, 22; comp. 1 Kings iv. 30), they did not learn from them the use of money; and secondly, that nowhere in the Pentateuch is there any mention of money that was coined. Nor do the passages in Joshua, Indges, and Job imply an actual coinage, any more than the “piece of silver" (AGORAH) mentioned at the time of Samuel (1 Sam. ii. 36). The reigns of David and Solomon were an era of prosperity for Judaea-"Silver was in Jerusalem as stones; it was nothing accounted of in the days of Solomon” (1 Kings x. 21, 27; 2 Chron. ix. 20, 27); still it is certain that there were no real coins, namely, pieces struck under an authority, before the Exile. On the other hand, the Hebrews, as I have shown, must have employed pieces of a definite weight; but the excavations in Palestine have never brought to light an example, any more than the excavations in Egypt, Assyria, and Babylonia. It may, however, be observed that when the pieces of silver were collected for the treasury they were melted doron before reissue. It is recorded (2 Kings xxi. 9; comp. 2 Chron. xxxiv. 17) that Shaphan the scribe


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