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JEWISH SECTS AND ORDERS.

Rechab, who are mentioned by Jeremiah the prophet”, dextrous alterations of the Pentateuch were made to cried out against the crime see Smith's Dict. Bible, favour the assumption. The Law of Moses, with art. “Rechabites", by Professor Plumptre). On the the after histories or the propbetic books, was taken whole there seems satisfactory evidence that a place in as the text-book of the Samaritan faith; and breaks the sanctuary itself was given to these descendants of by degrees from the old idolatrous admirture, the an alien and wandering people. The subsequent his schismatic community laid claim to a stricter work? tory of the Rechabites is unknown; the reports of and a more rigorous orthodoxy eren than prerase a: travellers who profess to have discovered their traces Jerusalem. From time to time disaffected Jers, lest. are hardly conclusive, while warranting further research ing their own community, seceded w Gerizim, and the into this interesting bye-way of Scripture history. rancour deepened as time went on.

When Antiochus Epiphanes ahont B.C. 1757 3:39 III. THE SAMARITANS.

his famous attempt to denationalise

and psgauzetbe During the later age of the separate kingdom of Jews, the Samaritans revealed the spuriotstess of the Israel, the name of Samaria, its capital, was often em.

faith by their ready submission to the tyrant J. est ployed to denote the nation (Isa. vii. 9; Jer. xxiii. 13;

xii. 5, sec. 5). This placed them in dead'y oppostos Ezek. xvi. 46, etc.). When, therefore, another com.

to the Jewish patriot party, which, under JCE Hz. munity had usurped the place of the Ten Tribes, it

canus the Maccabee, destroyed Samaris and the tes

Bus was natural to apply to them the name of "Samari- ple of Gerizim, B.c. 130 Jos. Ant.

xiii. 9, sec. tans". The word, however, is found only once in the

the altar remained, the spirit of the sect was under Old Testament (2 Kings xvii. 29). This community

and the old animosity subsisted in all ite forde dumn

to the time of our Lord. To the Jews the San was in its origin mainly or wholly heathen, consisting

was still a -at any rate chiefly-of immigrants from fire pro

stranger" (alien, Luke ini. 19; se also vinces of Assyria, sent by Esar-haddon (probably Jew, if he could help it, would pass throaga samara

Matt. x. 5,6). In travelling from Galilee to Jodas, so under the convoy of one of his generals, Asnapper, but would take the road on the eastern sde of the Ezra iv. 10), to colonize the districts from which the Israelites had been deported. In the earlier period of Jordan. .When members of the two comer unites De their residence, the land which had long been waste

angry strife was sure to arise Luke is. 52-54, ter and unpeopled was raraged by lions. This the settlers leading to bloodshed. No name of scorn e Durs rightly interpreted as betokening the anger of the un.

bitter in Jerusalemn than that of Samarissa JCh known tutelary “God of the land", and in answer to

48). All this gives point to our Lori's repeated lessons their solicitations a captive-priest was sent from Assy- 1 of brotherls-kindness (Luke 1. 33, etc.; and its ria to instruct them. He fixed his abode at Bethel, teresting to find that one of the disciples who sestar but taught them no more than to combine the worship calling down fire from heaven to destroy the Seas of Jehovah with that of their own ancestral idols.

tans who rejected Christ, himself preached the Gospel “They feared the LORD, and served their own gods”

afterwards in many Samaritan villages Lake in (2 Kings xvii. 33.

comp. with Acts vni. 25). This motley religion endured for some generations,

Through all generations and amid every change the but the worship of the old Assyrian

and Babylonian Samaritans have remained in their ancestra! at det deities seems gradually to have died out, partly, no

Nablous (Neapolis, the ancient Shechen, sich their doubt, from the influence of the Israelitish remnant

altar and their sacrifices upon Mount Geririm. They still scattered through the land-such men as, after

are now "the oldest and the smallest sett inte the destruction of Jerusalem a century later, came

world" (Dean Stanley), and preserve their eitio " from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria” to

the Pentatench, in its old Hebrew characters, with worship and to mourn at Mizpeh with their brethren religious care. There has been much discuss to of Judah (Jer. xli. 5; compare 2 Chron. xxxiv. 6,9).

this relic of antiquity; and if, as seems most probable Notwithstanding the arguments of Hengstenberg and

it represents the Law as handed down and as the Tea others, the opinion that the survivors of the Ten

Tribes from the days of the disruption under Jen bouz, Tribes in the course of time coalesced with the de. the fact effectually disposes of modern tbeories ss 10 scendants of the Assyrian settlers, and that the Sams.

the late origin of the “ Fire Books". The salbject is ritans had in part an Israelite origin, seems defensible one that cannot here he discussed, but it deserves as on all rational and Scriptural grounds.

will doubtless receive further elucidation. When the decree of Cyrus restored Jerusalem to the Jewish exiles in Babylon, they found a considerable

IV. NAZARITES. community in the northern part of the kingdom who Strictly speaking, the Nazarite (from Heb. secer, claimed to worship the God of Abraham, and proffered "to separate") formed no community, their rows sad their assistance to Joshua and Zerubbabel in the erec obligations being distinctls personal. The raba a tion of the Temple. The Jewish leaders decisively this kind of separation are given in Num. vi.; sci repulsed them, feeling the danger of admitting so the manner of their introduction, seem to rose mixed a community into the commonwealth of Israel. the order as already existing. Some hare this! Their alliance being thus refused, they became thence. but on scarcely suficient authority, that it was! forth the bitterest adversaries of Judah (Ezra is. 1-5). rowed by the Jews from the Egyptisns. The price This hostility broke out in the days of Nehemiah, of the Nazarite vow evidently was that of consta when Sanballat of Beth-horon (a Samaritan city near tion to God; the temporary and outward the frontier), with Tobiah, an Ammonite slare, long ness" testifying to the life-long universal of ton. harassed the Jews with malignant opposition of erery The symbolic accompaniments of the vos vere kind; ending all however, afte: Nehemiah's departure, extremely simple, demanding no seclusios N by specious advances towards reconciliation. For the engrossing observances, and in no way interfering good and patriotic gorernor, returning, found to his with the ordinary duties of life. To abstain from amazement that Tobiah was installed in lodgings with strong drink, as well as from the fruit of the rire ! in the Temple precinct, and that Sanballat had given every shape, to allow the hair to grow, and DOE SO his daughter in marringe to a grandson of the high approach the dead-ench was the thrrold role for priest. It was impossible for Xehemiah to come to man or woman; and the long hair woa'd be the only terms with the former enemies of God's people. For very noticeable token of the row. The“ days of a an Ammonite to be established in the sanctuary was paration" might be many or few, according to the riso a profanation. Tobiah and the high priest's grandson or conscience of the Nazarite. Jewish writer te (Manasseh, Jos. Ant. xi. 7. 2) were summarily expelled that the usual period was thirty dars, but yori per (Neh. xii. 49, 28, 29), and the breach between Jews and occasionally made for sixty or a hundred days, as Samaritans became irreparable. (But Josephus makes even for a longer time (see the case of Helers, et Manasseh brother to Jaddua H.P., placing him in B.c. of Adiabene; Smith's Dict. Bible, art. "Xazarte". 333, a second Sanballat being Manasseh's father-in-law. At the expiration of the row, the Nazarite hai come

Manasseh now assumed the priesthood in Samaria sent himself at the altar with a complete series of (about B.C. 409), establishing there an organised reli. offerings; he parted also with his locks, which en gious community. Mount Gerizim, in time long past burned in the fire of the sacrifice. The nearing held in honour as one of the "holy places " in Pales, this ceremonial was twofold, including on the case tine, was selected as the centre of the new worship; hand release from the special restrictions to the and, bz, permiasion of the Persian king Darius Nothus, had been subjected; but on the other, that

dedicata & temple was there reared to Jehovah. Soon this was to a life of piety and boliness of which al sacridon declared to be the place which God had choson, and were the symbol.

JEWISH SECTS AND ORDERS. In the Nazarite vow, accordingly, there was a sacra Pharisees, laying their chief stress upon exact obe. mental consecration of all life to God; it was peculiarly dience, were led to formalism and an exaggerated estiappropriate therefore to youth; and scanty as are the mate of the authority of the Fathers, the Sadducees, details furnished by Scripture on the subject, there are taking morality as their watchword, lost all sense of hints that this was the period of life usually chosen the supernatural, while the Essenes, whose great prin. for the vow. See Amos ii. 11; also the touching lament ciple was self-control, were led into a mystical and of Jeremiah (Lam. iv. 7): “Her Nazarites * were purer unprofitable asceticism. Only the two former sects than snow, they were whiter than milk, they were are mentioned in the New Testament, although there more ruddy in body than rubies, their polishing was of are clear traces of the third : Josephus las much to sapphire" (comp. Ps. cxliv. 12, "that our daughters say upon them all. may be as corner stones, polished after the similitude of a palace"). A striking similarity exists between

V. THE PHARISEES. the symbols of Nazarite and those of high-priestly dedi. In opposition to the “mingling", of which we have cation (Lev. xxi. 10-12, where the word rendered crown spoken above, arose the brotherhood of the “Distinct” is the same as that used in Num. vi. 19 for the long or " Separatists". (perushim*, whence in the Greek hair of the Nazarite). The separated one would thus form of the word "Pharisees"). When or how the be reminded of the great ideal of a holy life--a priestly fraternity assumed its shape, we cannot accurately self-dedication to God. See Exod. xix. 6; Isa. Ixi. 6. tell. The first mention of it is among the events

A distinction is made by Jewish writers between a of B.C. 108, when the body was already powerful and of | "Nazarite of days" and a “Nazarite for life". The great repute (Jos. Ant. xiii. 10, scc. 51.1 A commission latter were those dedicated from infancy, for a special had been appointed by anthority of John Hyrcanus to purpose, to a life-long observance of the Nazarite vow. enquire how far the Divine law of religious contribuSuch were Samson (the only one actually called "a tions was observed by the people; and the Pharisees Nazarite" in Scripture (Judg. xii. 7); also Samuel bound themselves to pay all tithes before the use or (1 Sam. i. 11), and John the Baptist (Lukei. 15). James sale of any commodity. Another point of special

the Lord's brother" is represented by tradition as a agreement related to the avoidance of all uncleanness, Nazarite. Whether this particular form of dedication in regard to which a multitude of rules were laid was customary in earlier or later times we are not able down, many of which were minute and puerile. To to decide on the authority of Scripture. “Ewald sup these two characteristics of Pharisaism our Lord poses that Nazarites for life were numerous in very alludes (Matt. xxiii. 23, 25). But the chief point of early times, and that they multiplied in periods of distinction lay in the regard paid by the Pharisees to great political and religious excitement". The refer. the oral law, a series of unwritten interpretations of ences in Scripture and the Apocrypha (Amos ii. 11, 12; the Divine oracles handed down from doctor to doctor, 1 Macc. iii. 49), seem to refer to the “Nazarites of and forming an elaborate system extending to every days". In the history of the Apostle Paul we read of detail of worship and of life. The “traditions of the four persons of this class, in whose votive observances elders"

thus spun around

God's Word a web of intri. he himself took part (Acts xxi. 23, 24, 26); while the cate refinement; and while professing to "fence the vow at Cenchreæe (Acts xviii. 18) was evidently of an. Law", or to lessen the risk of breaking it, became in other kind.

the multiplicity of subtle distinctions and_vexatious It is scarcely necessary to mention that the word rules an oppression to the conscience.

Formalism Vazarite and Nazarene have no relation to each other. was substituted for spiritual religion, and the "sepaThe letter "z" in the two is radically different in rateness" of this fraternity, as evinced by their long Hebrew (9 and 3). “Jesus of Nazareth” was not "a robes with fringe and tassels, their broad phylacteries, Nazarite", as He Himself suggests (Matt. xi. 18, 19) their long prayers publicly recited by the highways at in contrast with His forerunner John.

the customary hours, as well as by the casuistry of

their teachings and the inconsistency of their lives, PHARISEES, SADDUCEES, AND ESSENES.

proved their piety to be in great measure an affectation.

Very terrible is the indictment brought against the (The Chasidim.)

Pharisees by our Lord, as reported in Matt. xxiii., The era of the Jewis captivity, writes the late Mark vii., Luke xi. They were in fact the principal Emanuel Deutsch, was one of the most mysterious obstacle to the reception of Christ and His Gospel. It and momentous periods in the history of humanity. was impossible for them to accept the spirituality of What were the influences brought to bear upon the His doctrines, or to descend to the humility of those captives during that time, we know not. But this we who would follow Him. Their spirit was that of self. know, that from a reckless, lawless, godless populace, sufficiency and pride. When John the Baptist preached they returned transformed into a band of Puritans", the baptism of repentance in the wilderness, the Phari. One result of this revival of the Israelite faith, was eces for the most part (Luke vii. 30), although not the firm and organized stand henceforth made against entirely (Matt. iii. 7), held aloof. They thanked God the efforts of their successire heathen rulers to de that they were not as other men” (Luke xviii. 10); nationalize and paganize the nation. It is true that yet while exalting themselves in their own esteem to fome in high places were unable to resist the seduction. heaven, they verily became the "children of hell” Thus, under the influence of Antiochus Epiphanes, (Matt. xxiii. 15). king of Syria (B.C. 175-161), the very high priest, Jason Undoubtedly there was another side to the Pharisaic by name, introduced Pagan rites into Jerusalem, and character. They held certain great doctrines, as that sent offerings to Hercules, the god of Tyre. This dis- of a resurrection and future life, with a tenacity un. graceful period was afterwards appropriately spoken of known to the people at large; while their strictness on as the time of “the mingling". But the heart of the points of religious observance served as an antidote to nation was true, and the noble struggles of the Mac- prevailing laxity. The Apostle Paul regarded it as a cabees against the tyrant are familiar to all readers of distinction among the professors of Judaiem to be a Jewish history. In connection with the prolonged con.

Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee (Acts xxiii. 6; comp. test we meet with a fraternity under the name of Assi- Phil. iii. 5). Like the Jesuits in the Roman Church, drans, described as "mighty men of Israel”, “volun- the Pharisees proved the utmost capabilities of their tarily devoted to the Law" (ree 1 Macc. ii. 42; vii. 13; religious system, if, liko them, they found it wanting: 2 Macc. xiv. 6). Evidently this appellation stands for The best and the worst of the people were Pharisees; the Hebrew Chasidim, “Pions", or, to adopt a modern but in the best there was a narrowness and fanaticism, term, “Pietists". From this fraternity, whose cominon bond of union was a resolution to devote their lises to the upholding of the Law in its integrity, appear

• From parash. Heb. to separate or distinguish, almost like to have sprung, directly or indirectly, the three great

narar. See Nazarite above.

+ See Dr. Edersheim's Sketrhes of Jerish Social Life, p. 233, * sects" of after time-the PHARISEES, the SADDUCEES, * “ The Talmud" parodying the manifold divisions and sub. and the ESSENES. Widely as these diverged from one divisions made by Pharisic ieachers, " distinguishes spien classes of another in after time, and bitter as were their mutual Phariseer, one of whom only is worthy of that name. These are-(1) controversies, they all started from the same point-a

those who do the will of God from earthly motives: 12) they who firmn adherence to the national faith. But while the

make small sters or say, Just wait awhile for me; I have just one more good work in perform : 3) they who knock their heads

against walls in avoiding the sight of a woman; (4) saints in office; • Or perhaps the word here used (a somewhat different form from (5) they who implore you to mention some more duties which they that usually rendered Nazarite) means " separated" in dignity-might perfrim : (6) they who are pinus because they fear God (7) * princes The same word is used (Gen. xlix. 28; Deut. xxxili. the true and only Pharface is he who does the will of his father 26) of Joseph

which is in heaven because he loves llim'".-Deutsch, Talmuda

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JEWISH SECTS AND ORDERS, from which the inevitable reaction was shown in the the "leaven” or pervasive mischievous principi worst.

both (Matt. xvi. 6, 11). Generally, indeed, as The number of Pharisees was but small considering the religious formalist appears, the religioase s their great influence with the people. In the time of not far off. Still, on the whole, the Sadduces our Lord they appear to have been about 6,000. After less prominent than the Pharisees in their state the destruction of Jerusalem they disappenr as a dis- to Christ, nor do they appear, like the latter, to be tinct sect, but their teachings and spirit

have given the taken active measures against His life. (See Jo ti tone to modern Judaism.

32; xi, 47). They are not once mentioned by St. Jos

Perhaps, holding the opinions they did, the questa VI. THE SADDUCEES.

the Messiahship did not interest them; aad The antagonism between the Sadducees and the regarded our Lord's Divine claims. But what

rather with superciliousness than with anger the Pharisees in New Testament times was so pronounced resurrection was proclaimed, they were need as to suggest that the former sect originated in a reaction from the strictness of the latter. More pro- measures were directed against the Apostles ate

anger; and accordingly their only recorded persecuta! bably, however, as already observed, both sprung from preached that Christ had risen (Aets ir. 1-. the desire on the part of the most faithful among the fact is a striking example of the "undesigned crist Jews to preserve the purity of the national religion dence" between the Acts and the Gospel history. I when threatened by heathen oppressors.

Josephus, in may be added, that no writings of the Sadduce la his first mention of the Sadducees, in the history of come down to our times. John Hyrcanus (Ant. xiii. 10,6), simply says that their "notions are quite contrary to those of the Phari

VII. THE ESSENES. sees".

A current Jewish tradition ascribes their origin and their name to one Zadok, disciple of Anti- This sect is not mentioned in Scripture, bas gonus (B.C. 200-170), who, it is said, taught that virtue described in detail by Josephus (Far, ii. & 2. was to be cultivated for its own sake, without

calcula- one of the three philosophical sects tion of consequences or hope of future recompence. Jewg”. Like the Pharisee "separatists" saite An ennobling thought! although afterwards perverted Sadducee moralists", so the Essene su to the denial of the recompence itself. The best seem to have sprung from the Chasidis of the bas scholars, however, reject the tradition. This Zadok is bean time, the three representing, as we are quite unknown to the earlier Talmudic writers,

and it ed, as many tendencies of human this. I would be contrary to analogy to denominate a Tew derivations of the word Essene have been proposa; sect by the name of its founder, however distinguished. Professor Lightfoot (Epistle to the Colossian: Lady The likeliest account of the matter is to be found in "On some points connected with the East etymology, and the word "Tsaddik", righteous, there siders the choice to lie between the Stine di can be little doubt, explains the name. From the “pious", and the Hebrew chasda, "to be silent", Chasidim, or Assidæans", there was gradually evolved self preferring the latter. The first Essene te a class of men who insisted chiefly

upon morality, as is one Judas Jos, Ant. xiii. 11, sec. 2; Teri.. the Pharisees did upon exact observance ; and in course about B.C. 110; but no specifie referenee is feber of time the “Moralists" and "Separatists” grew into to them until the New Testament era when there distinct and antagonistic classes. The Sadducees (or a to have numbered about 1,000; some of whos de division of them) are also called in the Talmud Boëthu- cities, but the majority in monastic retreats, estra sians, either from Boëthos, father of Simon, and grand the desert regions west of the Dead Sea father of Herod's wife, the second Mariamne, or from The Essenes have sometimes been descelei the Greek word euthus (straight) Hebraised; also Kara- stricter sect of Pharisees, with whom they had to ites, or Readers (Heb. kara), from their adherence to the points in common, as the rigour of ceremonial written law. But it is uncertain whether this last vance--with the not unimportant exceptása appellation is not of later origin than New Test, times, Temple sacrifices--the careful avoidance of polit and the Karaite Jews still exist in large numbers as 8 and the stress laid upon ascetie practica e distinct sect, chiefly in Austria, Russia, and Turkey. divergencies were greater. Not only did they get

The origin of the Sadducees is the key to much of Temple offerings, but they maintained a noble their history. Schools of morality are sure to decline priesthood, and owned no sacrifice but that is from the simplicity of their primitive principles. So daily vegetarian repast. They practised the arts! Epicurus taught that in virtue only was true pleasure, divination and Josephus, in giving instances Jue and the Epicurean became a mere pleasure-seeker? as above ; Manahem, Ant.,

s. 10. sec. s: Since Zeno maintained that self-restraint was the highest xvii. 13, sec. 3), remarks that their predictions a excellency, and the Stoic

trampled on human instincts generally accomplished. Like mysties generals and affections. So the Sadducees began with

the su- contemned the body, and held the immortaliç de preme obligation of morality, and ended as mere soul without a resurrection. Their standsedan rationalistic moralists;

while from their

rejection of purity was high, long probation and distinct oral supplements to the Mosaic Law, they proceeded to imposed before admission into the fraternit; the denial of any doctrine not there plainly and distinct classes in the order represented for some literally taught, as that of a life after death. Possibly stages of moral progress, the main differences also, as above intimated, their scepticism on this last the degree of asceticism. Abstinence from point was but an exaggeration of the view that God meat was strictly enforced on all; the serie was not to be served for the sake of the reward of was forbidden, as an enervating luxury. eternity. The disbelief in a futuro state led to the garded as a mark of perfection to forssear the although it is difficult to see how this tenet could be tained; the keeping of herds and flocks was reconciled with the literal interpretation of the Pen- the only secular employment sanetioned intended only the unembodied human soul (Acts xii. were said to adore the sun, but this may be able tateuch. It is possible that by angel” the Sadducees labour of the fields. In their daily Forship, the le 15; comp. Matt. xiv. 26; Luke xxiv. 37). The opinions of the Sadducees seem to have pre points a great resemblance between their system

been a misconception. Certainly there was vailed chiefly or solely among the upper classes. They the Zoroastrianism of Persia; while in other parts rich”; " but the Pharisees have the multitude on their brotherhood, in the free hospitality, in the side" ( Ant. xiii. 10, sec. 6). In the days of the Apostles morals--the Essenes were more nearly akin to of the Sadducoes" (Acts iv. ; v. 17). "Herod Antipas | Quincey argues for the identity of the two professed concurrence in their tenets, although con- resemblances adduced are superficial in care science proved mightier than scepticism when he fear: with the differences; and in the obligatia de dead (Mark

vi. 14-16). The Baptistinad" included the then two systems are at opposite poles (see Print ed that in Jesus, John the Baptist had risen from the monialism, and the merit of aseetie self-motif Sadducees with the Pharisees as wat hogeneration of Lightfoot, sColossians, as abore quoted. dangerons rac Sadducees as well as Pharisees songht business to rebuke such errors as those into the to entrap our Lord by captious questionings (Matt. Essenes had fallen, inasmuch as errors and Ivi. 1 ; xxi. 23), and Jesus warned His disciples against their origin in high aspiration are sometimes the

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JEWISH SECTS AND ORDERS.

man.

dangerous, because the most specious of all. The tended a professional man in the modern sense. Nor Epistle to the Colossians receives much valuable illus- is there any reason against this. The Mosaic laws tration from a reference to the known views of the would have to be enforced on Jews by Jewish officials Essenes. Thus, in ch. i. 28, the emphasis on "every in Jewish courts upon questions arising, for instance, man" is more felt when we read in Josephus of the out of Sabbath regulations, divorce, and such like. care taken by them to keep their doctrines secret, Jewish jurisprudence was by no means abolished divulging them only to the few after a long novitiate; under the Roman supremacy, but the Jews were and on ch. ii. 18-23 a flood of light is thrown, when allowed, except in capital cases, to adininister their we find Essenism tending to angel-worship, professing own laws among themselves--witness our Lord's trial likewise to treat the body with entire disregard, to þefore Caiaphas; Pilate's words, " Take ye Him and ignore its cravings, to deny its wants ; not in the Phari. judge Him according to your law"; the trial of suic spirit, merely from fear of ceremonial pollution, Stephen; the mission of Saul to Damascus. Profesbut from the noble though mistaken idea of thereby sional counsel would therefore be needed, as in modern escaping the infec of evil. Dr Lightfoot's ecclesiastical law, and more especially under the intriCommentary points out numerous similar illustrations cate system fostered by the Pharisees and Scribes. in this remarkable epistle.

Such we may conclude was the Jewish Lawyer--a proFrom the practice of celibacy and other causes the fessional assistant in court, and not merely a theoEssene community rapidly diminished; nothing is logical doctor or expositor. Of course he might be a heard of them after the destruction of Jerusalem, Scribe as well, one belonging to that profession, but althongh their principles reappear from time to time, with special training and duties, just as in olden times as in the Therapeutæ

and the early Manichæans. in England an ecclesiastical lawyer might be a clergy. VIII. THE SCRIBES.

This may explain how the man who asked our

Lord about the great commandment of the Law is by The word Scribe appears to be used in Scripture with one evangelist called a Lawyer (Matt. xxii. 35), and by different meanings at different periods in the history. another a Scribe (Mark xii. 28). The Lawyers, like the Literally signifying, writer”, it would naturally have Pharisees, fell under our Lord's rebukes for their unthis various application according to the kind of writ- principled professional conduct, and in one place they ing required. Thus in the Old Testament it denotes are said to have rejected the counsel of God against at times what we should term a secretary of state (see themselves" (Luke vii. 30). 2 Sam. viii. 17; 2 Kings xix. 2, &c.) in charge of secular Zenas (Titus iii. 13) may have been either a Jewish (Neh. xiii. 13) or military affairs (2 Kings xxv. 19). Un- lawyer in the above senge, or a Greek jurist; probably doubtedly, however, the chief use of the term was in the latter. relation to the Word of God ("scripture"), of which the Scribe was the copyist, depositary, and expounder. THE HERODIANS, THE ROMAN FACTION, In this sense Baruch is the first “Scribe of whom

AND THEIR OPPONENTS. ve read (Jer. xxxvi. 4, &c.), and Ezra the most illus.

To the theocratic belief that was the life of the Jew. trious (Neh. viii. 1). After the time of the latter, when ish polity, the accession of a foreign, half-heathen the Old Testament canon was arranged, and the cus- dynasty like that of Herod to the throne of David tody and transmission of the sacred books were en.

must have been a cruel shock. The sceptre had “detrusted to the “Great Synagogue", the Scribes became parted from Judah",

and yet, in the popular belief, a recognised order. The arrangement was rendered

the Shiloh" had not come! In such circumstances the all the more necessary from the fact that after the time-serving and politic would strive to make the best Captivity the Chaldee, or square letters, were adopted of the new order of things, paying court to the reign in place of the ancient Hebrew characters, the lan: ing family, and themselves gaining the solid advantage, guage of course remaining the same, and the work of while all truly pious Jews would mourn, and the more transcribing the sacred books became one of great heedless or fanatical would wildly rebel. Hence it was labour and responsibility-nothing less than the re- one and the same condition of affairs which gave rise writing of the nation's literature. The art of writing at the one extreme to the Herodian sect, and at the was long confined to the few; and very naturally the other to the Zealots, the Galilæans, and the Sicarii. transcriber and reader of Scripture became its expo sitor. By degrees, therefore, the Scribes assumed the

X. THE HERODIANS. office of public teachers; the very priests, unless also It was in vain that Herod the Great and his descen. Scribes, taking a subordinate place. Herod consulted dants endeavoured to propitiate the great mass of the the chief priests and Seribes as to where the Christ people. Idumean by descent, although in profession should be born; they forthwith examined the sacred Jews, they were by education, taste, and habit altowritings and informed him (Matt. ii. 4-6). They sat gether Roman. Repeated visits to the capital, and as teachers in Moses' seat (Matt. xxiii. 2, 3). To their constant attendance on the imperial family, necessary authority on doctrinal matters frequent appcal was to the stability of their vassal throne, imbued them made (Matt. xvii. 10). Their manner of teaching was more and more with the ideas and principles of their compared with that of our Lord (Matt. vii. 29; Mark i. heathen masters, which as far as practicable they im. 22). As the oral as well as the written Law was the sub-ported into Palestine. It is true that Herod the Great ject of their teaching, they are constantly coupled with restored the Temple with great splendour, but this he the Pharisees, the great exponents of the former (Matt. did in the spirit of Augustus, not of Zerubbabe! ; to xxiii. throughout; Luke v. 30, &c.). They are re adorn his reign, to propitiate and dazzle his subjects, proached as having often abused their calling for pur- and to preserve the ascendancy of his name. The Jew poses of ostentation and extortion (Mark xii. 38-40); might be proud of those "goodly stones”, but was at and in the end they became among the most rancorous least equally

shocked to observe here a temple and there enemies of Christ (Matt. xxvi. 3, &c., where “chief a statue to the deified Emperor, to witness Roman games priests and scribes and elders "express the Sanhedrim, even in Jerusalem, and to see the Roman Eagle (to the great court of the nation), also of His apostles Hebrew eyes an idolatrous emblem) over

the very portal (Acts iv. 5; vi. 12). At the same time the office, from of the Temple. In a word, the Herods had largely its responsibility and dignity, becomes the symbol of Romanised the Holy Land and its people. Courtly faithfulness in instruction (Matt. xiii. 52). And it was Jews fell in with the fashion to their own profit, and a Scribe to whom Jesus said, "Thou art not far from justified it to their compatriots. These were the the kingdom of God” (Mark xii. 31). When true to “Herodians", true successors of those who had his position, the Scribe sat in Mores' seat. He was the conformed to the will of Antiochus Epiphanes, and successor to the prophet. The prophet communicated had betrayed Judaism in the days of the "mingling" new Scripture, the Scribe guarded and elucidated the (see Pharisees). Their natural antagonists were the old. Hence when the people saw that Jesus taught Pharisees, who prided themselves on nothing so much not as the scribes, they discerned in Him no mere ex. as on being Hebrews first and last. Yet Herodians positor, but an original instructor.

and Pharisees, being alike underminers of the Hebrew IX. THE LAWYERS.

faith-the former by their foreign corruptions, the lat

ter by their native traditions are condemned by our The Lawyer of the New Testament, taking his name Lord in the same breath (Mark viii. 15). Beware", (romi kos) from the law (nomos), is by many reckoned He said, " of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the almost or quite the same as Scribe. But the word leaven of Herod". The parallel passage (Matt. xvi. occurs in classical Greek for a person skilled in the C) has "Sadducees” in the place of “ Herod ", implypractice of law, and our translators seem to have in- ing that the Herodians were infected with Sadducean

JEWISH SECTS AND ORDERS.

tenets, as indeed was natural. That the Pharisees de- Archelaus, “Judas of Galilee", a Ganlonite of the city served thus to be classed with their natural opponents of Gamala (Jos. Ant. xvii. 1, sec. 1), raised tbe stadiari is shown by the association of the two in deadly enmity of rebellion. “Would Israelites", he deranded to our Lord Mark iii. 6); and especially in propos- such cowards as to pay tribute to Romans ing to Him the insidious question about the tribute they, after God, submit to any mortal man for bond. money (Matt. xxii. 16, 17). The Pharisees no doubt paid (Wars, ii. 8, sec. 1). His followers doabtless thought the tax, but under protest; thus at once propitiating that the days of his Maccabæan namesake were retains the ruling party and saving their own conscience. ing; and Josephus thus describes their bearing Their payment showed them to be loyal subjects; their *They do not value dying any kind of death. Dur. protest

proved them faithful Jews : but on the other deed do they heed the deaths of their ratives sai hand, if Jesus

admitted the claim, the Pharisees would friends, nor can any such fear make them cail any esa vilify Him to their own party;

if He repudiated it, the lord" (Ant. xvii. 1, sec. 6). For a time, these Zess is Herodians would endanger Him with the authorities. overran the country, and while our Lord Fus His answer silenced both.

dwelling in His mother's home at Sazareth, the site A view, slightly differing from that above given, is surrounding country was given up to wild and by that the Herodians represented a national party in op- rebellion; but the might of Rome prevailed:

Jucas position to the Roman power. Herod Antipas and Pia was slain, his followers were dispersed : but the late, we know, were “at enmity" (Luke xxiii. 12); and Galilæan” spirit survived a constant soiree of though

the sovereignty of the Herods was heathen in dread to the authorities. Subsequent attempts at to comparison with the theocracy, it was Jewish in com- volt, in fact, were made by the sons of Judas, pero parison with that of Rome. The Herodian in this view trating even to Jerusalem (A.D. 17 and 80; tre would be, comparatively speaking, the patriotic party; more ruthlessly repressed than at first, hence their alliance with the Pharisees. Specious as Bearing this state of things in mind, the espression this theory may be, the evidence against it seems to used at our Lord': trial, “ Jesus of Galilee" and "TE. preponderate. Some have contended that both aspects art a Galilæan” (Matt. xxvi. @; Mars wiv. Te,recete of Herodianism by turns prevailed, but this can scarce- a new significance, as betraying a malicions desire : ly be regarded as probable.

identify our Lord and his followers with the printers XI. THE ZEALOTS.

of sedition, and thus to create a prejudice agas

them. In after years the pagans sought to fasted in Josephus describes the Zealots as the fourth of the same ill name, and with the same application, upea philosophical sects among the Jews. Their philosophy, the whole Christian body; a fact which throcs Duch however, consisted in their resolute denial of the right light upon the care of the Apostles to inevimaie saber, of any foreign power to rule over God's heritage, and dination to the ruling powers (Rom. xiü. 1-7; 1 Tim their readiness to suffer martyrdom, if necessary, in ii. 1-4; 1 Pet. ii. 13–17). support of their convictions. They represented the ex. treme of Pharisaism politically, as the Essenes did re

XIII. THE SICARII. ligiously, Simon, one of the apostles, is surnamed As the Zealots represented the fanatical extremne of Zelotes (Lake vi. 15), probably because he belonged to the Pharisees, and the Galilæans were a class of Zesta this sect; and the term Canaanite applied to him in continual disturbers of the peace, so the Scari, co the A. V. of Matt. x. 4, is most likely a Hebraic deri sassins, or " murderers" (Acts xxi. 35', forinei an set vation of the same meaning (from kana, to be zealous). ciation or secret society of bandits, springing oatia The Zealots maintained the Mosaic Law with fanatical Galilæan rebellions. Josephus fuils describes their strictness, and resisted, not always passively, every organization and procedure Wars, vii. 10, c. 1. These attempt to enforce foreign usages upon the people. fanatics, carrying a small poniard sica, w beave their Hence arose constant outbreaks, of which Galilee was name), concealed in the folds of their dress, attempted pre-eminently the scene. It is often stated that to carry out their purposes by secret assassinabin. ** Zealot” and “Galilæan" were interchangeable terms, visiting Jerusalem at festiral times, and indian but this is hardly accurate. See the next section. mortal blows unseen in the crowds on those worst XII. THE GALILÆANS.

adjudged the enemies of God and His people. At otta

times they levied open war against the Roman autboing The name of Galilæan was always used by the Jews (Wars, vii. 8, sec. 5; Ant. xx. 8, secs. 5, 6. Josepis's of the South with an undertone of contempt,

as that notice of the Egyptian offers a striking undesinde of a rustic and unlettered community, rendered more incidence to the brief allusion in the Acts mifit; over impure by the admixture of Gentile blood. But whereas the latter mentions the suspicion against Sc in the time of our Lord and his apostles, certain recent Paul of being that leader, without giving any clue to events had brought the title into deeper disfavour with account for it, not even explaining who or what the the ruling anthorities, and the word had become a Sicarii were, Josephus supplies all that is required in synonym for disaffection and rebellion.

"In the days describing the religious nature of their principes, sad of the taxing", or enrolment, under Quirinus (Cyre. stating that the Egyptian in particular gave himse nius), A.D. 6, which followed the dethronement of out as a prophet,

THE SANHEDRIN. A.V. Council.

‘Noah's 7 precepts 'lagst. idolatry, profanity, murder, The Greater Sanhedrin consisted of 70 Elders, Chief uncleanness, theft, rebellion, eating of blood), and ist Priests, i.e. heads of the 24 Courses, and Seribes" (Mat. other than the Mosaic. The proselyting sprit, fri xxvi. 21, &c.), besides the High Priest (if endowed with shewn strongly by the Asmonxans (John HyTSETS L wisdom") who was generally President. It met in the and Alexander Jannæus), was ardent among the Phan hall of the Temple called Gazeith, ie 'Squares'. Its sees of our Lord's time (Matt. xxiii. 15); but Jessed number followed Mosaic precedent (Num. xi. 16), but Gentile alike disesteemed the proselyte. The O. T. the institution probably belongs to the later Græco. Apocrypha, Philo, and Josephus are silent about the Syrian period, being first mentioned in 2 Mac. i. 10, use B.C. of baptism with circumcision at tbe prose and in the reign of Hyrcanus II., B.C. 69 (Jos. Ant. xiv. lytes initiation, a practice described by the Taoud 9. 2). Under the Romans it could condemn, but could (on 2nd and 3rd century authority), and referred to not erecute; St. Stephen's martyrdom was a tumul. remote antiquity by the Rabbis. tuary proceeding John xviii. 31).

PUBLICANS, rather Tax-gatherers. A Lorrer Sanhedrin--of 23 where the adults erceeded 120, and of 3 elsewhere-was organised in every town,

Roman capitalists (Lat. publicani) farmed the rern subject to the Greater Sanhedrin. In Matt. v. 22, 'the

nues of a province or district at a specified sumn col Judgment' and 'Council' probably refer to the 2 classes. lecting what they could from the taxpayer. These

Publicani usnally sublet the taxes to connectors of PROSELYTES.

lower grade (e.g. prob. Zacchorus, Lake xix. 2); sed the The stranger' within the gater' of Judaism, and act al collectors (Lat. Portitorex, Gk, teloadi, X. T. other converts (traceable throughout Jewish history) publicans') were driven to the severest exactions. The are terined in the N. T. proselytex (Gk. =approachers). taxes being levied

on produce and merchandise on The Rabbis distinguish-11) Proselyter of Righteousness assessment was easy and most oppressive. The Jesih (see Lardner, vol. vi. 522-23), circumcised, and bound tax-collectors were universally despised-1) as taps by every Jewish obligation; (2) Proselytes of the Gate triotic, and degraded by serving Romans; (2) for their (Ex. xx. 10; Dt. xiv. 21, ‘deront''worshippers', Acts extortion and false accusations'; and rere diaseed L. 2; xvi. 14, &c.), uncircumcised, and only bound by accordingly with ‘sinners'.

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