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TREES, SHRUBS, HERBS, AND FLOWERS.
moisture supplies it, for wberever the palm grows, digging will and of it the mummy coffins of the Egyptians were made; the discover water. It ornamented Solomon's (1 Kin. 6. 2), &c.) and wide spreading branches and the broad dense ever teen tollige Ezekiel's (40. 16 &c.) Temples. It represented Jewry victorious, on afford a welcome shade (by the roadside, Luto 19.). Unable to the first Maccabæan coins, and Judea vanquished, on Vespasian's bear frost (Ps. 78. 47), it was limited to the plains and lowlan.is coins. (DAIK)
(vale,' Heb. Shepholah) of the coast, and to the Jorılan valley PANNAG (Ezek. 27. 17), “millet” (Syriac version). 1 Kin. 10. 27 ; 1 Chr. 97. 9). The
fruit is a small and very poor tis. PAPER REED (Isa. 19. 7.) See Bulrush.
much eaten by the poorer classes (cp. Amos 7. 14). Distinguish PINE TREE. (Isa. 41. 19. & 60.13.) See Fir, Oil Tree. the English sycamore, which is a maple. POMEGRANATE. The fruit of Punica granatum.
SWEET-CANÉ. (Isa. 13. 24; Jer. 6. 20.) [CALAMUS.) A great favourite in the East (c.g. Egypt, Numb. 20. E), and plen
TAMARISK.* See Grove (1). tiful in Palestine (Deut. & 8; Numo. 13. 23). A light wine was TARES. (Matt. 13. 24-30.) Gk. zizania, Arabic made from its juice (Sony 8.9). The rind of the fruit is an astrin- zawán (Lolium temulentum), bearded darnel. Kent medicine, and used for
tanning leather. Several places in the Holy Land were named "Rimmon," i.e. pomegranate. The
The only grass with a poisonous seed. One of the worst corn weeds
of Palestine ; it is Weeded out by the hand, or, more ponerally, the fruit was a model for ornaments, c.g. on the High Priest's robe (Ex. 3 33) and architectural, in the Temple (1 Kings 7. 18, &c.). The
sters are cut while green, 'Entirely like wheat, till the ear appears.' loved one's temples are likened to its rosy colouring (Song : 3).
TREE. (Isa. 6. 13.) Seo Turpentine Tree, POPLAR. (Heb. libnch, 'White'.) Gen. 30.37 may re
TEREBINTH.* See Turpentine Tree. fer to the storax, drab. Lubna (stacte); Hox.4.13 to the THISTLE, THORNS. See Bramble, poplar, 3 kinds occurring in Palestine. (MULBERRY.) THYINE-WOOD. (Rev. 18. 12.). Callitris quadri.
PULSE. (Dan. 1. 12, 16.) The Heb. word is a general valvis, N. African citron-wood, akin to the cypress. one signifying seeds'. All kinds of peas and lentils are
It yields one of the most beautiful and durable of known woods. much used in Palestine: comp. 2 8 23.11; beans, lentils, and
It was in great request by the Romans, who gave immense prices perched pulse (corn), 2 & 17. 18; Ezek, 4. 9. [PICHEX)
for articles of furniture made of it. Much valued vases and platters PLAIN, A.V. of Heb, elon, should be translated Oak
are now made of it in Algeria. in Gen. 12 6, &c. (of Moreh), 13. 18, &c. (of Mamre); Judy. 4. 11.
TURPENTINE TREE. Ecclus. 24. 16. "Teil tree', (of Zaanaim), 9. 6 (of the pillar in Shechem, see Josh. 24. 25. Judg. Isa. 6. 18; ' Elm', Ho8. 4. 13; 'Oak', Gen. 35. 4, Judg. 6.
37 (of Mconenim, or, of the Enchanters); 1 Sam. 10. 3 (of Tabor). 11, 1 Ki. 13. 14, 2 Sam. 18. 9, i Chr. 10. 12, Eżek. 6. 13; PLANE TREE. See Chestnut.
*Elah', 1 Sam. 17. 2, 19, & 21. 9 (Pistacia terebinthus). REED. (2 Kings 18. 21, &c.) Various tall grassy and Common throughout the Levant. The solitary and weird-look. grass-like plants are thus indicated. The Mediterra- ing terebinth replaces the oak in warm and dry localities of B. and nean reed is Arundo donar (shaker). (BULRUSH.]
E Palestine, esp. in Moab, Ammon, and the neighbourhood of
Heshbon. A small deciduous much-branched tree, sometimes atROSE, ROSE OF SHARON. Heb. khabatzeleth, | taining to considerable size ; the leaves are pinnate, and the very the derivation of which suggests a bulbous plant. Ap- small towers are produced in lateral clusters; these are succeeded parently, like‘lily', used figuratively; but if any par. by small oval berries. The turpentine, a kind of balsam, with a ticular flower, probably the Arab. khavassah, the sweet pleasant smell, is produced from incisions in the bark, and is used Varcissus tazetta, most abundant on the Plain of to flavour wine, sweetmeats, &c. in the East.-Distinguish turpenSharon (Song 2. 1). Rose, (Isa. 35. 1) may denote equally tine of pine trees.
VINE. (1) A creeping plant, Dt. 32. 32; 2 K. 4. 39. But wild roses abound in Syria and Palestine. Our rose is found (GOURD]; (2) the coinmon grape vine (Vitis
vinifera), onts in Galilee and Lebanon.
extraordinarily luxuriant in Palestine (cp. Jer. 18. 32; RUE. (Luke 11. 42.) The common Ruta graveolens. Num. 19. 23). A plant cultivated in the Fast from the earliest Cultivated by the Hebrews, as in our cottage gardens. It was times (Gen. 9. 20); thence introduced into the West. The monuesteemed a prophylactic, a disinfectant, and a febrifuze. (CUMIN.) ments prove its early cultivation in Egypt (now neglected); see RUSH. (Job 8. 11, Heb. gomé; lsa. 9. 14, Heb. ag
Gen. 40. 9; Ps. 78. 47, &c Found in Palestine by Abram (Gen. 14. mou). See Bulrush.
18): and by Joshua's spies (Num. 13. 23). It was the emblem of
Judæa on some Herodian coins. Near houses, the vine was often RYE. Probably 'spelt', Triticum spelta, Heb. cusse
trained on a trellis (as in Italy); hence, to sit cvery min under meta, (A.V.fitches, Ezek. 4.9), Arabic chirsanah. [CORN). his vine (Mic. 4. 4, &c.) evidenced peace and security. From the Rye is a grain of more Northern latitudes.
special care needed to establish, protect and tend the vine, Israel is SAFFRON. (Song 4. 14.). The fragrant stigmas or
called God's vineyard (180. 5.7; Ps. 80); comp. God's church in upper part of the pistil of the Crocus sativus,
tbe parable: Matt, 21. 33. The "choice vine" (Surek, Arabic serki). i Grown in Europe & the East for seasoning dishes, bread, drinks, &c.
yields soft-stoned grapes, which make the Sultana raisin (Gen. SHITTAH TREE or SHITTIM WOOD (Isa. 41.
49. 11; Isa. 5.2: Jer... 21). The lodge for the watcher (from loger,
to pass the night), is still seen among the vines (18a. 5. 2), which, 19), Hebrew scholars now translate acacia": its unlike other crops, are always bedged in from the cattle (Ps. 80. 12; ider ty with Acacia seyal (gum arabic tree) seerning Matt. 2. 33). In Palestine, as in France, the yines are carefully absolutely certain (Nat. Hist. Bible, pp. 391-3).
pruned (John 15. 2). A watch-tower and wine-presy were inApparently the only available timber in the desert, where it is dispensable to every vineyard (18. 7. 2; Matt. 21. 33). The rockstill lound in the very driest situations. It abounds in the sultry
hewn press, with a trough for the grapes and a second for the easis, the Plains of Shittim (Moab; Num. 25. 1). A very hard and
juice trodden out (Joel 3. 13), survives on all Palestine's hare hills. close-grained wood of a fine orange-brown. The wood work and Mt. Carmel, Moab, Gilead, Southern Judæa, and Engedi, where furniture of the ark and Tabernacle were of shittim wood.
the vine has been long extinct (78a. 16. 16), are studded with SOAP. (Jer. 2. 22; Mal. 3. 2.) Refers to a vege
them. The hard work of treading was never undertaken singly table alkali (Arab. El kali), procured by burning, like kelp. The derivation or context of all Heb, terms for wine imply ferment.
(784. 03. 2); the juice spurted on the treader's clothes (Gen. 49. 1). the Solsolas and Salicornias, salt plants abundant on the coast ed juice. The fresh juice when
boiled became " dibs", A.V. 'honey'. and by the Dead Sea. Nitre' in Jer. 2 22 is a mineral alkali, lye.
a thick syrup (Gen. 13.11; Ezek. 27. 17). Old leathern"bottles" (Jul. SODOM, VINE OF (Deut. 32. 32.) Probably the 9. 17), le skins, being too inelastic to yield to the expansion of new apple of Sodom", Arabic osher (Calotropis procera), wine in which the fermentation had not quite ceased, would burst.
This most peculiar shrub grows round the shores of the Dead Wine on the lees (Isa. 25. 6), 1.e. kept unstrained, gained in body. Sea only. Its fruit, of the size of an apple, and bright yellow, only VINE, WILD. (180. 5. 2.) The fox-grape. It bears contains fine silky tufts of white filaments, attached to small small black fruit, astringent as n sloe, only fit for vinegar. (COCKLE.) seeds. It bursts when touched. SPICERY, Heb, nechoth; probably=Arabic naka'at,
WALNUT*. Heb. egoz, Arab. ghaus. See Nut (1). the gum tragacanth from the Astragalus tragacantha.
WHEAT. Triticum vulgare, spelta, and compositum, Imported into Egypt by Joseph's purchasers (Gen. 37.25); part wheats (r. æstiouem and 1. hybernum). Whent is sown after the
The two principal varieties cultivated are the summer and winter of Jacob's present (Gen. 13.
11), Precious things' in A.V. 2 Rings early rains in Nov. or Dec., and reaped in May, or in June (see 9. 13 : hai, 29.2 (Heb. nechoth), are probably gums for incense
Calendar) on the higher lands. Corn is still trodden out of the stored in the Temple (see Seh. 13. 5).
ear by cattle, or pressed out with a sledge, and winnowed with a SPIKENARD. Heb. nerd (Song 1. 12 & 4.14). This shovel, 1.e. by throwing up the grain against the wind on threshing. nard is the root of a small herbaceous plant (Nar. Moors upon breezy hills. The storehouses are usually holes in the Costachys jatamansi) of the Himalaya, allied to valerian. earth within the houses or their courtyards.
It is exported all over the East and to the Levant. It has an WILLOW, in A. V. translates the Hebrew:-(i.) aromatic smell, and is an ingredient in unguents and various Tzaphtzaphah (Ezek. 17. 5) = Arabic safraf, i.e. the other preparations. That which Mary poured on our Lord's head Fas' very precious,' Mat. 26.7; Mk. 14. 3;'very costly,' John 123
willow generally; (ii.) Aráb, the willow of the brook STACTE. (Ex. 30. 34.) Gum of the storax (Styrax | Lev. 23. 40; Isa. 4. 4, &c.), which must surely be the officinalis), which yields a perfume and medicine.
Oleander, the characteristic and beautiful feature of SYCAMINE TREE. (Luke 17. 6.) A mulberry (MUL In Ps. 187.2 it is probably a poplar (Populus euphratica).
all the wadys (watercourses) and glens of Palestine. BERRY); the white and black (Morus alba and nigra), are cultivated in the East for their fruit and for their foliage, on which
The 'willow' has been identified with the weeping willow (Salix silk worms are fed, esp. in the Lebanon.
babylonica), but this is not a native of W. Asia, but of China. SYCOMORE. The fig-mulberry (Ficus sycomorux).
WORMWOOD. Various Artemisia are common in One of the most valuable trees in the East, both for timber
Palestine. Noxious and bitter, wormwood typifies the (Isa. 9. 10),
shade, and fruit (Amos 7. 14). The wood is very durable, evil results of sin (Rev. 8. 11). See Hemlock, Gall.
PERFUMES OF THE BIBLE.-See above, Aloe, ? Bdellium, Calamus, Cassia, Cinnamon, Frankincense,
Galbanum, Ladanum*, Myrrh, Safron, Spicery, Spikenard, Stacte, Sweet-Cane.
REFERENCES TO THE ANIMAL CREATION IN THE BIBLE
BY THE REV. CANON TRISTRAM, LL.D.F.R.S.
TEE number of animals mentioned in the Bible is considerable. No less than 42 Hebrew names of mammals 35 of birds, 14 of reptiles, and 26 of invertebrate animais occur. On closer examination, the way in stie many of these occur, and the frequency of reference to certain species, give an insight into the character of the country at the time, and indicate the great chauges in its condition since the earlier books of the Blue were written. Of the quadrupeds mentioned, one has been for ages extinct ; six or seren others are no loaga found in Western Asia ; while many more are so scarce, that they could not now afford a subject for illustrated which would be generally familiar. The land, now bare, was then well wooded: hence the changes.
We have a clue sometimes to the epoch of the disappearance of certain species. Thus the unicorn (Heb reem), ic. the auerochs, the extinct wild ox (Bus primigenius) is a familiar emblem of untamed strength and ferocity in the earlier books of the Bible, but is only once alluded to after the time of David (Isa saris. It has nothing to do with the fabled one-horned unicorn of beraldry, our version being here incorrect. I ti two horns, as we see from Deut. xxxiii. 17, where its horns symbolize the two tribes of Ephraim and Mansisch It became extinct also in Assyria about 1000 B.C., as the country became more thickly peopled (Layard
Mammals, or beasts, are divided in Scripture into cattle, or domesticated, and beasts of the field. iz. w animals; and further, according to their uses for sacrifice and food, into clean, i.e. ruminants, and was, which includes all other classes. The creation of mammals is placed last before man in the cosmogony of Yusos a position strikingly corroborated by the researches of geology.
APE. Only mentionel among the precious things im- bird" (Jer. xii. 9). The hyæna (Hyrna stris) is to he ported by Solo:non from Tharshish (1 Kings x. 22;
2 found everywhere in cares and tombs It lives o camiot Chron. ix. 21). No monkey was ever indigenous in Pales- and bones, and often dies into grares for human anses tine. As the Hebrew word is identical with the Tamil or BEHEMOTH, i... great beasts”,
is generally so these South Indian name for this animal, it is clear that the lated in the Bible; but in Job it is left untranslatel as: Tharshish of Solomon must have been in South India or indicates the hippopotamus, that mighty pechyders, Ceylon.
ASS. The most important of the beasts of burden in depicts. The hippopotamus was well known to the Palestine, where it is a much finer and larger animal ancient Egyptians and is still found in all the great than in more Northern countries, and able to maintain rivers of Africa. considerable speed for several hours continuously. It BOAR, WILD. Ps. lxxx. 13. "The boar cat of the was ridden by persons of condition. As an emblem of wood doth waste it". This is the only allusion to te strength, Issachar is compared to a strong ass crouchivg wild boar in Scripture. It is, and doubtless always was down between two burdens (Gen. xlix. 14). As an emblem common, having its lair in the woods, and most destrus of peace, in contrast with the horse, used only for warlike tive to vineyards. purposes, our Lord, according to the prophecy (Zech. ix. BULL, WILD. The word so rendered in Isa i od 9), entered Jerusalem on an ass's colt, a peaceful judge, Deut. xiv. 5, is neither the bison por the bezitak, is not an earthly conqueror. The ass was employed in agri some species of large antelope, formerly much pre culture. An ox and ass were not to be yoked together. common than now. It is probably Alcephalus bulunan to teach that improper alliances in religious or civil life the bubale or wild cow of the Arabs. are to be avoided
CAMEL. Perhaps the earliest animal enlisted in the ASS, WILD. One of the most untameable and fleet service of man, and without the aid of which existence of wild animals; hence the enıblem of the wild and pre- in the deserts of Arabia would be impossible. It is in datory Ishmael (Gen. xri. 12). In Job and in the Pro- mentioned in the history of Abraham. On the backs phets, the wild nature of this animal is frequently i.e. humps, of camels (Isa. xxx. C), was transported all the referred to, as in Job xi. 12; xxxix. 6–8: xxiv. 5; Isa. merchandize of Assyria and Egypt. The camer's frieXxxii. 14; Jer. i. 24 ; xiv. 6; Hos. viii. 9. Wild asses still ture (Gen. xxxi. 34) was the large frame placed on the exist in central Asia and in the deserts of Africa. The hump. to which the cradles or packs are attacbed The species are distinguished by different names in the camel is chiefly used in the fat countries which he round Hebrew.
Palestine. In hilly districts the ass is preferred Cane's BADGER. Badger skins are frequently mentioned as hair supplies a strong, cloth. much barsher and coarset used for the covering of the tabernacle. Though the than woollen cloth. Two proverbs reganting the carpet badger is found in Palestine, yet the word so translated are used by our Lord (Matt. xix. 24: xxi. 241, in both of most probably indicates the dugong, a very large species which the force of the illustration is simply in the size of of the seal family found in the Red Sea, and the skin of the animal. which is used for such purposes to this day.
CATTLE. Used from the beginning of history both BAT: The
bat is named among unclean winged things in agriculture, for milk, for their flesh, and especially for (Lev. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. 18), and as inhabiting ruins and sacrifice. The Hebrew language, like our own. posesses desolate places (Isa. ii. 20). Thousands of bats of many many words for the different ages and seres of Dent species swarm in tho caverns of the Holy Land.
cattle. West of Jordan the cattle were generally stait BEAR. The fierceness of the bear, especially when fed; in the plains south and east they roamal in a bait robbed of its young, is frequently alluded to (2 Sam. xvii. Wild state. Such were the "bulls of Bashan". In the 8; Prov. xvii. 12; Hos. xii. 8). It was well known and hill country there are few horned cattle; and in the Jor very destructive. Since the destruction of the forests it dan valley the Indian buffalo, introduced from Persia is now rarely seen south of Lebanon and Hermon, where and living in the marshes, takes their
place it is common. I once met one in Galilee. The Syrian CHAMOIS. Deut. xiv. 6. Not the animal know to bear (Ursus syriacus) scarcely differs from the brown bear us by that name, but the mouflon, or wild sheen en of Europe.
still lingers in Cyprus and Arabia Petræa BEAST, WILD. Two wonis so translated signify CONEY. Mentioned among the unclean animals beasts in general, but in Isa xiii. 22; xxxiv. 16; Jer. 1. 34. Not our rahhit, but a very peculiar little animal of the the word iyim, meaning "howlers", is so rendered. The same size still found among the rocks as referred win jackal (Canis aureux). called by the Arabs “the son of Ps. civ. 18. Its wisdom and defencelessness are aitace howling”, is the animal intended It was, and is, very by Solomon (Prov. xxx. 24-26). It cannot burrox, for common in Palestine, in ruins and rocks, about towns and it has no claws, only nails hall dereloped; but it lies in in deserts alike. Another word, ziim, translated "wild holes in the rocks, and feeds only at dawn and das beasts of the desert" (Isa, xiii. 21; xxxiv.
14), refers to always having sen tries posted, at the slightest surat the hyena, as does tzebua, wrongly rendered "speckled from whom the whole party instantly disappear. The
ANIMAL CREATION-MAMMALS. coney (Hyrax syriacus) is not a ruminant, but it sits HARE. Lev. xi. 6; Deut. xiv. 7. The Syrian hare Working its jaws as if re-chewing. It is found sparingly (Lepus syriacus) very closely resembles our own. Though in most of the rocky districts, and is common about we read he cbeweth the cud", yet it is not a ruminaut. Sinai,
But the Hebrew word means only re-chew, which the hare DOGS in the East were not the friends and companions certainly appears to do, and Moses only speaks according of man, who only cultivated their instinct so far as to to appearances, his object being to show why the hare use them for protecting the flocks (Job xxx. 1). The Jews was forbidden, though to all appearance it chewed the were never a hunting people, and never trained dogs in- cud, viz. because it did not divide the hoof. dividually; but encouraged, as is the case to this day, HART & HIND. Either the fallow deer, still occapacks of dogs in all the towns and villages, where they sionally found, or the red deer, now extinct, or deer are the common and only scavengers. From this habit generally. The deer has afforded many illustrations to the dog is looked on with loathing and aversion, as filthy psalmist and prophet-its atfection (Prop. v. 19; Jer. and unclean; and though mentioned some 40 times in xiv. 6), its habit of hiding its young. (Job xxxix. 1), its Scripture, it is almost always with contempt (Matt. vii. sure-footedness (Ps. xvii. 33; Hab. iii. 19), its swiftness 6; 2 Sam. iii. 8; 2 Kings viii. 13; Isa. lxvi. 3, &c.). So the (Cant. ii. 8, 9; Isa. xxxv. 6). Jews termed Gentiles “dogs" as Mohammedans do HEDGEHOG. Supposed by some to be intended by Christians to the present day. The habit of the pariah the word kippod, rendered " bittern" in A. v. dogs of hunting and howling in packs all night is referred HORSE. The horse in Scripture is rarely mentioned to in Ps. lix. 14, 15.
but in connection with war. The peaceful patriarchs did DRAGON. Two words are so translated. One (lan- not rear any; and because they were employed so exnix), occurring in Isa. li. 9; Jer, li. 34; Ezek. xxix. 3; clusively for wars of conquest, the king was forbidden to xxxii. 2 (whale A. V., but margin dragon), means the multiply horses to himself (Deut. xvii. 16). Cavalry was crocodile (see Leviathan). The other (tan), in Job xxx. unsuited for military purposes in the hilly, regions of 29; Isa. xxxiv. 13; xiii. 32 ; xliii. 20; Ps. xliv. 19; Jer. ix. Palestine. It is only in the great plain of Esdraeion that 11; X. 22; xiv. 6; xlix. 33; li. 37; Mic. i. 3; Mal. i. 8, is we read of the chariots of Jabin and Sisera. David and generally interpreted to mean the jackal.
Solomon were the first to establish a cavalry and chariot DROMEDARY. Three words are thus rendered. Iu force. The horses of Assyria and Chaldæa (Hab. 1. 8), Isa. lx. 6 and Jer. ii. 23 the word signifies a swift or finely- and of Egypt, were as famed as the dromedaries of bred camel. In all the other passages the Hebrew words Midian. Job looks more to the strength than the swiftare different, and should be translated swift horse or ness of the horse in his grand picture (Job xxxix. 19-25). stallion
But the horse should hereafter be of peaceful use, when ELEPHANT.. In 1 Kings x. 23, the word translated on its bells shall be "holiness unto the Lord" (Zech. itory is literally "elephants' teeth and is the same word xiv. 20). as is used in the Tamil of South India for the elephant LEOPARD. Familiar to the writers of Scripture. A to this day.
type of cunning, from its habit of lying in wait by a well FALLOW DEER. Heb. Yachmûr. The same word or a village (Jer. y. 6; Hos. xiii. 7), of tierceness (Isa. xi. is used to this day by the Arabs for the roebuck, identical 6), of a conqueror's sudden swoop (Dan. vii. 6; Hab. i. 8). with the
roebuck of Scotland, and which is stil, though it was formerly very common, and is still to be found in rarely, found in Palestine. It should doubtless be trans- small numbers wherever there is wood. lated roebuck; and the word rendered roebuck in our LION. The lion was cornmon and well known. It is version means the gazelle.
now unknown west of the Euphrates. No less than 130 FERRET, Lev. xi. 30. Not our ferret, but some creep- times is it mentioned in Scripture, and is the favourite ing thing, unclean. The Septuagint render it by the symbol of dignity (as in Num. xxiv. 9), courage (Prov. sbrew-inouse, but it is more probably a species of lizard. xxviii. 1), power (Deut. xxxiii. 20), strength (Judg. xiv.
FOX, . The word shual, so translated, includes both 18), ferocity (Ps. vii. 2). As the type of power and lordly fox and jackal, which are often spoken of together in the strength, it was the ensign of the tribe of Judah, and East. The cunning of the fox is as proverbial there as was so employed by Solomon in the decorations of the among ourselves Ezek. xiii. 14. Luke xiii. 32). In Ps temple
and of the king's houses. For the like reason, in Ixul. 10 the reference is not to the fox, but to the jackal, the Revelation the Lord Jesus is represented as the Lion which is a carrion feeder. The 300 shualim which sam- of the tribe of Judah, conquering His enemies (Rev. v. son shared and sent with brands among the Philistines' 5). Its combined ferocity and craft caused it, on the other corn were jackals, which hunt in large packs, and which hand, to be used as an emblem of Satan (1 Pet. v. 8) and he might easily have caught in great numbers, while the of enemies of the truth (2 Tim. iv. 27). The lion was capfor is a solitary forager.
tured either by a pitfall or entangled in a net (2 Sam, GOAT. The goat was an important item in the wealth xxiii. 20; Ezek. xix. 4, 8). of the patriarchs, and in the hilly countries of the East, MOLÉ. Two words are thus rendered. In Isa. Ii. 20, where there is brushwood, it almost supersedes horned some burrowing animal is certainly intended. Our mole cattle. Job, living on an Arabian plain, had no goats. does not exist in Syria, but there is blind-burrowing The stately
bearing of an old he-goat as he leads the herd rodent, the mole-rat (Spalar typhlus). is well known, and is mentioned in Prov. xxx. 31. The MOUSE. The word, both in Lev. xi. 29 and Isa. Ixvi. Arabs to this day call a man of stately mien "a he-goat". 17. is doubtless used generically, and would include the It is also used (Dan. viii, 6) as the symbol of the Mace- various rats, dormice, jerboas, and hamsters, many of donian empire. Our Lord's awful comparison of the separation of the righteous and the wicked at the last species are found in the country. In 1 Sam. vi. 5, the
which are eaten by the Arabs, and of which about 25 day is at once understood by those who know the habits mice that marred the land” are the common field mice. of the East. The shepherd always has both sheep and goats together, for the sheep eat only the fine herbage, horned addax (Antilope addax); Deut. xiv. 4.
PYGARG. Some kind of antelope, probably the twistand the goats browze on what the sheep refuse. They ROE, ROEBUCK. The word so translated should be pasture and travel together in parallel columns, but gazelle, a most beautiful small antelope, and the only seldom interrningle more closely, and at night they large game which is still very common in the country. always classify themselves. The goats are for the most from its beauty, it is used as a term of endearment in part black, the sheep white, dappled, or piebald, form- love (Cant, fi. 9 : v. 17 ; viii. 14). Its fleetness is alluded ing a very marked contrast. A kid is usually taken for to (2 Sam. ii. 18; 1 Chron. xii. 8); its timidity (Prov. vi. 6; a feast in preference to a lamb. because, equally good | Isa. xiii. 14). Tabitha or Dorcas means " to eat, it is of less value afterwards than the fleece
gazelle bearing sheep.
SATYR. Isa. xiii. 21 ; xxxiv. 14. By some referred to The female kids are saved as much as the dog-faced baboon worshipped by the Egyptians. The posaible, goats' milk being preferred to ewe's. The bottles same word in Lev, xvii. 7 and 2 Chron. xi. 15, is rendered of the East are always of goatskin, tanned with the hair "devils ", and the prophet may well have intended some
This serves to keep the water cool, and to prevent ideal demon, as the Egyptian goat-worship was not of an friction in travelling. As the hair wears off, the leather actual goat, but of a goat-headed satyr. hecornes brittle, especially it allowed to get dry, or exposed to the smoke of the tent (Josh. ix. 4; Pg. cxix. 83: Bible (Gen. iv. 4). It was the chief animal of sacrifice,
SHEEP. The sheep is the first animal pamed in the Matt, ix. 17; Mark ii. 22; Luke v. 37). The hair of the and the most important part of the wealth of the patriSyrian goat is longer than that of the goat of this country archs. As the Holy Land itself became more agricultural, (Cant. iv. 1).
the vast flocks were found chiefly with the border tribes. GOAT, WILD, or IBEX. Still common in the wilder. First in value was the milk of the flocks, then the wool ness of Sinai. and not very scarce in the rocky and wilder | Hence sheep-shearing was celebrated by a feast like harparts of Judæa and Moab. Whenever it occurs in Scrip- vest-home (Gen. xxxvii. 12; 1 Sam. xxv.; 2 Sam. xiii. 23). ture, its wariness and wildness are alluded to.
Many Scripture figures are drawn from the flock. The GREYHOUND. Prov. xxx. 31. No doubt the horse, shepherd leading the flock, calling the sheep by name, as rightly suggested in the margin, is the true trans- guarding them on the hill-sides by night, folding them, lation.
watering them--for in that dry climate the sheep must
ANIMAL CREATION-BIRDS. be daily watered--are all familiar to the Eastern (John cat and the ichneumon (Herpestes ichneumon), very 003 X. 1-6: Ps. lxxvii. 20; ixxx. 1; Isa. xl. 11). The fold is mon in the Holy Land. still the cave on the hill-side (1 Sam. xxiv. 3); the well is WHALE. Perhaps the word would be better trane still the trysting-place of the village or tribe (Gen. xxix. latei generally "sca-mousters In Lan. it. the sto 10; Exod. ii. 16). The docility and patience of the sheep phet shows a knowledge of the habit of the whale tribe (Isa. liii. 7), but above all its einployment in sacrifice, in suckling their young. The "great fish that sei make it the principal type of the Redeemer, the Land as Jonah (1.17) could not have been wat se utisi it had been slain, the Lamb slain from the foundation of by a whale, from the small capacity of its throat. We the world, the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins though now extinct there, were in ancient times i of the world.
in the Mediterranean. SWINE were held the most abhorred and unclean of WOLF. Frequently mentioned in the Bible. Federaly all animals (Isa. Ixv. 4 ; lxvi. 3, 17). The swineheri's was as an emblem of ferocity and bloodthirsupes Droz, the most degrading employment (Luke xv. 15). Our Lord from the warlike character of the tribe, is ompetis indirectly rebuked the Gergesenes for keeping swine, wolf (Gen. xlix. 7). The savage nature of the sus albeit for the use of Gentiles (Matt, viii. 32). Swine are alluded to in Ezek. xxii. 27; Mait. vii. 15; X 16; Label rarely if ever kept in Palestine.
3; Acts xx. 29. Its habit of prowling at night in der UNICORN. The auerochs or bison. See page 1. 0; Hab. i. 8: Zeph. iii. & The wolf still rarins in must WEASEL (Lev. xi. 29) probably includes also the pole- parts of Palestine,
BIRDS. The creation of birtis is placed in Genesis after that of fishes and reptiles, and before mammals, in est accord with what palæontologs has indicated, birds becoming numerous in the chalk after the reign of the seas monsters of the wealden. Birds are simply classed by Moses as clean and unclean. Before the Captivity the Jews had no domestic fowls except pigeons. There are few allusions to the habits of birds in the Old Testagent. The instinct of migration is referred to (Cant. ii. 11, 12; Jer. viii. 7); the caging of song birds (Job vil 1: ani. the snaring or netting of birds (Ps. cxxiv. 7; cxl. 5; Prov. vil. 23 ; Eccles. ix. 12; Ezek. xii. 13; Amos iil 54. There are 7 Hebrew words for different kinds of bird-snares. All are used to this day-the throw stick, the price the clap-net, the trap, and the decoy bird. The birds of Palestine are more diversified than in any other as try of the same latitude, owing to the great variety of elevations and temperatures. The most cons.cos feature is the very great number of birds of prey.
BITTERN. Spoken of as inhabiting waste and desert the winter. Its return is the sign of spring (Cant K 11. places (Isa. xiv. 23; xxxix: 11; Zeph. ii. 14). It is a shy 12; Jer. vi. 7). It was the type of love song of & solitary bird, inhabiting the recesses of swamps. It was mon), of trust (Ps. Ixxiv. 19). Its dark eyes, with bre: once well known in English marshlands, and is still com- red skin round them, are mentionei in Cant i 13.1.1: mon in the recrly swamps of the Tigris. Its strange v. 12. Above all, its gentleness andi innocence are se booming cry at night gives a sense of desolation like tho on by our Lord (Matt. x. 16), and therefore it was the s:hyæna's wail.
ting emblem for the Holy Spirit (Matt. ii. 16). COCK, HEN. Domestic poultry are not mentioned EAGLE. Heb nesker; Sot our eagle, but the prest till after the Captivity. They were introduced through griffon vulture (Gyps fulcu), a most majestic biri ibe Persia from India into Europe, and were universal in type of Nisroch, the eagle-headed god of the A-Tas our Lord's time, who compares His care for Jerusalem (2 Kings xix. 37'; Is.2. xxxvii. 38; Hab 18). The Lure to that of a ben for her brool (Luke xiii. 31). “Cock neck and head of the griffon is referred to in Voc à 16;! crowing" was a definition of night (Matt. xiii. 36). In its congregating to feed on the stain in Job sil; our Lori's warning to Peter, St. Mark says, “before the Prov. xxx. 17; Matt. xiv. 28; its longesity in Prati cock crow tuice xiv. 30), the other evangelists, It has been known to more than 10 years in opaste ** before the cock crow". Both expressions are identical ment. Its swiftness (Joh ix. 26, &c.): its been sigt: Ja The cock crows about 2 a.m., and again at 4 a.m., which xxxix. 27-30); its inhabiting the dizziest cifts fur latter is ordinarily spoken of as cock-crowing. In the ing (Jer. xlix. 16); its well-known care in training its idioms of the South Sea Islanders, the earlier is called young (Exod. xix. 4; Deut. xxxii. 11, 12). It was the em the “false cnck-crow", the later the "true", or more blem of Persia (Isa. xlvi. 11) as well as of Assyria and commonly the cock-crow".
Rome. CORMORANT. Heb. Shalak, i.e. the plunger (Lev. FOWL, Heb. 'ayit, occurs in Gen. xv. 11: Jon sal xi. 17; Deut. xiv. 17). Common and well-known on the 7; Isa. xviii. 6; meaning birds of prey in genera. In coast and rivers of Palestine. In Isa. xxxiv. 11; Zeph. Isaiah the allusion is to the habit of all biris tipies to ii. 14, Heb. kaath, we should read pelican (which see). perch on bare or dead trees. In the other passage the
CRANE. Isa. xxxviii. 14; Jer. viii. 7. Its loud voice, keenness of sight and gregarious habits are aduce and its migratory instinct are spoken of. The whooping FOWLS, FATTED. i Kings iv. 2. Among the one or trumpeting of the crane rings through the pight air cacies for Solomon's table. Possibly poultry imported in spring, and the vast flocks which we noticed passing by him from Tharshish or India. north near Beersbeba were a wonderful sight. It is one GIER-EAGLE. Heb. Racham. The Egyptian vulture of the largest birds which fly, and was formerly coinmon (Neophron percnopterus), or Pharaoh's hen, the conta in Englani.
scavenger of the East. CUCKOO. Ler. xi. 10; Dent, xir. 13. Among the un GLEDE. Only in Deut. xiv. 13. Probably the bensanl clean biris. Cuckoos are common in spring and sun of which there are 3 species in Palestine. mer: but most probably this is not the bird intended, HAWK. Lev. xi. 16; Deut. xiv. 15; Job xix. 9 but rather the shearwater eaten in Syria, and the various Under this name are included all the smaller bonis of phy species of sea-gull.
-the kestrel, merlin, sparrow-hawk, hotly, and others DOVE. The dove is mentioned more than 60 times in very common in the Holy Land Scripture; and while distinguishing yonch or pigeon HERON. Only in the list of unclean hinis from tor or turtledove, the Jews were perfectly aware of heron after her kind", i.e. all the species, of wbich there their natural affinity, and speak of thera together. They are many in Palestine. were the only birls admitted for sacrifice by the law of KITE. Heb. Ayah. So rendererl in l.er. xi. 14: Theat Moses, and both had been so used by Abram (Gen. xv. 9). xiv. 13; but in Job xxviii. 7, “vulture". Kites Virus The dove is first mentioned in the history of Noah's flood regalis) are rery common. (Gen. viii. 8-12). The pigeon is the earliest domesticated LAPWING. Lev. xi. 19; Deut. xir. 18 There is to hird on record, and dove-cotes are alluded to with their doubt the hoopoe (Upupa epops) is the biri interiel **windows" or latticed openings (Isa. 1x. 8). To this day, as the Hebrew is the same as the Coptic and Stan besi les the swarms of pigeons in every village, there are names for that bird. It was worshipped by the FTmyria is of rock-ores in all the mountain gorges, " doves tiang of the valleys" (Ezek. vii. 16: Cant. ii, 14; Jer. xlviii 28). NIGHT HAWK. Only in the list of unclean hirds The metallic lustre of the plumage of the rock-dove is some owl is probably intended. alluded to in Ps. Ixviii. 13, and the plaintive coo of all OSPREY. The small fishing eagle, but the name pigeons in Isa. xxxviii. 14: lix, 11; Nah. ii. ?. Unlike probably includes all the smaller eagles, of which tv3 the rock-dove, the turtledove does not remain through I are many species in Syria.
OSSIFRAGE. Heb. Peres, i.e. the bone-breaker trated-its finding its lood on the floating carcases (Gen. (Gypaet 118 barbatus), the Läminer-geier, or bearded vul viil. 7); picking out the eyes of newly dropped or weakly ture, the largest and most magnificent of the birds of animals (Prov. xxx. 17); resorting to desolate places (Isa. prey
Xxxiv. 11); its glossy black plumage (Cant, v. 11); the disOSTRICH. Lam. iv. 3. But the ostrich is also referred tance it wanders for its precarious meal (Job xxxvii. 41; to in Lev. xi. 16: Deut. xiv. 16; Job xxx. 29; Isa. xiii. 21; Ps. cxlvii. 9; Luke xii. 24). The feeding of Elijah by the xxxiv. 13; xliis, 20; Jer. I. 39, where it is wrongly render; ravens was a directly Divino interposition which may be ed "Owl"; and Job xxxix. 13, where for peacock" read denied, but cannot be explained away. ostrich
In these various passages the beauty of its SPARROW. The Hebrew word occurs more than 40 pluines, its swiftness, its reputed stupidity, its leaving its times, and is rendered indifferently--bind, fowl, or spareggs on the surface, and hatching them in the sand by row. It is manifestly a general name for all the various the sun's heat, are referred to.
small passerine birds, of which there are some 150 species in OWL. In the passages referred to in the last paragraph the Holy Land. "The sparrow that sitteth alone on the read 'ostrich ". OWL, GREAT. 182. xxxiv. 11; Lev. xl. 17; Deut. but the blue thrush (Petrocincla cyanea), a well-known
house-top.” (Ps. cii. 7 cau scarcely be the sociable sparrow, xiv. 16.' The Egyptian eagle owl (Bubo ascalaphus) is solitary bird of the country which is fond of sitting alone spoken of.
on a roof or rock, OWL, GREAT, Isa. xxxiv. 15. Another Hebrew STORK. The periodical return of the stork is noticed word The Scops owl (Scops yiu) is probably intended. in Jer, vini. 7. Its regular and sudden return is one of
OWL, LITTLE, Lev. xi. 17; Deut. xiv. 16; Ps. cii. 6. the most interesting natural sights of Palestine. The The little owl (Athene persica) is very common about ali expression "stork in the heavens ". refers to the inthe villages, ruins, and wells It was the symbol of mense height at which they fly during migration. The ancient Athens, the bird of Minerva or of wisdom. Hebrew name implies its maternal atfection, for which
OWL, SCREECH. Isa. xxxiv. 14. The hooting or it has been famed in all ages, and consequently it is protawny owl (Syrnium aluco) is very common in Palestine. tected in all countries where it nests. In Ps, civ. 17, the
PARTRIDGE. Two species of partridge are common, fir-trees are said to be its nest. In Western Europe it both different from ours, and both resorting to hilly builds under man's protection on houses ; in the East on ground. The francolin (Francolinus vulgaris) takes their ruins, or, where buildings are scarce, on trees. The black place in the plains, and the various sand-grouse (Ple stork' (Ciconia nigra), always ou trees. The black roeles) in the deserts. In 1 Sam. xxvi. 20, allusion is made pinions of the stork, stretching froin its white body, have to chasing them with throw-sticks on the hills; in Jer. & very beautiful effect (Zech. V. 9). xvii. ll, to the continual robbing of their eggs by inan; SWALLOW. Two words are rendered swallow. Ps. in Ecclus. xi. 39, to the keeping a decoy partridge, still a 1xxxiv. 3 and Prov. xxvi. 2 have deror, i.e. "the bird of cominon practice.
freedom", and our chimney swallow and martin are inPEACOCK. 1 Kings x. 22; 2 Chron. ix. 21. Heb. tended; but in Isa. xxxviii. 14 and Jer, viii. 7 we find Sûs Cokiim, the same as the Tamil name for the peacock in or Sis, which is the Arabic for the swift, and which should India, tokei, a sufficient evidence of Solomon's trade with be so rendered. This translation gives the whole force South India. (In Job xxxix. 13, for “ peacocks" read “os of the passages. The cry of the swift is a shrill scream triches", which see).
as of pain, not a soft gentle twitter like the swallow : and PELICAN. The pelican is common about the waters while the latter is not a regular migrant, many swallows of Merom, and is in the habit of frequenting marshes, remaining in the warmer parts of Palestine all the winter, and also of sitting for hours in sandy desolate places after no bird is more conspicuous by the suddenness of its reit has gorged (Ps. cii. 6). Also in Isa. xxxiv. Ii and Zeph. appearance in spring, and by the thousands in which in ü. 14. for cormorant” read "pelican".
a day it overspreads the whole country, than the swift PIGEON. See Dove.
(Cypselus apus). QUAIL. It is undoubtedly our quail (Coturnix ru SWAN only occurs in the list of unclean birds. As garis) which is spoken of wherever the word occurs (Exod. the swan is very rare in Egypt and Syria, it is more proxvi. 11-13; Num. xi. 31, 32; Ps. lxxviii. 27 : cv. 40), and bable that the purple water-hen (Porphyrio antiquorum), which bears the same name in Arabic as in Hebrew. At or the sacred ibis (Ibis religiosa), an object of idolatrous the time of migration, in spring, when they visited the veneration among the Egyptians, is intended. Israelitish camp, they are annually in the habit of cross TURTLE. See Dove. ing the desert in countless myriads, flying very low, and VULTURE. Heb. dayah. Lev. xi. 14; Dent. xiv. 13; often in the morning so utterly exhausted by their night's Isa. xxxiv. 15. Probably the same as the Arabic h'dayah, flight, that they are slaughtered by the thousand. They the name of the black kite (Milvus migrans), the comalways fly with the wind.
monest of the scavenger biruls of prey in the country, RAVEN. The habits of the raven are frequently illus- and protected by the villagers.
The references to reptiles, or "creeping things", are very lew. ADDER. Seven Hebrew and three Greek words are
Fenomous, it has the appearance of a riper. St. Luke employed to denote the serpent tribe, the New Testa- does not state that it was venomous. ment names being translateil serpent" (generically), FIERY SERPENTS. Num. xxi. 6; Deut. viii. 15. We "viper", and "asp". As the Hebrew names are rendered have nothing by wbich to identify the species. The fiery indiscriminately, it will be easiest to consider them to flying serpent of Isa. xiv. 29; xxx. 6, is quite another gether. " Adder” stands for 4 Hebrew words. (1) Shephi-thing, and is probably merely a figurative expression. Dhon (Gen. xlix. 17). The deadly horned Cerastes, which The serpent is a familiar emblem of craft, from its cunis in the habit of coiling itself in a camel's footmarks, or any little depression, and suddenly darting on any passing
ning in lying in wait for its prey, its fascination and its
wariness (Gen. ii. 1; Matt x. 10). From this, as well as animal. It is one of the most venomous of snakes. (2 from its being the form in which Satan beguiled our first Achsub (Ps. cxl. 3), a viper, rendered - asp ” in Rom, iii. parents, he is called “the old serpent (Rev. xii. 9). 13 Several species of viper are common in Palestine. Berpent eating or licking dust may be a figurative expres(3) Pethen (Deut. xxxii. 33; Job xx. 14--16; Ps. Iviii. 4: sion from their crawling on the ground. sci. 13), rendered sometimes by "asp", sometimes by CHAMELEON. Lev. xi. 30. It is generally believed
aider". From the allusion to charming in connection that some of the larger lizards are intended. The with the pethen, we infer that the cobra (Naja huvje), chameleon is very common in Palestine. found in Egypt and Palestine, and used by serpent DRAGON. See Leviathan. charmers, is signified. (4) Taiph'oni (Prov. xxiii. 32). FROG. Only mentioned in the Old Testament in con
COCKATRICE is the translation of another word nection with the plagues of Egypt. The frog of Egypt (Prov. xxiii. 32; Isa. xi. 8 : xiv. 29; lix. 6; Jer. viii. 17). and Syria is the edible frog of Europe Rana esculenta). It is impossible to say with certainty what species of It swarms wherever there is water. In Rev. xvi. 3, frogs poisonous snake is intendeul, or whether it be merely a are the emblem of unclean spirits. general name. The same may be said of the word eph'en. LEVIATHAN. In Ps. civ. 25, 26, the word simply te the hisser viper" (Isa. xxx. f, &c.), though it may be means gea-monsters". In Ps. lxxiv. 14; Isa. xxvii. 1 ; Echis arenicola, a very common Syrian viper. The viper and in Job xli., the crocodile is specitically intended. The that fastened on St. Paul's hand (Acts xxviii. 3) was pro- crocodile is also expressed by another word, translated bably Coronella larie, the only snake which can hold on bs its teeth, and which is found in Malta. Though not 34. Job describes the difficulty of capturing, spearing
"dragon" in Isa. li. 9; Ezek xxix. 3; xxxii. 2; Jer. li.