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SUMMARY OF THE BOOKS probably occurred in the conquest of Egypt by Esar: building the Temple (chaps. i. 1; ii. 1, 10,90). The pas haddon, so that Nahum would be a contemporary of was begun in the second year of Cyra, 535 LE-T Manasseh. The main object of the prophecy is to then, for some years, abandoned in despair Exit threaten the vengeance of Jehovah against Nineveh. and v.)- but resumed at the exhortations of Hersies! Nineveh was destroyed 607 B.C.

Zechariah, and completed in the sixth year af Darias, HABAKKUK.

516 B.C. (Ezra vi. 14, 15). Haggai foretold the future The fall of Nineveh was succeeded by the domination greatness of the second Temple in spite of its apparei of Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar, and it was against inferiority to the first (ii.

6–9). this power that Habakkuk prophesied, predicting its fall,

ZECHARIAH. which took place in 536 B.C. Nothing whatever is known Zechariah began his mission about two months later of his personal history. It is probable that he prophesied than Haggai, and the last date found in his book is towards the end of the reign of Josiah, or at the begin- chap. vii, 1, the 4th year of Darius, so that inis praeste ning of that of Jehoiakim. This short book has two activity lasted for about two years The decay as parts, consisting (1) of a dialogue which the prophet phecy is very visible in the undisputed part of the best holds with God, chaps. i.-ii.; and (2) of a prayer or and his emphatic reference to the former prophet hymn. which he writes for use in the Temple-worship.(i. 4-6; vii. 7, 12) shows the writer's consciousness the Bo much at least is generally inferred from iii. 19, though growing decline

of the prophetic position and interne the extreme obscurity of the language (reminding us of The book consists of - (1) a preface chap i 1-6, faire Arabian poetry) renders it most improbable that it was about three months afterwards by a succession , intelligible to the people. In the former is found the chaps. i, 7-vi. 16;. (2) a series of prophecies with famous maxim of St. Paul, The just shall live by faith,' sions, chs. vii.,

viii.; (3) prophecies introduced as " or, as Habakkuk bimself expresses it, The righteous burden of the word of the Lord in the land d Paine." shall live by (or in) his faithfulness" (his trustworthiness chaps. is.--.: (4) prophecies introduced as the late in all the relations of life, while in the latter the prophet of the word

of the Lord for Israel," chaps. si.-T. ! reviews the past history of his nation, and derives

from it has long been a matter of question beter the lessons of confidence and strength in God, notwithstand chapters of Zechariah belong to him. Some think ing any calamities that may befall the nation or himself. chaps. ix., X., xi, belong to an earlier period, became ZEPHANIAH.

the frequent mention of Ephraim as though he ret

still a people (comp. Isa. vii. 8); and that clar , Zephaniah carries back his genealogy to one Hizkiah xiii., xiv. were written, at all events, after the death in the fourth generation, who is thought by some to Josiah (see chap. xii. 11), but whether beare or sta have been the king Hezekiah. He prophesied in the the Captivity is uncertain. It is remartable that the reign of Josiah, probably between the 12th and 18th chapters, though addressed to Israel (cban n. 11 year, i.e. about the time that Jeremiah's mission chietly occupied with Judah and Jerusalem. Chap began, but before the destruction of Nineveh, 607 B.C. -xi. have been ascribed by some crities to Zeebsite (chap. ii. 13). This prophet has no definite prediction the son of Jeberechiah mentioned in Isi. 2. De of the Messiah, but he foresees the time when the Gen- peaceful character of the Messianic reign is strict tiles shall serve the Lord with one consent (chap. iii. 9, brought out in chap. is. 9, 10;

chiaps. si 13. . , . 10), and the extinction of idolatry Ichap. i. 4, &c.). 7 are also typically applied in the New Testament His prophecies are directed against Judah and Jerusalem, the judgment that shall light upon whom should

MALACHI pass first over Philistia, Moab, Ammon, Ethiopia, and Malachi, evidently the last of the prophets from the Nineveh, i.e. Assyria ; but he concludes with the pro- correspondence of his subject matter with that see mise of brighter times for the daughter of Zion.

xiii., is thought to have been contemporary rith Set HAGGAI.

miah. His style is .prosaic, like that of the other post Haggai was the 1st of the prophets after the Cap- which reminds of the later Rabbis and of the Chrstu

captivity prophets, and has one singular baracters tivity, and contemporary with Zechariah and Zerub- Rabbi-St. Paul, viz, the use of dialogue as a means babel. His prophecy, short as it is, is of the greatest instruction. The Temple Service was in erstence.cba importance, and should be read (like Zech. i.-viii.) in i. 10, iii. 1. 10. The nation had a political chiesta close connexion with the history of the times. The 8). bearing the same title that Nehemiah bore, Nato several dates of his prophetic messages are accurately 26. Some believe the name Malachi to be Dot fixed, even to the day on which they were delivered. His mission lasted from the 1st day of the 6th month to

name, but a pseudonym "Mş (ie

Jeborah's Le the 24th day of the oth month of the year 620 B.C, or the judgment which shall be wrought by the essenger

senger or Angel.". The subject of his propery is second year of Darius Hystaspis. In this brief space, the covenant," the second Elijah, forerunder of the No he was the bearer of 4 distinct messages from God to siah. Malachi is quoted in St. Mars i 2, is II, Lake the governor and the people who were engaged in re- 1. 17. Rom. ix. 13.

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The New Testament. The New Testament, or Covenant, derives its name not like the majority of St. Paul's Epistles to a particles from Luke xxii. 20 (comp. 1 Cor. xi. 25;

Heb. ix. 15 Church or individual, but to a number of Christ --22; in other passages the reading is doubtful), whero The larger Epistles all being of this

character

, were our Lord speaks of Himself as concluding

a "new cove- tinguished from St. Paul's by the name Catholi nant (A. V. testament) by His death. The more General; and the two smaller Epistles of S. Jako common figure in the Gospels is that of the king; to be classed with them, though the name as dom of heaven" ( St. Mattheo), or “kingdom of God strictly applicable to them. In later usage the user (St. Mark and St. Luke), which He came to found: the Catholic, applied to a writing, was almost estimation theocratic kingdom of the Old Testament becomes the to canonical." The New Testament closes with a Fut Messianic kingdom of the New. The New Testament which is only partially paralleled in the Old Testament contains at once the history and conditions of this though it has several more complete counterpart covenant or kingdom. It is, however, differently com- among the Apocryphal writings-an * Apocalypse posed from the Old Testament. It does indeed begin description under symbolic forms of the final de sa with a group of histories (the Gospels and Acts), but its of the Messianic kingdom.

But in order to understand the organic south the or psalms, but by a series of letters from the leaders of New Testament literature, it is necessary to look at communities. This is a natural consequence of the fact It fulfilled the hopes raised by the Ou Testament, as territory and people, and became a missionary religion gave to them at the same time an entirely ser deteket with outposts scattered throughout the world. instruction put on paper for the use of these outlying body refused to embrace Christianity, and that those

The ment. Hence it was not surprising that the Joss communities has become the permanent law of Chris- did embrace it were some time before they end results tians. of the whole body of Epistles thus collected, cile themselves to all its principles and are thirteen are by the hand of a single writer, the

Apostle Christ

came as the Jewish Messiah, but His work St. Paul ; one, though anonymous, has been attributed earth was utterly

different from shat it ras empre The remaining seven are classed together as the

Catholic themselves were overwhelmed by its seemingly is or General Epistles. longest and most important of them were addressed, I awoke them to a sense of its true significance, sad Bb

OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT.

not all at once, but in part by slow degrees. The Resur- the inferences which he himself had drawn from the rection proved that, in spite of the ignomipy and appa- teaching and the life of Christ. Not only is Jesus the rent failure of the Cross, Jesus was still the Messiah, and Messiah, but His death, so far from being a failure, it followed necessarily from this that the Messianic alters the whole relations of God to man.

Faith in kingdom was not what they had imagined. But at first Christ crucified is henceforth the great motive power. we may suppose that all the Apostles, and for some In this way, man may attain to righteousness and saltime to come very many of their converts, got no way yation, which were impossible to him under the régime of beyond this. They accepted Jesus as the Messiah who legal observance. The Gentile

who believes is no whit

behad left them only to return speedily “in power and bind the Jew; and circumcision is not only unnecessary, great glory," but in all other respects they remained but positively harmful to him as the badge

of a slavery true Jews, attending the Temple services and observing from which he has been delivered. This is the root-idea the rites and ordinances of Judaism. The first marked of St. Paul's teaching; and this again he developes in step in advance was made through the Hellenistic or opposition to the various perversions which rapidly grew foreign Jews. These were naturally accessible to wider up in the Church through contact with the strange offideas than the natives of Palestine; and one of their shoots of Jewish and Gentile philosophy which were then leaders, the Deacon Stepben, fearlessly proclaimed current. The work that he began was continued after the insufficiency and dissolution of the Mosaic system, his death. The Gospel of St. Luke, and in a still more His death, and the persecution which followed, served marked way the Gospel and Epistles of St. John, bring only to spread the doctrines for which he died. One of to the front that higher unity in which Judaism and his fellow deacons, St. Philip, and even St. Peter himself, Christianity are reconciled; while the Epistle to the began to extend their preaching to Samaritans and Hebrews at an earlier date båd shown how the types and proselytes. Meantime a purely Hellenist (if not actually shadows of the Law became realities in the Gospel. Gentile-a point which depends upon the reading of On the opposite side the more extreme forms of Acts xi. 20) Church was founded at Antioch. Here a Judaising teaching have found no admission into the new character appeared upon the scene. Saul of Tarsus, New Testament. For them we have to look to the one of Stephen's persecutors, now a Christian, under- Apocryphal literature. But the elder Apostles, as might takes a mission journey to Cyprus and the south of Asia have been expected, grasped the new ideas less forcibly. Minor, in which he is persistently repelled by the Jews, of these St. Peter in his two Epistles comes nearest to but meets with success among the Gentiles. This raised St. Paul. St. James confines himself more to the simple the question of principle deånitely, and a formal con- teaching of a pure Christian morality, presenting Chrisference was held at Jerusalem under the presidency of tianity not in its profounder theological aspects, but as St. James to decide it. As the result of this the right the "royal law" of love; while St. John, in his earlier of Gentiles to admission into the Church, as such, was stage, as a genuine "son of thunder,” fulminates against conceded; nor was th right materially qualified by the backslidings of the Churches of Asia, and, like a the restrictive conditions applied to the Churches hitherto second Daniel, revives

the forms of Apocalyptic vision. founded. From henceforth St. Paul preached boldly Where the progress of doctrine was so rapid, and its among the Gentiles, undeterred by the plots and ramifications so varied, it is important to bear in mind intrigues of the extreme Judaizing party who dogged the chronological relations and doctrinal affinities of the his footsteps and thwarted bim at every turn. In his different books, which may be best represented in a intercourse with the Gentile Churches he formulates Table such as the following:

BOOKS.
EVENTS, A.D.
EVENTS

BOOX, A.D.

DATE OF

DATE OY

JEWISH CHRISTIAXITY.

GENTILE CHRISTIANITY.

41-31

CLAUDIUS, ENPEROR. 50?

Apostolic conference

at Jerusalemi. 51-31

St. Paul's second mis-
sionary journey......

1 Thessalonians (from Corinth) 62 (late). 54-68 NERO, ENPEROR.

2 Thessalonians (from Corinth) 63 51-68

(Autumn). St. Paul's third missionary journey......

1 Corinthians (from Ephesus;

against both Jewish and Gen-
tile partisanship and Gentile
immorality)

57*(Spring) 2 Corinthians (from Macedonia

against Judaizing partisans) 57* (late). Galatians (from Greece; against Pharisaic Judaism).

58 (early). 58-60 St. Paul's imprison

Romans (from Corinth). 68*(Spring). ment at Cæsarea.... Epistle of St. James (Jerusalem).

00? 60-63 St. Paul's voyage and

imprisonment at
Rome

Philippians (from Rome).

61? Ephesians (from Rome).

03. Colossians (from Rome; against Essene Ebionites).

63. Philemon (from Rome)..

63. Fire at Rome and Neronian persecution.. 1.St. Peter (from Rome or Babylon).......

65 ? Epistle of St. Jude...

65? St. Malthew's Gospel (Palestine).

64-67. 1 Timothy (from Macedonia

against incipient Gnosticism) 65 or 66. Titus (from Macedonia).

CG. 2 St. Peter...........

66? 2 Timothy (from Rome).

67. St. Mark's Gospel....

67. 67 Deaths of St. Peter and St. Paul..

Epistle to the Hebrets......... 67-69. GALBA, EMPEROR. C3 OTHO, VITELLIUS, VESPASIAN, ENPBRORS.. The Revelation (Patmos)

69. 70 Taking of Jerusalem. 79-81 TITUS, EMPEROR...

St. Luke's Gospel...

76? 81-36 DOMITIAN, EMPEROR. Acts of the Apostles..

80? 96-98 NERVA, EMPEROR..... St. John's Gospel and Epistles (Ephesus).....

86--90. 98 TRAJAN, EMPEROR.

Death of St. John. The * denotes that the dnte assigned rests upon strong evidence: the absence of any mark that it rests upon probable Evidence or conjecture; ? that the evidence or conjecture is more precarious.

A SUMMARY OF THE BOOKS

The Gospels. The Gospels of St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke of them appears to have been published under the are frequently classed together as the “Synoptic Gos- name of "Diatessaron, or “Foir-fold Gapel" by pels," from a Greek word meaning capable of being seen Tatian, a disciple of Justin Martyr. About the taste at once, or of being arranged in parallel columns. This the Gospels seem to have been translated into Laz name is given to them from the amount of common soon afterwards into Syriac, and then into the Egyptia matter found in all three. Some think that this large dialects. By the end of the century they a common element in them represents the oral teaching position very similar to that which we now achieu of the Apostles during the tiine that they lived together Canonical. But the strongest evidence for the trees in Palestine. Others believe that this oral teaching had of the Gospel narrative is to be found in the Geis been already committed to writing by St. Mark at the themselves. It is iinpossible to separate the tu time when the other two Gospels were written, and that from the non-miraculous portions, even if it weeps. St. Mark's Gospel lay before the other two Evangelists. ble to explain Christianity without miracles. TSK These two appear to be the most probable of many tive taken as it stands forms a consistent api theories of the relation of the first three Gospels to each whole, and explains the facts so as nothing the other. The first two Gospels were probably written be- explain them. fore, and the third not very long after, the destruction It has been usual to assign to the four Erangelista e of Jerusalem. The fourth Gospel was thought at a very symbolic figures described in Rev. iv. 7. Of the des early date to be intended as supplementary to the other modes of distributing these the best is perhaps the three, and this would certainly seem to have been one of St. Augustine, who assigns to St Matthee Les the objects (though hardly perhaps the main object) representing the royal dignity of Christ; to St. Marks the present to the mind of the writer. It was the latest Man, as pourtraying most carefully His frin sa : written of the four. Recent discoveries and investiga- to St. Luke the Ox, as the sacriticia) viction; te

da tions have made it certain that all four Gospels were the soaring Fagle, which pierces the courts 3 current before the middle of the second century. directly upon the sun. The tuore common onlap Iudeed, at a date little later than this, a harmony St Mark The Lion, and to St. Matthew the Nam.

1

ST. MATTHEW.

Sermon on the Mount (chap. 9., vi, vii.). Se lees Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, who lived in the early on the mission of the Twelve (chap. It there part of the 2nd century, relates that “Matthew compos- parables (chap. xiji.), the denunciation of the First ed the oracles in the Hebrew [i.e. the later Hebrew, or (chap. xxiii.),

and the eschatological discours en Aramaic) tongue, and every one interpreted them as he xxiv., xxv.). The narrative does not seem to flow? was able." Valuable as this statement is, both on account strict chronological order; in the latter portes du of its date and from the fact that Papías seems to bave Gospel it adheres closely to the order in S. Not got his information from persons who had been in con

Contents tact with St. Matthew himself, there are several points in it which are still matter of much obscurity. It has

I. The descent, birth, and childhood of the Wegzisht been proved that the word translated "oracles" may refer

II. His inauguration by Baptism and Teapta to the whole Gospel as we now have it, including both

(iii, 1-iv. 11). discourse and narrative; but there are still some who III. The founding of the Messianic kingdom tho, Ethink that Papias is speaking of & collection of dis

xiii. 52). courses only, which at an early date became united with Its laws (v., vi., rii.) a body of narratives resembling, if not identical with.

Its officers (x.) our present Gospel of St. Mark. Irenæus, the celebrated Its character and principles (xiill bishop of Lyons, who wrote about 180 A.D., also says that

IV. The kingdom offered and refused (10.03-IT 23 the Gospel was originally written in Hebrew, and aids Rejection, at Nazareth (xiii. 57). that it was written "while Peter and Paul were preach:

by the Pharisees (ar. 19; J. ! ing at Rome and founding [i.e. organising the Church."

Confession, by the

disciples ur. 21 This would be about 64-67 A.D. The carliest witnesses

by the Canaanitish worean (IT. concur in stating that Hebrew, or Aramaic, was the

by the multitude (11,31. original languago of the Gospol; but, if so, it must have

by St Peter (Ivi. 16). been very soon translated into Greek. After the

taking V. The 'Suffering Messiah announced (ivi 21-11% of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, the number of Hebrew-speaking

First announcement (xvi. 21. Christians bore a small proportion to those who spoke

(Transfiguration (xvii. 1-1313 Greek. Hence the Groek form of the Gospel survived,

Second announcernent (xvii. , 23. while the Hebrew form fell out of use. It is a further

(Last journey (sis. 1). question of much intricacy, what was the relation of

Third announcement (xx. 17-101. St. Matthew's original Hebrew Gospel to a so-called

VI. Climar of Triumph and suffering (ID-17 "Gospel according to the Hebrews" which was current

The Triumphal Entry (axi) in the 2nd century, and of which fragments have come

Final conflict with Pharisees and Saddress down to us. These fragments, in their present shape,

xxiii.) cannot be, though they may perhaps be based upon, the Prophetic and estchatological discourses (IDS, IT! original Gospel of St. Matthew.

The Passion (xxvi.. xxvii.) Of St. Matthew himself little is known. His call is VII. The Crucified Messiah risen (II FİİL) described in Matt. ix. 9; from which it would appear [N.B.-It is impossible in these short limits te that he had been a collector of customs at Capernaum. complete analysis

of the whole Gospel. All the best The call of Levi the son of Alphæus is described in been attempted above has leen to bring out alors very similar terms, and at a corresponding place in the more salient points in their relation to the leaders Luke v. 27, &c.); so that the inference lies near at hand. the arrangement of subject matter in the is ** that, like St. Jude and St. Paul. St. Matthew also bore Gospels appears to be the same] two names, the second, “Matthew "Gift of God"), being assumed after his conversion. He appears to have the cure of two blind men, and the stater in this

Peculiar to St. Matthew are the folloring :-Vint remained at Jerusalem until the general dispersion of mouth. Parables-the tares, the treasure, the per the Church there on the outbreak of the Jewish war; drawnet, the unmerciful servant, the labouren and, according

to Eusebing, it was just at this time, when vineyard, the two sons, the marriage festa about to go forth to other nations,"

that he wrote bis talents. "Portions of discourse, especialis ia the ser Gospel, and left it as a legacy to his fellow countrymen whom he was leaving. The date thus assigned to it blessing

pronounced on st. Peter and the last would tally well with that already given by Irenæus. As mission to the disciples. Narrative-chaps to the scene of his lahours there is no trustworthy tra- St. Peter walking upon the water, the terapia dition, but there is sutticient authority for believing that incidents connected with the betrayal, credinta he died a natural death. St. Matthew wrote for Jerrish

resurrection. Christians, and belonged to the number himself. Accordingly we find him laying especial stress on the fulfilment

ST. MARK. of prophecy by Jesus as the Messiah, the Son of David, and Founder of a New Kingdom, the Kingdom of Gospel, is the same as the Johu Mari web

It is probable that St. Mark, the anthor of the Heaven.". Ile quotes largely from the Hebrew text of Acts xii., 19., and as the Mark who appears the Old Testament. It is the manner of St. Matthew date as the companion of St. Peter and S. Pati to group together large collections of discourse, c.g. the he was the cousin of Barnabas tese Cal it, , cuma

OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT. translation),and lived with his mother Mary in Jerusalem. Word," but he declares that his Gospel is based upon Here he was probably converted by St. Peter (1 Pet. v. 13). their testimony. This is borne out by the Gospel itself. He afterwards accompanied St. Paul on his first mis The style of narration is different in some places from sionary journey, but weakly drew back and left him that in others; e.g., chaps. i. and ii. (with the exception soon after, landing in Pamphylia (Acts xiii. 13). This of the Preface) are of a distinctly Hebraistic cast. was the cause of a dispnte between St. Paul and St. Bar- From this we should infer that St. Luke sometimes made nabas, and led to their separation, Barnabas siding use of Aramaic documents. He seems also to have had with his kinsman. St. Mark, however, is found again in special information in matters relating to the court of the company of St. Paul at the time of his first Roman Herod Antipas (see viii. 3; xxiii. 8-12; xxiv. 10). It was imprisonment. At the same place (if 1 Peter was writ. natural that, from the close connection between the ten trom Rome) he subsequendy joined St. Peter, and it Evangelist and şt. Paul, the intluence of the Apostle is a universal tradition that the materials for the Gos- should be traced upon his Gospel. Thus some of the pel were drawn from St. Peter's public teaching. After ancient Fathers supposed that when St. Paul spoke of the martyrdom of the two great Apostles, he is said to “my Gospel" (as in Rom. ii. 10) he meant that according have gone to Alexandria.

to St. Luke. This is not tenable ; and yet there is a real Papius, the writer quoted above, is the first to give and clearly marked resemblance between the writings of cxplicit testimony to St. Mark's Gospel. He says that St. Luke and St. Paul. A slight, but not unimportant, " Mark having become the interpreter [i.e. secretary of instance of this is seen in the fact that the word "justify Feter wrote down accurately, though not in order, the (which plays such an important part in the Epistles of St. things that were said or done by Christ." Here, too, Paul) occurs five times in St. Luke, and not at all in St. the statement respecting the "order" of the narra- Mark or St. John. To the same effect would be the many tive is obscure ; for the order of St. Mark's Gospel is in instances in which stress is laid on forgiveness in answer agreement with that of the other two Synoptics--in the to faith alone, especially on the part of those who would former part especially with St. Luke, in the latter part be regarded as outcast and degraded le.g., vii. 36-50; IV. especially with St. Matthew. But it is probable that 1-32; xviii. 9–14; xix. 1-10; xxiii. 39–43; compare Rom. none of these Gospels follows, as St. John did, an iv. 6 : 1 Cor. xv. 9, 10, &c.) Again St. Luke, more than order that is strictly chronological. The remainder of either St. Matthew or St. Mark, points forward to Papias' statement agrees with all the oldest authorities. another great principle of St. Paul's teaching - the It is probable that St. Mark's Gospel was written much universality of the Gospel as no longer the privilege of a about the same time, or but very little later than St. Mat- single nation, but thrown open to all mankind. Thus he thew's. It was written for Gentile Christians, as appears traces the genealogy of our Lord, not to Abrabam, but to from the care with which Aramaic expressions are ex. Adam; be records carefully allusions to ministrations to plained (v. 41; vii. 11, 34), and pot improbably in the the heathen in the Old Testament (iv. 26, 27); he collects first instance for the Christians of Rome (comp. sayings which reflect credit upon Samaritans (x. 25 xiv. 21 with Rom. xvi. 13). St. Mark relates few dis- ---37; xvii. 11-19); and besides other detached sayings of courses; minuteness of detail is a characteristic of his similar tenor (e.g., ii. 32; xv. 11-32), he alone of all the Gospel, and he brings out at once the Divine power of Evangelists mentions the mission of the Seventy, who the Son of God (in his full account of the details of certainly typify the 70 nations into which the Jews surmiracles), and the complete humanity (as evidenced by posed the world to be divided. In one place, at least, looks, gestures, &c.) of the Son of Man. From this point the resemblance between St. Luke and St. Paul becomes of view we may describe tbe contents of his Gospel as a verbal- in the parallel accounts of the institution of the bistory of

Lord's Supper (Luke xx. 19, 20; 1 Cor. xi. 23-25); where, The Works and Words of the God-Man:

however, there is some doubt as to the exact

text of St. (.) at the Jordan (i. 1-13);

Luke's narrative. As to the date at which the Gospel Gji.) in and near Capernaum (i. 14-iv. 34):

was written, it may be inferred from the language of (ii.) on both sides the Sea of Galilee liv. 35-vii. 23) ; Irenæus that it came after St. Mark's and the deaths of (iv.) on the northern circuit (vii, 21-31);

St. Peter and St. Paul. This would place it somewhat:after, (v.) at the Sea of Galilee again (vii. 32-viii. 20); as St. Mark's Gospel is probably shortly before, the taking (vi) in the north, Dear Ciesarea Philippi (viii. 27- of Jerusalem; and in this view the best modern authoir. 20);

rities seem to agree. There is, however, another tradition (The Transfiguration.)

to the effect that the Gospels "containing the genealogies (ii.) on the Last Journey to Jerusalem (ix. 30 were written first." From the fact that St. Matthew and X. 52);

St. Luke have in common a certain amount of matter, (viii.) at Jerusalem and Bethany (xi. 1-xvi. 8). chiefly discourses, which is not found

in St. Mark, it has (The last week, the Passion, and Resurrection.) been thought that St. Luke made use of the original Within this geographical outline, St. Mark, like the collection of discourses to which Papias was supposed to other Evangelists, describes the gradual course of Our allude. But here again we enter upon the field of rather Lord's public ministry, its happy and tranquil be- doubtful conjecture, which has obtained more foothold ginning, the gathering storms of opposition, tho clearly in Germany. (though among sound and sober scholars) foreseen end, and its tragic and solemn realisation. It than it has in England. In addition to the characterisis to be observed, that the last section of the Gospel tics mentioned above, it may be noted that St. Luke's (Ivi. 9--20) is wanting in the two oldest MSS., and is Gospel approaches most nearly as a composition to proprobably a very early addition by another hand. St. fane histories; it alone opens with a formal preface; it Mark's Gospel, while presenting in its fullest form the

alone connects the sacred narrative with general secular matter common to the first three Gospels, has little that chronology: and of all the Gospels, if not of all the is peculiar to itself. The following sections are, how- writings in the New Testament, it is written (with tho ever, not found elsewhere :-The parable of the seed exception of special portions spoken of above) in the growing secretly (iv. 26—29), the healing of the deaf and purest Greek style. The contents of the Gospel may be dumb man at Bethsaida (viii. 22-26), the young fugitive, described as the Life upon earth of the Saviour of who is commonly supposed to be St. Mark himselt Maukind, including (xiv. 51. 52); and to this list should be added some details I. Preparation, Nativity, and Childhood of the Saviour in svi, 9-20.

(i.-ii.) ST. LUKE.

II. Inauguration of His Ministry (ii.) Luke is referred to by name as the author of the third

III. Ministry in Galilee (iv. 1-ix. 50). (following in

the main, with some additions and omissions, the Gospel by Irenæus and the remarkable fragment called the Muratorian Canon. His was the one Gospel used by

same outlines as St. Mark.] the heretic Marcion about 140 A.D. There can be little

IV. The Last Journey to Jerusalem, with samples of doubt that St. Luko is the beloved physician” men,

the Saviour's teaching (ix. 51-xviii, 43). tioned in Col. iv, 14. Indications of special medical V. The Work of Salvation completed by Passion, knowledge have been found both in the third Gospel Death, Resurrection, and Ascension (xix.---xx1v.) and in the Acts. A tradition, about which there is more The most marked peculiarities of St. Luke are the foldoubt, would make him a native of Antioch, and another. lowing: Miracles-the miraculous draught of fishes, the which is quite lato, and untrustworthy, describes him widow's son at Nain, the infirm woman (with curvature as a painter as well as a physician. He appears to have of the spine), the dropsical man, the ten lepers, Maichus' accompanied St. Paul on his second missionary journey car. Parables-the good Samaritan, the inportunate from Troas to Philippi, on his third from Philippi to friend, the rich fool, the barren fig-tree, the lost piece of Jerusalem, and on the royage from Caesarea to Rome. silver, the prodigal son, the unjust steward, the rich He is also stall--or again-in St. Paul's company when he inan and Lazarus, the unjust judge, the Pharisee and wrote the Epistles to the Colossians. to Philemon, und the publican. Narratives--the whole of chaps. i., ii., and 2 Timothy, He expressly distinguishes himself (i. 2) a great part of the long section ix. 61-xviii. 14, the from those who were "vyewituesses and ministers of the weeping over Jerusaiem, the sending of Jesus to Herod,

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