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OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT.

also Historical Epitome. When and where the book of St. Luke's Gospel. It is addressed, like the Gospel, to the Acts was written must be matter of mere conjecture, one Theophilus," of whom nothing is known except We only know that it must bave been written after that he was a man of rank.

St. Paul's Epistles. Enough will have been said above of the function siderable extent with this grouping:-1 and 2 Thessawhich these Epistles play in the economy of the New lonians treat most prominently of the Lord's Second Testament, of their polemical object, and of their chro-Coming; the great group of justification by faith and nological succession. It only remains to present them the method of salvation ; the Epistles of the Imprisonin a convenient grouping, and to point out the character ment of the doctrine of the Person of Christ; and the of their external attestation, Chronologically St. Paul's Pastoral Epistles, as their name implies, of the Pastoral Epistles fall into four groups; the tirst consisting of office. But along with this 2 Corinthians, Galatians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, both written on the 2nd journey, in Philippians, and 2 Timothy also contain much

personal 52, 53, A.D.; the second or great group consisting of four matter, either drawn from the Apostle by controversy Epistles, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, and Romans, or imparted to those to whom he knew it would be written upon the 3rd journey, in 67, 68, A.D.; the third, welcome ; and besides the Pastoral Epistles, 1 Corinthcalled "the Epistles of the Imprisonment." including ians is also full of valuable instructions relating to Philippians, Ephesians, Colossians, and Philemon, writo Church order and discipline. The theory or doctrine of ten from Rome in A.D. 61, 63; and the fourth, or Pas the

Church, as distinguished from practice, forms an imtoral Epistles," written probably after the first release, in portant ingredient in the Epistle to the Ephesians In (3–67. The subjects of the Epistles correspond to a con technical language the Epistles may be classified thus :

SOTERIOLOGICAL

CHRISTOLOGICAL.

TSCHATOLOGICAL.

ECCLESIASTICAL.

PERSONAL.

Romans.

Philippians. 1 Thessalonians. (Ephesians). 1 Corinthians (part).
Galatians.

Ephesians.
2 Thessalonians.

i Corinthians. 2 Corinthians,
Colossians.
1 Corinthians xy. 1 Timothy.

Galatians.
2 Timothy.

Philippians.
Titus.

2 Timothy. All these Epistles of St. Paul are reckoned by Eusebius were used by the heretic Marcion, not later than 140 A.D., among the “acknowledged books." Of some

orans, with a text which in several places can be shown to be 1 Corinthians, Ephesians) there are clear traces, in the already corrupt, and for the remaining three there is single uncanonical Christian writing which falls in the goorl evidence, The whole body of 13 Epistles is disfirst century, the so-called 1st Epistle of Clement of tinctly recognised in the Muratorian Fragment, about Rome. Ten of them (i.e. all but the Pastoral Epistles) | 170 A.D. ROMANS.

Analysis of the Epistle.

I. Introduction (i. 14-16). The first in order and importance, thongh not in

No date, of St. Paul's Epistles is that to the Romans

II. Doctrinal (i. 16-xi.) doubt bas ever been cast upon its authorship. The lime

(1) The main thesis, " Righteousness by Faith " and place at which it was written are clearly indicated

(. 16, 17). Its necessity proved (a), by an appeal to by allusions in the Epistle itself compared with the

fact, the utter moral corruption both of Gentiles narrative of the Acts. St. Paul was on his way to

(i. 18-32) and Jews (ii. 1-29), (b) by Scripture Jerusalem, bearing, with him contributions from the

(iii. 9-20) (iii, 1–8, & digression taken up in Churches of Macedonia and Achaia (Rom. xv. 25, 20;

chap. ix.). Acts xxiv. 17), and purposing, after he had been to

(2) Repetition and expansion of the main thesis : Jerusalem, to make his way to Rome (Rom. i. 10; xv. 24;

Righteousness by faith made possible by the proActs xix. 21). This tallies with the circumstances of the

pitiatory death of Christ (iii. 21-26).

Excludes all boasting (iii. 27-31). third missionary journey, other allusions make it

Abraham himself had it (iv. 1-25). probable that the Epistle was written from Corinth,

Its blissful consequences (v. 1-11). where the Apostle spent three months (Acts. xx. 3).

The first and the second Adam (v. 12-21). Phoebe, the deaconess of Cenchreæ, the port of Corinth

(3) Progressive righteousness through union with (Rom. xvi. 1), was in all probability the bearer of the

Christ (vi. 1-14). Epistle. It was natural that the Apostle, having finished

The Christian's release (vi. 16-vii. 6), and conflict his work on the shores of the Ægean, should be anxious

(vii. 7-25). to visit the metropolis of the Roman Empire, where a Church had been already founded, though scarcely as yet

Life in the Spirit (viii. 1–17).

Creation's yearning and the Christian's hope (viii, organised. Among the multitudes who flocked to Rome

18-39). from the East there would certainly be some Christians,

(4) Israel's rejection (ix. 1-xl. 36). and, if we may judge from the greetings in chap. xvi.,

Its justice (ix. 1-23). probably not a few converts of St. Paul himself. It is

Its cause (X. 1-21). possible, too, that some of the Roman pilgrims

who were present on the day of Pentecost may have carried back

Consolatory reflections on the prospect of Final

Restoration (xi. 1-30). with them the seeds of the Gospel. In this way loose collections of Christians would gather together, some

III. Practical and Hortatory (xii. 1--XV. 13).

The Christian's duties (xii. 1-21). from the Jewish synagogues, others from the Gentile

Church and State (xiii. 1-7). population. The latter seem to have been more pume

The Law of Love (xiii. 8-14). rous. And it may be inferred from the list of names in

Toleration (xiv, 1-xv. 3). the last chapter that they belonged chiefly to the middle

Unity of Jew and Gentile (xv. 6-13). and lower classes---freedmen and slaves. That St. Paul

IV. Personal (xv. 14-xvi. 16). should write to them in Greek rather than Latin is consistent with the fact that Greek was very largely spoken

Final Warning and Doxology (xvi. 17-27). among these classes. Thus it would appear that the

From the number of salutations to persons in some Church at Rome was a Greek-speaking Church until the way or other connected with Asia Minor, some have middle of the 3rd century. The Apostle takes the oppor- that it belonged originally to a letter addressed, to which he had vot yet seen, to set forth the broad out: Ephesus; but there is no sufficient ground for this lines of the Christian scheme in its application at once

to assumption in the text, and Rome was a meeting-place Jew and Gentile, and in all its profound significance as a

for men of all nationalities. It is interesting to remem

ber that the Epistle to the Romans exercised a comprevious systems had failed, viz., to open out a way to manding influence on the genius of St. Augustine

and of righteousness and salvation for 'men. The way is faith Luther,

and that it, with the Epistle to Galatians, more in Christ's death, and sanctification through His in

than any other book, supplied the groundwork of the dwelling Spirit. Incidentally also the Apostle discusses theology of the Reformation. the problem which could not but force itself upon a

CORINTHIANS. thinking Jew, the setting aside of the exclusive privi The two Epistles to the Corinthians are also of absoleges of his countrymen, and their apparent rejection to lutely undoubted genuineness. In the case of the First Ipake room for the Gentile,

Epistle this fact derives an especial Importance from the

A SUMMARY OF THE BOOKS

clear recognition of miracles as still frequently per

III. Collection for the Churches in Judas . 1formed at the time when the Epistle was written (1 Cor. ix. 15). xii. 10, 28, 30), and from the remarkably strong attestation IV. Assertion of Apostolic authority (s. 1-301

, 19 which it furnisbes to the truth of the Resurrection (xv. 1 V. Concluding explanations, warnings, and suite -19). Corinth, a famous city of Greece, near the tions (xii. 11-xiii. 14). Isthmus which connects the Peloponnesus (Morea) with 2 Corinthians reveals to us more probably than ay the Continent, and posse-sed of a port on either side, other Epistle of the inner mind and life tae lorem Cenchreæ on the east, and Lechæum on the west, bad and that in passages of the most splendid and in been sacked and burnt by Mummius B.C. 146, but re- eloquence. built by Julius Cæsar B.C. 44. Thanks to the natural

GALATIANS advantages of its position, standing as it did on a The close resemblance between Galatians and RESOR double highway from east to west and from north to makes it probable that the two Epistles sete az south, it soon recovered its former splendour, and in nearly at the same time. In that case, the Gata St. Paul's time had been thriving for nearly 100 years. would fall in the winter of 57, 58, A.D., wbeo Lije Apa The population (about 400.000) was heterogeneously com- was on his way through Macedonia into Greece. Si posed, partly of the descendants of the Roman veterans think. however, that it was written early in s Mas of Cæsar's colony, partly of commercial immigrants stay at Ephesus, recorded in Acts xix.

The Ger from the shores of the Mediterranean, to whom much of were Gauls by origin, derived from tbose bo mind the proverbial licentiousness of the place would seem to Delphi in the 3rd century B.C., and crossed free Ibset have been due, and partly of native Greeks. These last into Asia Minor. Like the Gauls of Europe, the would seem to have succeeded in impressing their old readily susceptible of good impressions, but lasts ant national characteristics of intellectual restlessness, vacillating; and they had caught from their fram vanity, and disunion upon their

neighbours, as these neighbours a tendency to sensuous rites and 2 qualities were conspicuous in the Church as described in The Galatian churches were founded by & Paslan the Epistle. The Church at Corinth had been founded second missionary journey (A.D. 51), wta bers by St. Paul himself during his 18 months' stay in Greece tained among them by iliness (Galiva, Rirised tega (Acts xviii.), in the years 53, 54, A.D. He had been suc- He had paid them a second visit wben be again ceeded by Apollos, and Apollos apparently by some from Antioch in A.D. 54. On this occasico Le oss Judaizing teachers, through whose influence the Church necessary to administer a rather sbarp para had been split up into sections, calling themselves by gave offence liv. 16), and after his departure tte in different names. At the same time moral and practical saic party made great strides, persuading the Gasan disorders were spreading rapidly in the Church. To check to adopt circumcision and other Jewish practies these, and at the same time to reply to certain enquiries view to better their own religious positie. Test which had been made in a letter from the Corinthian

from the Apostle a letter in which he tokdiy vanas Church, St. Paul wrote his first Epistle from Ephesus in his own Apostolic authority and reaffirms the dark the Spring of A.D. 57, and in the interval between Acts

of justification by faith and of spiritual relock xix. 22 and 23.

against the imposition of the Mosaic Law and a religio Analysis of the First Epistle.

or externals, I. Salutation and Introduction (i. 1-9).

Analysis of the Epistle. II. Complaints against the Corinthians (i. 10-vi. 20). I. Introductory Address (i. 1-10). (1.) The factions (i. 10-iv. 20).

The Apostolic Salutation (i 1-5). (Ambitious yet futile speculations contrasted

The Galatians' defection (i. 6-101. with the seeming simplicity and real pro

II. Personal Apologia : an Autobiographical Piet fundity of the Gospel (i. 18-ii. 16).]

spect (i. 11-ii. 21). (2.) The intercourse with Heathens (v. 1-vi. 20).

The Apostle's teaching derived froe God az? (a) The case of Incest (v. 1--13; vi. 9--20).

not man (i. 11, 12), as proved by the cro (b) The Law-suits (vi. 1-9).

stances of III. Answers of St. Paul to the letter of the Corinthian (1) His education (i. 13, 14). Church (vii, 1-xiv. 40).

(2) His conversion (i. 15–17). (1.) Marriage (vii. 1-40).

(3) His intercourse with the other Apostles, bet (2.) Sacrificial feasts of the Heathen (viii. 1-xi. 1).

at his first visit to Jerusalem (i. 18-21, (3.) Worship and Assemblies (xi. 2-xiv. 40).

later visit (ii. 1-10). (a) Disuse of Female Head-dress (xi. 2-15).

(4) His conduct in the controversy vid PR b) Disorders at the Love-feast

and Lord's Supper Antioch (ii. 11-14); the subject of skich ett (xi. 16-34).

versy was the supersession of the Las hy (c) Spiritual gifts (xii. 1-xiv. 40).

(in. 15-21). Love greater than these (xii.)

III. Dogmatic Apologia: Inferiority of Judais, 1 IV. The Resurrection (xv. 1--58).

Legal Christianity, to the Doctrine of Fish (a) The Resurrection of Christ (xv. 1-19).

l-iv. 31). (b) The Resurrection of the dead (xv. 20-34).

(1) The Galatians bewitched into retrogresére c) Mode of the Resurrection (xv. 35–68).

a spiritual system to a carnal system til V. The Conclusion (xvi, 1-24).

against the witness of Abraham hins Besides its bearing on such important topics as the

that faith alone can save (il 10-141 character of the Gospel preaching the Lord's Supper,

(2) The promise made to Faith is unaffected to the Christian Love or Charity, and the Resurrection, the

Law (iii, 15-18), of which the true toate First Epistle presents a graphic picture of the internal disciplinary. (iii. 19-29) and tutelary u. 1-1, condition of a Gentile Church in the early stages of its

and its ritualism in itself mean isi danza existence.

(iv. 8-11). It would appear from incidental allusions in the two

(3) Past zeal of the Galatians contrasted with the Epistles that St. Paul had written another Epistle, now

present coldness (iv. 12--20), lost, before the first of those that have come down to

(4) Allegory of Isaac and Ishmael (ir. 1-5) us (see 1 Cor. v. 9, Revised Version, where the reference

IV. Hortatory Application of the foregoing is. In can hardly be to any part of the extant Epistle); and

vi. 10). that he also paid an unrecorded visit to Corinth some

(1) Christian liberty excludes Judaism (v. 1-3 time during his three years' stay at Ephesus (see 2 Cor

(2) Liberty not licence, but love (F. 13-151; tbe wants xii. 14; xiii. 1, &C.) St. Paul left Ephesus about Pente

of the flesh and of the Spirit (5. 16-3) cost A.D. 57, in much anxiety of mind as to the recep

(3) The duty of sympathy (ri. 1-3) and last tion of the letter which he had just written. He jour

vi. 6-10). neyed slowly by the long land route through Troas and

V. Autograph Conclusion, directed against the for Macedonia, until his suspense was at last relieved by

daizers (vi, 11-18). his meeting with Titus, whom he had sent before to

The autobiographical portion records from withis is Corinth, at Philippi. In his joy at the good news which

events wbich in Acts xi. 29, 30 and rv. 1-3 are describe Titus brought, and to counteract the machinations of from without, and, as might be expected, thrors a peu his Judaizing detractors, he now wrote the second and striking light upon them. In the doctriaal pe Epistle in the autumn of the same year, A.D. 57.

may be traced the scattered thoughts which are part

together in a more systematic form in the Epistle ta Analysis of the Second Epistle.

Romans. I. Salutation and Introduction (i. 1-11).

EPHESIANS. II. Report of Titus (1. 12-vii. 16).

The words of address, "to the saints which are (1.) Explanations in respect to this (i. 12-ii. 16). Ephesus, are omitted in the two oldest ss. d 1 (2.) The Apostolic mission (ii. 16-vi. 10).

some other authorities. From this, wupied wito ka

OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT.

absence of the usual salutations, which would be the tendency to party-spirit in the households of Euodia and more remarkable in a Church to which the Apostle was Syntyche. The whole tone of the Epistle is buoyant and Bo well known, many have inferred that the letter was cheerful. It has been rightly observed that the keynote originally addressed not to a single church but to a group is given in the often-recurring word “Rejoice." In its of churches, and that it afterwards took its name from structure it is broken and unsystematic, and it seems to the chief of these-Ephesus. St. Paul's first visit to have been originally intended to end at the beginning of Ephesus is recorded in Acts xviii. 19-21. It was very chap. iii, short, and his work was carried on by Apollos (ver. 24 -26) and by Aquila and Priscilla (ver. 27).

Analysis of the Epistle.

After visiting Jerusalem and Asia Minor he returned thither

I. Introduction. (Acts xix. 1), and remained three years (Acts xx. 31).

Opening salutation, thanksgiving, and prayer (i. 1 Ou his last visit to Jerusalem he sailed by Ephesus

-11). (Acts xx. 17). Some time later he left Timothy in

II. Personal. charge of the Church there (1 Tim. i. 3). The object of Acconnt of his own circumstances, and of the the Epistle is general, the special circumstance progress of the Gospel at Rome (i. 12-26). alluded to being a mission of Tychicus (chap. vi. 21; III. Hortatory and Doctrinal. comp. Col. iv. 7-9), and St. Paul's own imprisonment Exhortation to unity and humility (i. 27-ii. 4), (probably) at Rome (Acts xxviii. 20). It was during this based upon the humility of Christ (ii. 6-11); imprisonment, about A. D. 62 or 63, that the Epistle was general exhortation (ii. 12-18). written, along with the Colossians and Philemon. The

IV. Personal, main topic may be said to be the Doctrine of the Church

Respecting his own intended movements and those in all its manifold variety summed up in Christ,

of Timothy and Epaphroditus (ii. 19-30). Analysis of the Epistle.

V. Hortatory, with Doctrinal Parenthesis I. Prefatory Salutation (i. 1, 2).

Conclusion begun but interrupted by a double

warning against (i) Judaic formalism (iii. 1-10) II. Doctrinal: the Church of Christ.

and (ii) Antinomian licence (iii. 17-21). (1) Its foundation in Divine Election (i. 3-14).

Renewed exhortation (iv. 1-9). (2) Its privileges as partaking in the Christian scheme

VI. Personal. i. 15-23). (3) Contrast between the present and past state of

Acknowledgment of aid received (iv. 10–19). its members (ii. 1-13).

Farewell (iv. 20--23). (4) Gentile and Jew united in one Church through

Theologically the Epistle to the Philippians forms & Christ (ii. 15—22), a mystery newly revealed (iii. connecting link between the great group of Epistles and 1-12).

the other Epistles of the imprisonment, as these again (5) Prayer and Doxology (iii. 13-21).

serve to connect it with the Pastoral Epistles. III. Practical and Hortatory. (1) Unity of the Church (iv. 1-6), in diversity of

COLOSSIANS. gifts (iv. 7—12) matured with Christ for its Head

The Epistle to the Colossians was written and sent at liv. 13-16). (2) The Old and New Man (iv. 17-v. 21).

the same time as those to the Ephesians and Philemon, (3) Relation of husband and wife, a type of Christ think, during the later part of the imprisonment at

4.6:, as some think, during the earlier, and as others and the Church (v. 22, 23) í other domestic Rome, either in 61 or 63 A.D. Colossze was situated, relations (v. 1-9). (1) The Christian panoply (vi. 10—20).

along with Laodicæa and Hierapolis, in the fertile valley

of the Lycus, a river which waters southern Phrygia. IV. Personal Matter.

The Church there was apparently not founded by St. (1) Tychicus' commission (vi. 21, 22).

Paul (ii. 1), though he probably had some communication 2) Farewell (vi. 23, 24).

with it during the three years which he spent at Ephesus. There is a close resemblance between the Epistle to the It was in danger from Judaizing teachers (ii. 16), similar Ephesians and that to the Colossians, due apparently to to those against whom the Philippians had been

warned. the fact that they were both written and despatched at The Judaism taught by them was, however, of a later the same time. This resemblance extends not only to and more speculative type than that which had been met the ideas, but to the expression which in several places with in Galatia; it was allied at once to the tenets of (e.g., Eph. i. 7=Col. i. 14; Eph. i. 10- Col. i. 20; Eph. the Essenes (see Jercish Sects), laying stress upon angelfii. 9=Col. i. 26, 26) is repeated almost verbatim. But worship and asceticism, and also to the speculations though the same ideas run through both Epistles, they which, at a later date, were called Gnosticism. The are regarded from different points of view. In the Apostle meets these errors by taking his stand upon the Ephesians the Church is the primary object, and the doctrine of the Person of Christ. He shows how Christ thought passes upwards to Christ as the Head of the is the one Mediator between God and Man, so excluding Church. In the Colossians Christ is the primary object, angel-worship ; and that assimilation to Him is the ono and the thought passes downwards to the Church as the great source of sanctitication, so excluding asceticism body of Christ.

and ceremonialism. PHILIPPIANS.

Analysis of the Epistle. Philippi, the scene of the famous battle (A.D. 42) which

I. Introduction. decided the fate of the Roman Republic, occupied a

Opening salutation, thanksgiving, and prayer (i. 1

--13). position of importance on the great military road which connected Rome with the East. St. Paul arrived here

II. Doctrinal. with Luke and Silas upon his second missionary journey,

(1) Christ our Redeemer (i. 14), the Image of God and after a short but eventful stay (Acts xvi. 12-40) left

(i. 15), is at once the Head of Creation (i. 16, 17) and behind him the nucleus of a Church, which he visited of the Church (i. 18), in whom the whole Godhead again in going and returning from Corinth (Acts xx.

dwells (i. 19). 1-6). The Philippians were especially forward in contri

(2) To Him the Colossians owe their reconciliation buting to his support (2 Cor. xi. 9 ; Phil. iv. 15, 16, 18). (i, 20-22), in which they should stand fast (1. 23), The Epistle was in any case written during the Roman a mystery of which St. Paul himself is an anxious imprisonment, A.D. 61-64, but opinions differ as to

and earnest minister (i. 24-ii. 6), whether it was written in the earlier or the later portion

III. Polemical. of that imprisonment. The frequent similarity both in (1) Hence the Colossians are warned to cling to thought and expression to the Romans is an argument Christ (in. 6-10) and the spiritual circumcision (ii. for placing the two Epistles as near to each other as 11, 12). possible; and at the same time the other group of Epistles

(2) Ordinances He has done away (ii. 13,14), and over (Ephesians, Colossians, and Philemon) seems to shew angels He has triumphed Gi. 15). signs of a later origin. We shall, therefore, probably not (3) Therefore the Colossians must not submit either le far wrong if we suppose that this Epistle was written to ceremonialism (ii. 16, 17) or angel-worship lii. abont the autumn of A.D. 61. It is decidedly personal

18, 19). in ita character, and reflects vividly the alternations of (4) They have died with Him to ordinances (ii. 20—23). feeling in the Apostle's mind as he looks upon the circum and must rise with Him to a heavenly life (iii. 1-4). stances of his own imprisonment or upon those of the IV. Hortatory. Philippian Church. For himself he awaits tranquilly, (1) All evil passions should be killed (iii, 5-11), and either event-for "to live is Christ, and to die gain. all the graces of the Spirit put on (iii. 12-17). For them he is grateful for their alms, and speaks (2) Domestic (iii. 18-iv. 1) and other duties cultivated warmly in their praise. The one drawback is a certain (iv. 2-6)

A SUMMARY OF THE BOOKS

V. Personal.

Sin would then be some culminating manifestation of (1) Fuller explanation to be given by Tychicus influences antagonistic to the Gostel, such as be * (iv. 7-9)

around him, at that time restrained by the law-abading (2) Salutations (iv. 10-15), a message (iv. 16, 17). rule of the Roman Empire. Farewell (is. 18).

TIMOTHY AND TITUS. The resernblance between this letter and the Ephesiang has already been noticed. Tychicus, himself probably an

The Epistles to Timothy and Titus, commonly KDOTE Ephesian, was the bearer of both. 'An

eniginatic refer- as the Pastoral Epistles, were classed by Etisetus (3 ence in Col iv. 17 to "the Epistle from Laodicea" is now

A.D.) among the acknowledge books of tbe Se thought by many to refer to our present Epistle to the Testament, the only group of writers by wbom they were Ephesians.

rejected being the heretical Gnostics, Baalde ani

Marcion in the 2nd century. The external evidence for
THESSALONIANS

them is good,
and reaches back certainly

to Polyesrp is The two Epistles to the Thessalonians are the first in the early part of that century, and possibly further s.] time of St. Paul's Epistles, and have much of the sim:

to Clement of Rome. The genuineness of the Ejasta plicity of character which might have been expected has, however, been doubted, either wholly or in part in from this fact. St. Paul paid his first visit to 'l hessalonica modern times, on account of (1) the difficulty of inng (modem Saloniki), the capital of Macedonia, and a

them into the historical framework of the Acts 1.0-100 flourishing and important city, at the head of the of the circumstances there described agree satisfactory Thermaic Gulf, where the great road to Italy first with the allusions in 2 Tim. ir. 9-21), (2) the adratoed strikes the sea, after leaving Philippi in A.D. 51. The state of heretical teaching; and (3) the developed Church excitement which his preaching caused is described in organization which the Epistles presuppose An these Acts xvii, 1–9. In spite, however, of the tumultuous difficulties, bowever, seem to be sufficiently met by the opposition of the Jews, which necessitated his hasty de- supposition for which there is some indepeodent er. parture to Bercea and then to Athens, he succeeded in dence) that St. Paul was released from his first in. founding a Church among the Gentile community. That prisonment in the early spring of A.D. 64, that he then Church inherited the persecutions froin which the went to Spain (Rom. xv. 28), that he afterwards reApostle hard himself suffered, and soon after his arrivalat turned to Asia Minor, that he then left Titus in charge Corinth, while the impression of their zeal was still of the Churches of Crete and Timuthy at Eptests. fresh upon him, in A.D. 52 he sent them a letter of that he crossed over into Europe to winter at Siopas encouragement and advice. The one doctrinal topic on in Epirus, that he was there rearrested and cared which he touches is the Lord's Second Coming the to Rome, where he finally sutiered martyrdom Dear the uncertain date and suddenness of which supplied a spot which is still shown on the Ostian way. By pracias

1 strong motive for watchfulness. Timothy and Silas are the Epistles in this late period of the Apostle s life s joined with St. Paul in the address of the Epistle. tbe ditticulties above mentioned seem to be adequay

explained, for it is hardly possible that a map Analysis of the First Epistle.

writings can be later than this in which "bestop I. Narrative and Personal (i. 1-iii. 13).

presbyter" are still treated as convertible terms. Tus (1) Grateful acknowledgment of the success of his being so, the combined internal and external eridesce preaching at Tuessalonica (i. 2--10).

for the genuineness of the Epistles must be taken as (2 Reminder of the circumstances and character conclusive of that preaching (ii . 1-12)

Timothy was the son of a Greek or Gentile father ad (3) Renewed thanks for the conversion of the a pious Jewess named Eunice. His home was at Les

Thessalonians, and their endurance under per- in Lycaonia, and be seems to have been converted ty secution ii, 13-16).

St. Paul on his first missionary journey and taten wits (4) The Apostle's anxiety for them, and despatch of him as a companion upon his second. From that time eTimothy (ii. 17-iii. 10).

wards he remained more or less closely attached to the per (5) A prayer iii. 11-13).

son of the Apostle. He is joined with St. Paul in the meet II. Hortatory (iv. 1--r. 24).

ings of poless than six Epistles (1 and 2 Thess, 2 Cor, Phil (1) Warning and Exhortations (iv. 1-12).

COL, Philem.), which shows the place that he held about (2) The Lord's Second Advent

the fellow workers of the Apostle.

The Epistles that pe a. In this the deal also shall partake (iv. 13 by his name were written to him while in charge of the -18).

Church at Ephesus as apostolic

delegate. He was bere 6. It shall be sudden and unexpected (v. 1-3). brought in contact with heretical teachers, whose tenets

e. An argument for watchfulness tv. 4-11). appear to have resembled those which disturbed the peace (3) Concluding exhortations, prayer, and directions ortho Church at Colosse, having affinities on ibe odebasd (v. 12-28).

with the later Gnosticism (1 Tim. i 4; iv. 7; vi 2, add The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians was written on the other hand with Judaism (1 Tim 17; comp Tit at no great distance of time from the First, while the i. 10--14). The genealogies" or successive emanation Apostle was still at Corinth, and while Silas and from the primordial Being of the one, were combined Timothy were still with him. The occasion of the with the legalisin of the other. This false teschise Epistle seems to have been three-fold. (1) The persecu- Timothy is exhorted to put down to the best of his tions still continued, and St. Paul writes to sustain his power, and he is at the same time to organize the l converts' resolution. (2) It was necessary for him to Church carefully upon definite lines correct certain mistaken inferences which had been

Analysis of the First Epistle to Timothy drawn from what he had said about the Second Advent. (3) Hints are thrown out as if forged letters had been

1. Salutation (i. 1, 2). circulated as coming from him, or at least his authority

2. Timothy to reprove erroneous speculations (i 11-11, claimed in some underband and dishonest way (? Thes.

by the same Gospel of which St. Paul himself is ii. 2; iii. 17).

an unworthy minister i 12-17), and of wbica

Timothy will be a faithful champion (i. 18-20
Analysis of the Second Epistle.

3. Directions for public prayer (ii. 1-8), and for the de I. Opening Salutation (i. 1,2).

portment of women (ii. 915), for the appointmest II. Correction on the Second Advent (i. 3–ii. 16).

of bishops (=elders or presbyters, iii. 1-1 and of (1) Thanksgiving (i. 3, 4).

deacons i 8-13). (2) Encouragement to endure in view of the coming The Christian's Creed (iii, 14-16). judgment i 5-10), and prayer (1. 11, 12).

4. False asceticism (iv. 1-5). (31 The Advent not near . 1, 2), for the Man of How Timothy is to conduct himselt (iv. 6–151

Sin or rather perhaps " Lawlessness") must come 5. Widows (x. 1-16); elders Iv. 17-19). first (ii. 3—5), and the Restraining Power be re Timothy as judge (v. 9-551 mored (it. 6, 7), until the Lawless One is destroyed 6. Servants (vi. 1, 2); beresy and coretousness (ti with his followers ii. 8-12).

3-10). (Further exhortation and prayer (ii. 13-17).

Timothy's commission (ri. 11–10. III. Practical (iii. 1-16).

The rich (vi. 17-19). (1) Prayer for himself and the Thessalonians (üi. 1 Final charge (vi. 20, 21). -5.

The Second Epistle to Timothy was the last da ti (2) Instructions as to the idle and disorderly (iii, 6– Paule Epistles, written in the short inttival of suspense 15), followed by prayer (iii. 16).

between his first trial and his final condemnation andere (3) Autograph conclusion (iii. 17, 18).

cution. So far as Timothy was concerned it may be In the passage relating to the Man of Sin it would said to take up the thread of the earlier Epistle, and for seem that, as in all prophecy, the Apostle

looked forwari St. Paul it breathes calm resignation and updautted resom to the future in the light of the present. The Man of lution in the face of death The date will be an ua

OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT.

Analysis of the Second Epistle to Timothy.

of Jerusalem, as no allusion is made to that event, and 1. Salutation (i. 1, 2).

after the liberation of Timothy (chap. xiii. 23), who was 2. Timothy and his charge (i. 3-14).

probably a prisoner in the persecution under Nero; this 3. Defection of Phygellus and Hermogenes, and services would bring its date between 67–70 AD, or during the of Onesiphorus (i. 16-18).

siege of Jerusalem, to which there may be reference in 4. Various directions and admonitions (ii. 1-13).

chap. xiii. 14, The Epistle was written to dissuade JewTimothy should avoid heresy, like that of Hymenæus ish Christians, who were exposed to trials of various

and Philetus, and be careful of his own conduct kinds, from falling back and renouncing the faith of (ii. 14-26).

Christ. The writer, therefore, labours to prove the 2. The last times shall bring forth evil men (iii. 1—9), superiority of the New Covenant to the Old, by shewing to whorn Timothy presents a contrast, trained as

from the Scriptures," i.e. the Jews' Bible, the superiority he is on Holy Scripture (iii. 10-17).

of Jesus to the high priests and the transitory and inHe must be tirm in reproving (iv. 1-6).

efficient nature of the provisions of the Old Law. The Apostle's own course is run (iv. 6–8). 6. Personal messages and directions (iv. 9-18).

Analysis of the Epistle. Concluding salutations (iv. 19-22).

I. Christianity is superior to Judaism in the Person Titus was another of those personal companions who

of its Founder: all previous revelations culminate seem to have acted as a kind of aides-de-camp to the

in Christ (i. 1-3). Apostle. He was a Gentile, which accounts for the fact

(1) He is superior to the Angels (i. 4-14). that St. Paul (probably) refused to allow him to be cir

(Therefore the salvation which He offers must cumcised (Gal. li. 3), though he had this rite performed

not be let slip (ii. 1-4).) in the case of Timothy (Acts xvi. 3). He was sent confi.

This superiority is not affected by His temdentially at once as the bearer of i Corinthians, and to

porary humiliation (ii. 5-18), which bad for its observe the effect of its contents. This mission he ac

object :complished satisfactorily, and brought his report to

(a) to raise and deliver men from death St. Paul at Philippi (A.D. 57). He is next found in

(ii. 10-15); Crete, after an interval of some nine years, with a charge

(b) to fit Himself to be a sympathetic High

Priest (ii. 16-18). and in a position very similar to that of Timothy at Ephesus. Here St. Paul writes to him the third Pastoral

(2) He

superior also to ministers like Moses and Epistle,

Joshua.
Analysis of the Epistle to Titus.

He is a Son, Moses a servant (iii. 1-6).

(Let the unbelievers of the New Testament 1. Salutation (i. 1-4). 2. Qualifications of Elders (= bishops), (i. 6-9).

take warning by those of the Old (iii. 17--19.)

The promised rest" is still open, and applies 3. Bad character of the Cretans (i. 10-16).

specially to Christians (iv. 1--10). 4. Duty, of various classes (ii. 1-10), in view of their

[Who should see that they do not lose it (iv. 11 Christian calling (ii. 11-15).

--13), for they have a great and sympathetic High 6. Other exhortations (iii. 1, 2), based upon the chango Priest (iv. 14–16).]

wrought in them by Christ (iii. 3-7), which is very
different from heretical follies (iii. 8-11).

II. Christianity is superior to Judaism in its High 6. Personal messages and salutations (iv. 12-15).

Priesthood; for Christ is superior to Aaron and

the Aaronic priesthood. PHILEMON.

(1) Like them, He has sympathy with His people

(v. 4—3). This beautiful little Epistle is a sort of appendage to

Like them, He is called to His office (v. 4-6) the Colossians, and was sent at the same time with that after the order of Melchizedek (v. 6-10). Epistle to Philemon, a member of the Colossian Church.

(This is advanced doctrine (v. 11-14), to which The bearer was Onesimus, a former slave of Philemon's, the Hebrews should press on (vi. 1–3). who had robbed his master and escaped to Rome. Here

For the lapsed there is no recovery (vi. 4-8), he met and was converted by St. Paul. And the Apostle but for those who lapse not the promises are sure took advantage of Tychicus journey to send Onesimus (vi. 9-20).) with him, with a commendatory letter begging Philemon (2) The order of Melchizedek is greater than that of to receive him back again as a fellow Christian. This Aaron. brief Epistle has three divisions. (i) Thanksgiving for For to Melchizedek Abraham himself paid tithes Philemon's faith and zeal (vs. 1-7); (ii) St. Paul's re

(vii. 1-10). quest on behalf of Onesimus (v8. 8-21), and also for

And the Aaronic priesthood is superseded by himself (v. 22); (iii) Salutations (vs. 23–25).

Melchizedek's successor (vii, 11-19). No more touching picture could possibly be given of

Who is appointed by an oath, a perfect and the way in which Christianity affected the private life of

eternal High Priest (vii. 20-28). the ancients, and especially the institution of slavery.

III. Christianity is superior to Judaism in the nature HEBREWS.

of its ministrations. As to the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews

(1) Christ is High Priest of the true sanctuary opinions have varied in ancient and modern times,

(viii. 1-5), and of a new and better covenant owing to its apparent difference from the undoubted

(viii, 6-13). Pauline Epistles. The usual internal epidence, e.g. a

(2) The old Covenant in its tabernacle and ceresuperscription and personal allusions and names (exc.

monies of atonement bore in itselt the signs of chap. xii. 23 ) is wanting. The external evidence,

transitoriness and imperfection (ix. 1-10). though clear as to the existence of the epistle at the (3) Christ is the reality of which these things were end of the 1st century, is uncertain as to its author the types (ix. 11-14). ship. One tradition was that it was written by St.

He sealed the New Covenant with His death and Barnabas; another, that it was written (in the later bloodshedding, (ix. 15--22). Hebrew) by St. Paul, but freely translated by St. Luke In every point His atonement is higher (ix. 23 or St. Clement of Rome. In modern times many have --28). thought that the indications of authorship meet best in (1) The very repetition of the old sacrifices showed Apollos (see Acts xviii. 24, 25); some have suggested their want of efficacy (x. 1-8). Silas, The great critic Origen (185—253 A.D.) sums up

Christ's sacrifice was complete and final (x. 9 the controversy, as it stood in his day, by saying, “that --18). the thoughts are the Apostle's, but the diction and com IV. Hortatory inferences. position that of some one who recorded from memory (1) The Hebrews should avail themselves of the the Apostle's teaching....Who it was who wrote the access thus offered them (x. 19-25). Epistle, God only knows certainly.' In any case the

For the penalties of apostasy (x. 26-31) are Epistle was accepted as canonical by the Eastern equal to the rewards of endurance (x. 32-39). Church from the earliest times, though it was appa (2) Heroes of Faith (xi. 1-40). rently rejected in the West. From the end of the 4th Encouragement to endure (xii. 1-13), and avoid century ít became generally recognised. There is the Esau's fate (xii. 14-17). Eame uncertainty as to the persons to whom it was

The warning voice of Sinai speaks still (xii. 18 addressed. The two most tenable views seem to be

-29). that by “the Hebrews' we are to understand the (3) Various admonitions (xiii. 1-8). Jewish Christians of Palestine, or the Jewish Christian

The Christian altar privileged above the Jewish section in the Church at Rome. Ephesus has been (xiii. 9-15). suggested as the place of writing, but this is mere con

Other admonitions, prayer, and salutations jecture. The time was apparently before the destruction (xiii. 16-25).

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